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pose a task.
behold his innocence in his manners. 9. To deny the immorAb'Helfen, to remedy. Nach'ahmen, to imi-| Ue belstand, m. misfor. tality of the soul is as much as to forswear God. 10. The police Ab Tchwören, to abjure, tate.
tune, inconveni. made sure of the thief. 11. Imitate always the good, but never forswear. Nase, f. nose.
the bad. An'sehen, to behold, Passi'ren, to pass, hap. Um fehren, to return, SECTION LII.-VERBS REQUIRING TWO ACCUSATIVES: look at, perceive. pen.
ALSO THOSE GOVERNING THE ACCUSATIVE WITH Aufgeben, to give up, Pilot', m. pilot. Un'artig, ill-behaved, THE DATIVE. (with dat.) to im- Sadise, m. Saxon. rude, naughty. Several verbs in German, as in English, govern two accusaSchaden, m. loss, hurt. Unsterbʻlichkeit
, f. im- tives, as :-Gr lehrt mich die deutsche Sprache, he teaches me the Vesie'gen, to vanquish, Schledy'tigkeit, f. bad- mortality,
German language. Gott nannte das Licht Tag, und die Finsternig subdue.
Vernünftig, discreet, Nacht, God called the light day, and the darkness night. Man Gib, m. oath. Selten, seldom.
nennt ihn nur den guten Walther (Pfeffel), they call him only the good Falsch, false.
Sogleich', immedi- Versich'ern, to assure, Walter. (§ 132. 2.) Koften, to taste, cost. ately.
to make sure. Verbs signifying “ to compare, to give, to take away,” etc., Läugnen, to deny. Stärke, f. strength. Voll'standig,
govern the accusative and the dative ($ 129. 1), as :-Wem foll Leid, n. affliction, Steuern, to steer, pletely.
ich dich vergleichen? to whom shall I liken thee? Sie gaberi ihm einen pain.
(with dat.) to Wiedersehen, to see Ghrentitel, they gave him a title of honour. Die Feinde nahmen işm Muthig, courageous. check.
Alles, the enemy took from him all (everything).
VOCABULARY. Der General' schwor seinen Glauben The general abjured his faith, Absicht, f. view, inten-, Lehre, f. instruction, Te'lemach, Telemachus ab, und wurde Mu'selmann. and became (turned) Mussul. tion.
Treue, f. fidelity.
Achtung, f. esteem, Lebensgeschichte, f. his. Tyrann', m. tyrant. Ghe der Richter mich nach etwas Before the judge asked me respect.
tory of life. Uebereinstimmen, to acfragte, mußte ich einen Eib ab', concerning anything, I was An'denten, n. remem. lie'bevoll
, affection- cord, to legen. obliged to take an oath. brance, keepsake. ately.
spond. Ich werte fommen, um Ihr neues I will come in order to look at An'vertrauen, to con. Mehrmals, several | Ueberfluß, m. superGemälde an‘zusehen. your new painting.
abundance. Sieht man mir an, daß ich frank Does one see by my appearance Bescheiden, modest. Miš'handeln, to mis- Vergan'genheit, j. timo gewesen bin ?
that I was sick ?
past, things past. Er ist ein verlorʻner Sohn; ich gebe He is a lost (prodigal) son ; I
Neu'gierbe, f. curio- Verlei hen, to endow, ihn auf.
give him up.
to bestow. Was Sie mir aufgegeben haben, What you enjoined on me I Empü'rer, m. rebel. Prinzessin, f. princess. Verrå'ther, habe ich gethan'.
trayer, traitor. Guten Menschen mußt du nachózu. Good men thou must seek to test.
, f. se ahmen suchen.
Geheimóniß, n. secret. Schelten, to scold, Gr ahmt dem Franzoʻsen nach, und He imitates the Frenchman, Seißel, f. scourge. chide.
Versöh‘nung, f. recon. trägt einen Schnurrbart.
and wears moustaches. Heuchler, m. hypocrite, Schimpfen, to disgrace ciliation. Als der König biese Stadt passir'te, As the king passed this city it dissembler.
(to call names). Vorzug, m. prefer wurde sie erleuchtet.
Hun'nenkönig, m. king Shönheit, f. beauty. Viele Straßen der Stadt sind sehr Many streets of the city are of the Huns. Taufen, to christen, Weigern (fic), to de schmuß'ig; diesem übelstande sollte very filthy; this nuisance the Klar, clear.
cline. die Polizei' ab'helfen.
police should remedy. Er steu'erte das Schiff glüdlich durch He steered the ship fortunately
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. bie Fel'senriffe.
through the reefs of rocks. Herr, Tehre mich deinen Weg. Teach me thy way, O Lord.
Gr nannte ihn seinen lieben Sohn. He called him his beloved Son. EXERCISE 98.
Man (Sect. XXV. 4) heißt ihn den They call him the father of the 1. Die alten Sachsen schworen ihren Göttern ab, nachdem sie Karl der Vater der Waisen und den Tröster orphan, and the comforter of Große vollständig besiegt hatte. 2. Indem er diese That durch einen fal. ter Wittwen.
the widow. schen Eid abschwor, läugnete er die Unsterblichkeit der Seele. 3. Man Den Feigling schimpft man einen They call a coward a hare. sieht ihm die Schlechtigkeit an den Augen an. 4. Ich habe die Hoffnung, Hasen. meine Angehörigen wiederzusehen, nicht aufgegeben. 5. 3ch ḥatte meinem Gr giebt sich viele Mühe um dich. He gives himself much trouble Bevienten befohlen, mich zu rufen, sobald Sie fämen. 6. Da ich meinen (Gellert.)
about you. Namen rufen hörte, fehrte ich sogleich um. 7. Wenn ich dir nachahmen Gieb mir immer den erquid'enden Well, give me the refreshing wollte, würde ich bald fein Geld mehr haben. 8. Es ist ihm schon oft Trost, daß ich dich bald freu'diger consolation that I shall soon begegnet, daß er seine Brille suchte und sie auf der Nase trug. 9. Der wie dersehen werde. (Weiße.) see you more joyful again. König pasfirt heute noch diese Stadt. 10. Steure dein Schiff durch die Dir ein Bild sind sie gegeben. To theo are they given (as) • zürnenden Wellen, muthiger Pilot! 11. Ein vernünftiger Vater steuert (Schiller.)
picture. frühe dem unartigen Betragen seiner Kinder. 12. Selten habe ich Geld,
EXERCISE 100. aber immer Schulten,—wenn ich nur diesem llebelstante zu steuern wüßte! 13. Was hülfe eß tem Menschen, so er die ganze Welt gewonne, und nähme
1. Den Fürsten, der sein Volt mißhandelt, nennt man einen Tyrannen. duch Schaden an seiner Seele? 14. Seine Stärfe falfriese leiden tragen. 2. Er fragt mich nach Dingen, die ich ihm nicht nennen kann. 3. Sdilt 15. Die Köchin fostete die Speisen. 16. Es fostete mir Freiheit und mich w.18 (Sect. LXIX. 1) du willst, nur nidit einen Berräther. 4. Die Vaterland. 17. Es kostete ihm seinen ersten Soun. 18. Er versicherte jenigen Leute muß man Heubler nennen, die schon reden und idlecht Hanteln
. mi. die Wahrheit dieser Sache. 19. Man hat fich des Diebes versichert
. 5. Man hat die Prinzessin Louise getauft. 6. Ich fragte ihn tiet nicht mas 20. Gute Sitten muß man nachzuahmen suchen. *
Neugierte. 7. Attila, der Hunnenkönig, nannte sich die Geißel Gattes &
Ich nenne Den meinen Freund, der mich nicht auf meine Vorzüge, fentera EXERCISE 99.
auf meine Fehler liebevoll aufmerksam macht. 9. Gr heißt Alles Feinte amb 1. Teach your chilaren to imitate good behaviour. 2. He Emporer, was nicht mit ihm ist. 10. Der Lehrer schalt ven Süler einen imitates his father in all his habits. 3. Judicious parents check Faulen Knaben. 11. Id) fragte ihn vergebens nach seinem Namen. 12
. the rude behaviour of their children in time. 4. Steer courage. Ich vertiene nicht
, taß mich das Vorf einen Verräther nennt. 13. 3d geke ously the ship through the rolling sea. 5. It often happened Ihnen dieses Antenten zum Beweise meiner Liebe und Achtung. 14. Bu that he looked for his book, and found it in his pocket. 6. The gern verzeihen Gltern ihren Kindern die begangenen Fehler, wenn jis tik ships which go to Australia must cross the eqnator. 7. You selben herzlich
) bereuen. 15. Er erzählte mir mehrmals sein Lebeneza should seek to imitate the example of your brother. 8. I ichichte' 16. Sie vergaben mir mein Unredyt, unt reidigen mir ric Haute
zum Beweise ihrer Versöhnung. 17. Wohl dem Menschen, tem tie Natur Bachahmen only employed with the dative of a person and einen gesunten Geist und einen flaren Verstand verlich, aber ned wohls acousativa
dem, welchem sie ein temüthiges und bescheidenes Herz stentte.
6. He perse
in dieses Haus. 11. Oberhalb der Brüde steht ein Streuz. 12: Anstatt 1. Mentor taught Telemachus the art of governing. 2. They iragieren (Sect. LXIV. 1). 14. Interhalb dieses Dorfes liegt eine stone
des Kaffecs trinkt er Wasser. 13. Troß des starten Regens geht er will teach him this language. 3. The time past gives to men the best instruction for the future. 4. In his last letter he Wiese. 15. Ungeachtet des Verbotes seines Vaters besuchte er das Theater. wrote to me the following news. 5. The rich should contribute 16. Unweit dieses Waldes sah ich einen großen Vogel.' 17. Vermöge feines a little from their superabundance with pleasure to the poor. 6. Reichthumo kann er die Armen unterstüßen. 18. Während der lekten Zeit He showed me the beauty of nature. 7. I trusted him with the sah er febr bleich aus. 19. Wegen des Krieges fliehen die reichen Ein. secret with the intention to test his discretion and fidelity. 8. wohner. 20. Seiner Zusage zufolge fehrte er zurüd. Görgey is called a betrayer of his country by his own people. 9.
EXERCISE 103. He chides me with being a fool, as I declined to follow those principles which do not correspond with my inclinations. 10.
1. He did it in spite of his relations. 2. I found myself quite The "Popular Educator” teaches the English, French, and happy beneath the humble roof of that countryman. 3. Every. German languages (say, language) in the easiest manner. 11.
thing below the sun is subject to change. 4. What had you My adversary extended to me his hand as a sign of his rocon
for dessert besides melons and grapes ? 5. The poor emigrants ciliation.
hope to live better on the other side of the ocean.
vered in spite of all opposition. 7. The Gauls directed their SECTION LIII.-PREPOSITIONS REQUIRING THE
toilsome march along the sea shore. 8. It is beneath the dig. GENITIVE.
nity of an honest man. 9. Greenwich is within five miles of The prepositions mittelft, oberhalb, ungeachtet, vermittelst, vermöge, London. 10. He ought to be spared on account of his age. 11. eto. (S$ 109, 110), govern the genitive, as :
:-Oberhalb der neuen He is a nobleman by right of his birth. Brüde ist der Fluß breit und tief, above the new bridge the river is broad and deep. Aller Mühe ungeachtet gelang eß nicht, notwith
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN, standing all the pains it did not succeed. Mittelft feines Beistandes segten wir es turch, by means of his assistance we carried it
EXERCISE 17 (Vol. I., page 103). through (achieved the design). Das kannst du vermöge deines Ver. 1. Der Schreibtisch bed tapfern Polen. 2. Das Leben eines Prinzen flanted begreifen, that canst thou, by dint of thy understanding, ist unsicher. 3. Der tapfere Pole mit dem lebhaften Gesichte ist ein comprehend. Vermittelft Uebergabe kam die Stadt in Feindes vande, Feind des Franzosen. 4. Ist er ein Freund des guten Hauptmanns ? 5. by means of surrender, the town came into (the) enemy's hands. Iener Soldat ist der Bruder seiner schönen Cousine. 6. Der fleißige Sohn Zufolge seines Versprecheng mußte er kommen, in consequence of his des heitern Deutschen hat ein gutes Gewissen. promise, he was obliged to come.
EXERCISE 18 (Vol. I., page 103).
1. Has this draper good cloth? 2. Yes, he has good cloth, and this Amt, 9. office, charge. Kraft, by virtue of. Unóterhalb, below, at tanner has good leather. 3. What has the barber? 4. He has good Hengstlich, anxious. Kreuz, n. cross.
the lower end of. soap. 5. Who has good hay? 6. This peasant has good hay. 7. Xuýlethalb, without, Landhaus, n. country. Unterstüß'en, to sup
What has the blacksmith? 8. He has good iron, and his brother, out of, outside.
9. Have you house, villa.
the paper-dealer, has good paper, red, blue, and white.
red or white wine ? 10. I have neither red nor white (wine). 11. Besorgt', solicitous. Länge, along.
Unweit, not far off.
Your wine is sweet, but this here is sour. 12. Your red wine is strong, Bleich, pale.
laut, according to, in Verbot', n. prohibi- and the white wine of my neighbour is weak. 13. Has this miller Diesícit, on this side. consequence of. tion.
good flour? 14. Yes, and this peasant has good grain, good oats, and Empfeh'len, to recom- Mittelft, by means Verhaf'ten, to arrest. good barley. 15. This girl has a fine voice. 16. My brother has mend.
Vermittelst, by means something beautiful, and I have nothing ugly. 17. This man has only Grlaubénis, f. permis- O'berhalb, above, at of. (See Mittelst.) a little money, and the other has none at all. sion. the upper part of. Vermūʻge, by means
EXERCISE 19 (Vol. I., page 103). Gallier, Gaul. Pappel, f. poplar. of. (See above.) Galben, or halber, for Schlüssel, m. key. Verzweiflung, f. des- 1. Hat mein Bruder, der Schneiter, schwarzes oder rothes Tuch? the sake of, on ac- Seil, n. rope.
pair, despondency. | 2. Der Freunt meines Bruders hat gutes Papier, rothes, blaues und count of
Thal, n. vale, valley. Wegen, on account of, weißes. 3. Der Sohn tes Buchbinders hat etwas von dem Barbier. 4. Berrichen. to reign, Troß, in defiance of, by reason of. Die schöne Tochter des alten Schmiedes hat einen Hund und eine Kaße. prevail.
in spite of. Zufolge, in pursuance 5. Der fleißige Tischler hat etwas Schönes. 6. Der Tuchhändler ist ein Hunger, m. hunger. Ueberzeugung, f. con- of, in consequence Sohn des fleißigen Kaufmanns. 7. Der alte Gerber hat die schlaue Kage In'nere, inner, inter- viction.
und den treuen Hund nicht gesehen. 8. Ist der Zimmermann zu Hause? nal.
Umher'geben, to go Zurüd'fchren, to re- Nein, er ist nicht zu Hause. 9. Haben Sie etwas genommen? Ich habe Zn'nerhalb, within. about.
nichts genommen. 10. Hat Brunnenwasser einen füßen, oder einen Jenseit, beyond, on Un-geachtet, notwith. Zu'sage. f. promise, salzigen Geschmack? Es hat keinen salzigen Geschmack, sondern einen süßen the other side. standing.
EXERCISE 20 (Vol. I., page 119).
1. These new tables are great. 2. The white hats are beautiful. 3.
4. Have you silver or gold knives and Reichen schöne Land'Häuser erbaut'. built for themselves beautiful spoons ? 5. We have silver ones. 6. The good boys have beautiful
pears. 7. Diligent scholars have long exercises. 8. These old soldiers faut eines fai'serlichen Befehla' In consequence of an imperial have old books. 9. The cutler has beautiful new knives. 10. The
mußten tie Bürger ihre Waffen command, the citizens were joys of this man are his lovely children. 11. The pulpits in these ab'geben.
forced to give up their arms.
churches are high. 12. The old lady's pieces are diligent. 13. The Wihrent des fie'benjährigen Krieges During the seven years war preacher's girls are good children. 14. The Dutchmen are cleanly and
honest. bela'gerte Friedrich II. die Stadt Frederic II. besieged the city
15. This market-woman has the great, ripe pears of the
peasant. 16. The great, ripe pears of this market-woman are palatable. Prag.
(of) Prague (8 123. 6).
17. Has this lady your good (lady) friend's thimble ? 18. No, she has Megen seines geselligen und mun'. On account of his social and
your good friend's thimble. 19. Has Miss Louisa your good mother's teten Betra'gens liebte man ihn. cheerful deportment they new parasol ? 20. No, she has your good brother's umbrella.
Has the little daughter of this lady a music-master? 22. No, because
she is yet too young; but her sister has not only a music-teacher, but EXERCISE 102.
also a teacher of painting. 23. Who has your brother's books ? 24. 1. Die Kinder konnten wegen tes schlechten Wetters feinen Spaziergang His (lady) friend's sister has the books. 25. H® your old neighbour's machen. 2. Diesseit des Flusses steht ein schönes Landhaus.
3. Gr thut daughter my young friend's gold watch ? efter Ehre Halber. 4. Innerhalb der Stadt herrscht Hunger und Ver- bour's silver watch. 27. The leaves of these trees are yellow, but zweiflung. 5. Senseit des Berges ist ein schönes Thal. 6. Kraft feines their fruit is ripe and good. 28. The rats are troublesome guests.
26. No, she has her neigh
29. This old merchant has great riches. 30. This cavalry and that Amtes berhaftete er den Dieb. 7. Laut seines Briefes erwarten wir ihn infantry are both equally good. 31. The chancellor's little son is beut. 8. Langs des Stromes stehen viele Pappeln. 9. Mittelst. eines the king's favourite. 32. This painter's friend has very beautifSeiles zog er ihn hinauf. 10. Bermittelst eines falschen Schlüsselé tam er paintings.
LESSONS IN BOTANY.–XVII.
The student will remember that the potato is not a root,
but a tuber. He will also remember the botanical significance SECTION XXXI.-SOLANACEÆ, OR THE NIGHTSHADE TRIBE (continued).
attached to the word tuber, which is a sort of aggregation of
underground buds studded upon a dense mass of starchy matter The capsicum (Capsicum annuum) is another of the Solanacea. and gluten designed for their nourishment. It is an annual, originally a native of India, but cultivated now Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, Fig. 162) is another plant in Europe, Africa, America, and Australia. Its berry is conical, belonging to the natural order we are considering, and the use smooth, and shining, green when unripe, passing gradually into some will say abuse of which is too well known to require a beautiful coral-red. In this pod resides a resinous balsamic comment. acrid principle named capsicine. Cayenne pepper is capsicum When Christopher Columbus, in 1492, first set foot in the fruit reduced to powder.
island of Cuba, he saw, amongst other strange customs, the The beautiful tomato, or love-apple (Lycopersicum esculentum), natives gather the leaves of a plant, dry these leaves, roll them a nativecriginally of the West
into the form of a torch, light Indies, is now cultivated in
the torch, put the unignited European gardens, more es
end in the mouth, and breathe pecially in those of Spain and
the smoke. Such is the first Italy. In the former coun
account we have handed try it serves as a daily arti,
down to us of the manufaccle of food for persons of al
ture and uses of a "mild most every grade of society.
Havannah.” Subsequently, We now arrive at the
when Columbus and his goldgenus Solanum, from which
hunting associates gained the the order Solanaceæ takes
main continent of America, its name. It is very nume
they saw a similar custom ous in species. Its generic
everywhere in force amongst characters may be enume
all classes, slightly varied as rated by a rotaceous corolla,
to detail, some using pipes, anthers not opening by longi
and others preferring the tadinal fissures, but by two
Cuban method of cigar. points at their summits. The
smoking. Nor were chewing most common species of the
and snuff-taking unknown to genus Solanum is the Dulca
the Mexicans and Peruvians. mara, orbitter sweet, a
The Mexican priesta, in parplant which is found grow
ticular, were in the habit of ing in almost every hedge in
taking snuff profusely, for the vicinity of London, known
the purpose of clearing their by its sombre foliage, its pen
brains and exalting their in. dent cymes of pretty flowers,
tellects. From the aborigines and its deep-red berries.
of America, tobacco first By far the most important,
passed to the Spaniards, then however, amongst the genus
to the Portuguese, then to the Solanum is the potato, or
English, and it is now every: Solanum tuberosum, a plant
where; and despite a great which originally was a native
deal of opposition shown to of the Cordilleras, or high
it, there is no great reason to mountains of Peru and Chili.
suppose that tobacco-chevIt is supposed that this
ing, smoking, or snuff-taking useful vegetable was first
will ever be abolished. brought into Spain in the
Tobacco was first brought early part of the sixteenth
into Europe by Jean Nicot, century, by some of the
French ambassador at the Spaniards who invaded Peru
court of Portugal; hence the under Pizarro, and ultimately
name Nicotiana given to the succeeded in annexing it to
genus. It was this ambasthe Spanish dominions in the
sador who, we New World. The term
offered the first pinch of snuff potato is, in all probability,
to Catherine de Medicis. derived from the Spanish
The queen was much pleased batata, a word which was
with the sensation, history originally applied to the sweet and succulent root 162. THE TOBACCO PLANT (NICOTIANA TABACUM).
informs us, took to "snuff
ing” with great ardour, called beet, or beetroot. The tuber and its principal use as a vegetable became known in Italy ledged patroness of snuff, tobacco was called in consequenes
and becoming the acknowand other parts of Southern Europe soon after its introduction Herbe de la Reine. Sir Walter Raleigh took some tobacco from into Spain; but the potato was unknown in England until 1586, Virginia to England, and became remarkably fond of its rise. when Sir Walter Raleigh returned from an unsuccessful attempt His example was soon followed even by the most refined cour to found the colony of Virginia, which was not permanently tiers. James I., every person knows, entertained a furious settled until 1607. The chief result, indeed, of Sir Walter hatred against tobacco. In the year 1619 he fulminated an Raleigh's expedition was the introduction of the potato into edict against it, but tobacco was more powerful than the king. England and Ireland. It is asserted that the potato was first Pope Urban VIII., in 1624, next set to work to check the use of brought to this country by Sir John Hawkins in 1563 ; while, tobacco, against which he launched a special bull. The pope by others, the credit of having introduced a vegetable which did not succeed better than the king. Next in the list of forms such an important adjunct to the mid-day meal is ascribed tobacco-stoppers came the Sultan Amurath IV., the Shah of to Sir Francis Drake. It is, however, most probable that it Persia, and the Grand Duke of Muscovy. These potentates was brought from North America by Sir Walter Raleigh, who more especially directed their efforts to restrain the habit of set about turning the knowledge of its habits and uses to good snuff-taking; and disdaining argument, which had so signally
account by successfully attempting its culture on a large scale failed ander James-disdaining, also, religions enactments, which abou in his Irish estates near Youghal, in county Cork,
had not been more successful under the pope this precious trio of punt by s. is Irish est
Oriental worthies thought that the shortest way to check the habit The great universal characteristic of the plants of this tribe of snuffing would consist in cutting off people's noses. This is that from which they derive their name Leguminosæ : let us, remedy they carried, we are told, pretty liberally into execution. therefore, examine the anatomy of a legume. A legume, then,
The origin of the word tobacco has been traced to various is nothing more than a long, flat carpel, for the most part consources. By some it is said to be derived from Tabacca, a province taining many seeds, and splitting, when arrived at maturity, of Yucatan, in Mexico. Others, with an equal degree of proba- into two halves. The seeds, it will be remembered, all grow bility, trace the derivation of the word to Tobago, one of the from one commissure or junction line in the inside of the British West India Islands, near Trinidad, belonging to the Wind carpel. ward group. Humboldt, however, says that the word tabacco was As regards relative dimensions, legumes differ considerably, used by the Caribbee islanders as the name of the pipe in which some being longer than they are broad, others the reverse. This they smoked the dried
circumstance, however, leaves of the plant, and
gives rise to no physiolothat the Spaniards' ulti
gical distinction between mately applied this desig.
the two. nation to the plant itself.
As the Leguminosæ form Its culture is attended
an exceedingly numerous with some difficulty, as a
order, and comprehend slight frost will often tend
plants amongst which dif. to check the growth of
ferences of structure exist the young plants, if it
insufficient to justify their does not cause
formation into different serious injury,and destroy
orders, they are divided & great part of the crop.
into groups, the distincTobacco is largely cul.
tions between which will tivated in all parts of
presently come under conSouthern and Western
sideration. One of these Europe, except Great Bri
groups, perhaps the most tain and Ireland, where
important, is the Pea its culture is prohibited
tribe, the members of by Act of Parliament.
which are sufficiently faIts cultivation in this
miliar to all of us. Indecountry was forbidden
pendently of the existence in 1684; but in 1779 per
of a pod, in these plants mission was given to the
there is another striking Irish farmers to grow
peculiarity; the flowers tobacco, and this privilege
are shaped very much like -if privilege it can be
butterflies. Hence arises called—was enjoyed by
the denomination papiliothe Irish until 1831, when
naceous (from papilio, the an act was passed to re
Latin for butterfly), by vive the former act, under
which the pea sub-diviwhich the cultivation of
sion of the Leguminosa is the plant had formerly
known. been prohibited.
Let us now study one The petunia, a beautiful
of these flowers a little in specimen of our half.
detail. The calyx is made hardy herbaceous peren
up of five sepals, all of nials, is closely allied to
which unite in a tube. the tobacco plant, its
The corolla is made up of name being derived from
five petals, not all, howPetun, the Brazilian name
ever, of equal size.
One for tobacco. It makes a
of them is considerably showy appearance in the
larger than the others, borders during the sum
and rises behind them. mer and autumn, but re
This petal has acquired quires to be protected
among botanists the disunder glass during the
tinctive name of vexillum winter and early spring.
or standard. The two
shorter petals which stand SECT. XXXII. LEGO.
in front of the standard MINOSÆ, OR THE LE.
are termed alo, or wings. GUMINOUS TRIBE. 163. BLOSSOM, ROOTS, AND LEAVES OF THE MEXICAN TOBACCO PLANT
They are protected by a The structural charac. (NICOTIANA RUSTICA).
portion of the corolla, teristics of the fruit termed
formed like boat, by botanists a legume we shall presently enumerate; meanwhile, from which circumstance it derives the appellation carina, or we will inform the reader that a legume is merely another name keel. for pod, the sort of fruit borne by the pea, clover, laburnum, and Next observe the stamens, and you will find they are collected many others which will easily suggest themselves.
in groups, or, to use the expression of Linnæus, they are “adelCharacteristics : : Calyx free and monosepalous; corolla perigy- phous." All the common papilionaceous flowers are adelphous; nous or hypogynons, regular or irregular; stamens double the but many foreign species, especially certain natives of New number of petals, or occasionally indefinite; pistils united South Wales, Pultanæus Gompholobimus, Daviesias, etc., are not. into one carpel; fruit, a legume; seed, dicotyledonous; em. Next come the plants, which, although bearing legumes or bryo straight or carved, exalbuminous ; leaves, alternate, stipu- pods, are not provided with papilionaceous flowers. This divi
sion comprehends all the Cassias and their allies. Lastly, This is an exceedingly large and very valuable order of vege- have the Mimosa tribe, the great characteristic of whiot tables, all of which present good external marks for distinction, the possession of flowers like those of the Cassia in stri and, moreover, possess a similarity of chemical and physiolo- but so very small that they can scarcely be recognised gical qualities.
LESSONS IN LATIN.-XVII.
300, trecenti. trecentesi- triceni. trecenties. CCC. THE NUMERALS,
400. quadringenti. quadringen. quadringeni. quadringen- CD. As in English, so in Latin, the numerals have various forms.
ties. Thus we say, one, first, one each, once. One, and the corre- 500. quingenti. quingentesi- quingeni. quingenties. D. sponding two, three, etc., we call cardinal (from cardo, -inis, m.,
mus. a hinge), because they are the chief numbers, those on which 600. sexcentia sexcentesi. sexceni. sexcenties, DC. the others hinge. First, second, third, etc., we call ordinals
DCC. (from ordo, -ínis, m., an order or series), because they show the 700. septingenti. soptingentesi- septingeni. Septingen
ties, order or place in a series which a person or thing holds. One
800. octingenti. octingentesi. octingeni. octingenties. DCCC. each, two each, three each, etc., may be oalled distributives, be
mus. cause they distribute the numbers severally to persons or things, 900. nongenti. nongentesi- nongeni, nongenties. CM. declaring how many each possesses. Once, twice, thrice, etc., are called adverbial numerals, because they imply some verb,
millesimus. singula milia. millies. M. and state how often the action of the verb takes place. You 2,000 duo milia. bis millegi. bina milia. bis millies. may see a full view of the Latin numerals in all their forms in
MM. the ensuing table, with the English figures on the left hand, and 100,000 centum milia. centies mille- centena milia, centies millies. the corresponding Latin characters on the right hand.
CCCL300 1,000,000 decies centum decies centies decies milia. decies milies. TABLE OF NUMERALS.
CCCCL5000 Cardinal. Ordinal. Distributive. Adverbial. 2,000,000 vicies centum vicies centies vicies milia. vicies millies. unus, -a, -um, primus, -a, -um, singuli, -2, -a, semel,
On this table, I submit to you the following remarks. Unus, 1. unus, one. primus, first. singuli, one each, semel, once. I. duo, and tres are declined as follows:2. duo, two. secundus, second, bini, two each. bis, twice. II.
N. 3. tres, three. tertius, third. terni, three each. ter, thrice. III.
G. unius unius unius. 4. quatuor, four. quartus, fourth, quaterni, four quater, four
Ac. unum unam 3. quinque, five. quintus, fifth, quini, five cach. quinquies, five
V. 6. sex, six. sextus, sixth, seni, six each. sexies, six times. Where specially observe that the genitive ends in ius, and the
VI. dative in i. I put together in a form easy of remembrance the 7. septem, seven, septimus, septēni, seven septies, seven words declined like the preceding example:
Pronouns that make ius in the genitive and i in the dative. 8. octo, eight. octāvus, eighth, octoni, eight each, octies,eight times.
unus, ullus, nullus. VIII.
solus, totus, alius. 9. novem,
uter, alter, neuter,
IX. The English of the numerals that follow can be easily supplied in the feminine and the neuter. Uter forms its genders thus :
Observe that the ius and the i of the masculine gender remain by the learner.
uter, m., utra, f., utrum, n. Alter, thus : alter, m., altera, f., Cardinal, Ordinal. Distributive. Adverbial.
alterum, n. But neuter, thus : neuter, m., neutra, f., neutrum, 10. decem. decimus. deni.
n. So in their compounds : by adding que, uter becomes uterque, 11. undécim. undecimus. undeni. undecies. XI. 12. duodécim. duodecimus, duodeni. duodecies.
which signifies both, and is formed thus: nom. uterque, mi,
XII. 13. tredecim. tertius deci- terni deni. terdecies. XIII. utrăque, f., utrumque, n.; gen., utriusque; dat., utrique; 50,
nom., unusquisque, m., unaquæque, f., unumquodque, n.; gel, 14. quatuor quartus deci. quaterni deni. quaterdecies. XIV. uniuscujusque; dat., unicuique. Alius in the neuter, has aliud; děcim.
in the genitive singular, alius (contracted from alisus), and 15. quindecim. quintus deci- quini deni. quindecies. XV. dative alii. In alteruter, one of two, commonly uter alone is
declined thus:16. sedocim. sextus deci- seni deni, sedecies. IVI.
alteruter, m. alterutra, f. alterutrum, n. mus.
alterutrius 17. septenděcim, septimus deci- septeni deni, septies decies XVII.
Declension of duo, duæ, duo, two. 18. duodeviginti. duodevicesi. duodeviceni. duodevicies. XVIII. mus.
N. & V. duo
duo. 19. undeviginti. undevicesi. undeviceni. undevicies. XIX,
duorum. D. & Ab. duobus
duobus 20. viginti, vicesimus. viceni. vicies. XX.
duo. 21, unus et vi- unus et vicesi- viceni singuli, vicies semel. XXI.
Tres, m., tres, f., tria, n., three. ginti.
tria. 28. duodetri
trium duodetricesi. duodetriceni, duodetricies. XXVIII.
trium. ginta. mus.
D. & Ab. tribus
tribus 29, undetriginta. undetricesi- undetriceni, undetricies. XXIX.
. 30. triginta. tricesimus. triceni. tricies. XXX. Milia requires after it a genitive; for instead of saying, as we 40. quadraginta. quadragesi- quadrageni. quadragies. XL.
do, ten thousand men, the Latins said, decem milia hostium.
ten thousands of men; but mille considered as a whole, a thousand. 50. quinquaginta. quinquagesi. quinquageni, quinquagies. L.
is indeclinable: thus, dux cum mille militibus, a general man mus. 60. sexaginta.
sexagies. sexagesimus. sexageni.
a thousand soldiers. The ordinals are declined like noons of 70. septuaginta. septuagesi- septuageni. septuagies. LXX.
the first and the second declension. The distributives are also mus.
declined after the same manner. Mark that singuli is in the 80. octoginta, octogesimus. octogeni. octogies. LXXX. plural. The plural is necessitated by the meaning, inasmuch 90. nonaginta. nonagesimus. nonageni. nonagies. XC. as the adjective is a distributive, for distribution implies mora 99. undecentum. undecentesi- undeconteni, undecenties. XCIX. than one ; thus the Latins said, inter singulos homines, among
the men severally. 100. centum. centesimus, centeni. centies. C. 101, centum et centesimus et centeni sin- centies semel. CI.
If now you carry your eye down the numbers, you will find UDUS. primus. guli.
that for every separate number from one to nine, there is : 102. centum et centesimus et centeni bini, centies bis. CII.
separate word. With ten (decem) a new series begins, which duo. alter.
goes on to nineteen, when again at twenty (viginti) a new word nti,-,-a, ducentesimus. duceni. ducenties. CC. begins a new series. In centum and in mille, you also find new