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crecy, discretion.

VOCABULARY.

behold his innocence in his manners. 9. To deny the immorAb'Helfen, to remedy. Nach'ahmen, to imi-| Ue belstand, m. misfor. tality of the soul is as much as to forswear God. 10. The police Ab Tchwören, to abjure, tate.

tune, inconveni. made sure of the thief. 11. Imitate always the good, but never forswear. Nase, f. nose.

ence.

the bad. An'sehen, to behold, Passi'ren, to pass, hap. Um fehren, to return, SECTION LII.-VERBS REQUIRING TWO ACCUSATIVES: look at, perceive. pen.

turn round.

ALSO THOSE GOVERNING THE ACCUSATIVE WITH Aufgeben, to give up, Pilot', m. pilot. Un'artig, ill-behaved, THE DATIVE. (with dat.) to im- Sadise, m. Saxon. rude, naughty. Several verbs in German, as in English, govern two accusaSchaden, m. loss, hurt. Unsterbʻlichkeit

, f. im- tives, as :-Gr lehrt mich die deutsche Sprache, he teaches me the Vesie'gen, to vanquish, Schledy'tigkeit, f. bad- mortality,

German language. Gott nannte das Licht Tag, und die Finsternig subdue.

ness, vileness.

Vernünftig, discreet, Nacht, God called the light day, and the darkness night. Man Gib, m. oath. Selten, seldom.

judicious.

nennt ihn nur den guten Walther (Pfeffel), they call him only the good Falsch, false.

Sogleich', immedi- Versich'ern, to assure, Walter. (§ 132. 2.) Koften, to taste, cost. ately.

to make sure. Verbs signifying “ to compare, to give, to take away,” etc., Läugnen, to deny. Stärke, f. strength. Voll'standig,

govern the accusative and the dative ($ 129. 1), as :-Wem foll Leid, n. affliction, Steuern, to steer, pletely.

ich dich vergleichen? to whom shall I liken thee? Sie gaberi ihm einen pain.

(with dat.) to Wiedersehen, to see Ghrentitel, they gave him a title of honour. Die Feinde nahmen işm Muthig, courageous. check.

again.

Alles, the enemy took from him all (everything).
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

VOCABULARY. Der General' schwor seinen Glauben The general abjured his faith, Absicht, f. view, inten-, Lehre, f. instruction, Te'lemach, Telemachus ab, und wurde Mu'selmann. and became (turned) Mussul. tion.

lesson.

Treue, f. fidelity.

Achtung, f. esteem, Lebensgeschichte, f. his. Tyrann', m. tyrant. Ghe der Richter mich nach etwas Before the judge asked me respect.

tory of life. Uebereinstimmen, to acfragte, mußte ich einen Eib ab', concerning anything, I was An'denten, n. remem. lie'bevoll

, affection- cord, to legen. obliged to take an oath. brance, keepsake. ately.

spond. Ich werte fommen, um Ihr neues I will come in order to look at An'vertrauen, to con. Mehrmals, several | Ueberfluß, m. superGemälde an‘zusehen. your new painting.

fide to.
times.

abundance. Sieht man mir an, daß ich frank Does one see by my appearance Bescheiden, modest. Miš'handeln, to mis- Vergan'genheit, j. timo gewesen bin ?

that I was sick ?
Beweis', testi. use, ill-treat.

past, things past. Er ist ein verlorʻner Sohn; ich gebe He is a lost (prodigal) son ; I

mony.

Neu'gierbe, f. curio- Verlei hen, to endow, ihn auf.

give him up.
De'müthig, humble. sity.

to bestow. Was Sie mir aufgegeben haben, What you enjoined on me I Empü'rer, m. rebel. Prinzessin, f. princess. Verrå'ther, habe ich gethan'.

have done.
Grpro'ben, to prove, Reichen, to reach, ex.

trayer, traitor. Guten Menschen mußt du nachózu. Good men thou must seek to test.

tend.

Verschwiegenheit

, f. se ahmen suchen.

imitate.

Geheimóniß, n. secret. Schelten, to scold, Gr ahmt dem Franzoʻsen nach, und He imitates the Frenchman, Seißel, f. scourge. chide.

Versöh‘nung, f. recon. trägt einen Schnurrbart.

and wears moustaches. Heuchler, m. hypocrite, Schimpfen, to disgrace ciliation. Als der König biese Stadt passir'te, As the king passed this city it dissembler.

(to call names). Vorzug, m. prefer wurde sie erleuchtet.

was illuminated.

Hun'nenkönig, m. king Shönheit, f. beauty. Viele Straßen der Stadt sind sehr Many streets of the city are of the Huns. Taufen, to christen, Weigern (fic), to de schmuß'ig; diesem übelstande sollte very filthy; this nuisance the Klar, clear.

baptise.

cline. die Polizei' ab'helfen.

police should remedy. Er steu'erte das Schiff glüdlich durch He steered the ship fortunately

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. bie Fel'senriffe.

through the reefs of rocks. Herr, Tehre mich deinen Weg. Teach me thy way, O Lord.

Gr nannte ihn seinen lieben Sohn. He called him his beloved Son. EXERCISE 98.

Man (Sect. XXV. 4) heißt ihn den They call him the father of the 1. Die alten Sachsen schworen ihren Göttern ab, nachdem sie Karl der Vater der Waisen und den Tröster orphan, and the comforter of Große vollständig besiegt hatte. 2. Indem er diese That durch einen fal. ter Wittwen.

the widow. schen Eid abschwor, läugnete er die Unsterblichkeit der Seele. 3. Man Den Feigling schimpft man einen They call a coward a hare. sieht ihm die Schlechtigkeit an den Augen an. 4. Ich habe die Hoffnung, Hasen. meine Angehörigen wiederzusehen, nicht aufgegeben. 5. 3ch ḥatte meinem Gr giebt sich viele Mühe um dich. He gives himself much trouble Bevienten befohlen, mich zu rufen, sobald Sie fämen. 6. Da ich meinen (Gellert.)

about you. Namen rufen hörte, fehrte ich sogleich um. 7. Wenn ich dir nachahmen Gieb mir immer den erquid'enden Well, give me the refreshing wollte, würde ich bald fein Geld mehr haben. 8. Es ist ihm schon oft Trost, daß ich dich bald freu'diger consolation that I shall soon begegnet, daß er seine Brille suchte und sie auf der Nase trug. 9. Der wie dersehen werde. (Weiße.) see you more joyful again. König pasfirt heute noch diese Stadt. 10. Steure dein Schiff durch die Dir ein Bild sind sie gegeben. To theo are they given (as) • zürnenden Wellen, muthiger Pilot! 11. Ein vernünftiger Vater steuert (Schiller.)

picture. frühe dem unartigen Betragen seiner Kinder. 12. Selten habe ich Geld,

EXERCISE 100. aber immer Schulten,—wenn ich nur diesem llebelstante zu steuern wüßte! 13. Was hülfe eß tem Menschen, so er die ganze Welt gewonne, und nähme

1. Den Fürsten, der sein Volt mißhandelt, nennt man einen Tyrannen. duch Schaden an seiner Seele? 14. Seine Stärfe falfriese leiden tragen. 2. Er fragt mich nach Dingen, die ich ihm nicht nennen kann. 3. Sdilt 15. Die Köchin fostete die Speisen. 16. Es fostete mir Freiheit und mich w.18 (Sect. LXIX. 1) du willst, nur nidit einen Berräther. 4. Die Vaterland. 17. Es kostete ihm seinen ersten Soun. 18. Er versicherte jenigen Leute muß man Heubler nennen, die schon reden und idlecht Hanteln

. mi. die Wahrheit dieser Sache. 19. Man hat fich des Diebes versichert

. 5. Man hat die Prinzessin Louise getauft. 6. Ich fragte ihn tiet nicht mas 20. Gute Sitten muß man nachzuahmen suchen. *

Neugierte. 7. Attila, der Hunnenkönig, nannte sich die Geißel Gattes &

Ich nenne Den meinen Freund, der mich nicht auf meine Vorzüge, fentera EXERCISE 99.

auf meine Fehler liebevoll aufmerksam macht. 9. Gr heißt Alles Feinte amb 1. Teach your chilaren to imitate good behaviour. 2. He Emporer, was nicht mit ihm ist. 10. Der Lehrer schalt ven Süler einen imitates his father in all his habits. 3. Judicious parents check Faulen Knaben. 11. Id) fragte ihn vergebens nach seinem Namen. 12

. the rude behaviour of their children in time. 4. Steer courage. Ich vertiene nicht

, taß mich das Vorf einen Verräther nennt. 13. 3d geke ously the ship through the rolling sea. 5. It often happened Ihnen dieses Antenten zum Beweise meiner Liebe und Achtung. 14. Bu that he looked for his book, and found it in his pocket. 6. The gern verzeihen Gltern ihren Kindern die begangenen Fehler, wenn jis tik ships which go to Australia must cross the eqnator. 7. You selben herzlich

) bereuen. 15. Er erzählte mir mehrmals sein Lebeneza should seek to imitate the example of your brother. 8. I ichichte' 16. Sie vergaben mir mein Unredyt, unt reidigen mir ric Haute

zum Beweise ihrer Versöhnung. 17. Wohl dem Menschen, tem tie Natur Bachahmen only employed with the dative of a person and einen gesunten Geist und einen flaren Verstand verlich, aber ned wohls acousativa

dem, welchem sie ein temüthiges und bescheidenes Herz stentte.

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EXERCISE 101.

in dieses Haus. 11. Oberhalb der Brüde steht ein Streuz. 12: Anstatt 1. Mentor taught Telemachus the art of governing. 2. They iragieren (Sect. LXIV. 1). 14. Interhalb dieses Dorfes liegt eine stone

des Kaffecs trinkt er Wasser. 13. Troß des starten Regens geht er will teach him this language. 3. The time past gives to men the best instruction for the future. 4. In his last letter he Wiese. 15. Ungeachtet des Verbotes seines Vaters besuchte er das Theater. wrote to me the following news. 5. The rich should contribute 16. Unweit dieses Waldes sah ich einen großen Vogel.' 17. Vermöge feines a little from their superabundance with pleasure to the poor. 6. Reichthumo kann er die Armen unterstüßen. 18. Während der lekten Zeit He showed me the beauty of nature. 7. I trusted him with the sah er febr bleich aus. 19. Wegen des Krieges fliehen die reichen Ein. secret with the intention to test his discretion and fidelity. 8. wohner. 20. Seiner Zusage zufolge fehrte er zurüd. Görgey is called a betrayer of his country by his own people. 9.

EXERCISE 103. He chides me with being a fool, as I declined to follow those principles which do not correspond with my inclinations. 10.

1. He did it in spite of his relations. 2. I found myself quite The "Popular Educator” teaches the English, French, and happy beneath the humble roof of that countryman. 3. Every. German languages (say, language) in the easiest manner. 11.

thing below the sun is subject to change. 4. What had you My adversary extended to me his hand as a sign of his rocon

for dessert besides melons and grapes ? 5. The poor emigrants ciliation.

hope to live better on the other side of the ocean.

vered in spite of all opposition. 7. The Gauls directed their SECTION LIII.-PREPOSITIONS REQUIRING THE

toilsome march along the sea shore. 8. It is beneath the dig. GENITIVE.

nity of an honest man. 9. Greenwich is within five miles of The prepositions mittelft, oberhalb, ungeachtet, vermittelst, vermöge, London. 10. He ought to be spared on account of his age. 11. eto. (S$ 109, 110), govern the genitive, as :

:-Oberhalb der neuen He is a nobleman by right of his birth. Brüde ist der Fluß breit und tief, above the new bridge the river is broad and deep. Aller Mühe ungeachtet gelang eß nicht, notwith

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN, standing all the pains it did not succeed. Mittelft feines Beistandes segten wir es turch, by means of his assistance we carried it

EXERCISE 17 (Vol. I., page 103). through (achieved the design). Das kannst du vermöge deines Ver. 1. Der Schreibtisch bed tapfern Polen. 2. Das Leben eines Prinzen flanted begreifen, that canst thou, by dint of thy understanding, ist unsicher. 3. Der tapfere Pole mit dem lebhaften Gesichte ist ein comprehend. Vermittelft Uebergabe kam die Stadt in Feindes vande, Feind des Franzosen. 4. Ist er ein Freund des guten Hauptmanns ? 5. by means of surrender, the town came into (the) enemy's hands. Iener Soldat ist der Bruder seiner schönen Cousine. 6. Der fleißige Sohn Zufolge seines Versprecheng mußte er kommen, in consequence of his des heitern Deutschen hat ein gutes Gewissen. promise, he was obliged to come.

EXERCISE 18 (Vol. I., page 103).
VOCABULARY.

1. Has this draper good cloth? 2. Yes, he has good cloth, and this Amt, 9. office, charge. Kraft, by virtue of. Unóterhalb, below, at tanner has good leather. 3. What has the barber? 4. He has good Hengstlich, anxious. Kreuz, n. cross.

the lower end of. soap. 5. Who has good hay? 6. This peasant has good hay. 7. Xuýlethalb, without, Landhaus, n. country. Unterstüß'en, to sup

What has the blacksmith? 8. He has good iron, and his brother, out of, outside.

9. Have you house, villa.

port, assist.

the paper-dealer, has good paper, red, blue, and white.

red or white wine ? 10. I have neither red nor white (wine). 11. Besorgt', solicitous. Länge, along.

Unweit, not far off.

Your wine is sweet, but this here is sour. 12. Your red wine is strong, Bleich, pale.

laut, according to, in Verbot', n. prohibi- and the white wine of my neighbour is weak. 13. Has this miller Diesícit, on this side. consequence of. tion.

good flour? 14. Yes, and this peasant has good grain, good oats, and Empfeh'len, to recom- Mittelft, by means Verhaf'ten, to arrest. good barley. 15. This girl has a fine voice. 16. My brother has mend.

of.

Vermittelst, by means something beautiful, and I have nothing ugly. 17. This man has only Grlaubénis, f. permis- O'berhalb, above, at of. (See Mittelst.) a little money, and the other has none at all. sion. the upper part of. Vermūʻge, by means

EXERCISE 19 (Vol. I., page 103). Gallier, Gaul. Pappel, f. poplar. of. (See above.) Galben, or halber, for Schlüssel, m. key. Verzweiflung, f. des- 1. Hat mein Bruder, der Schneiter, schwarzes oder rothes Tuch? the sake of, on ac- Seil, n. rope.

pair, despondency. | 2. Der Freunt meines Bruders hat gutes Papier, rothes, blaues und count of

Thal, n. vale, valley. Wegen, on account of, weißes. 3. Der Sohn tes Buchbinders hat etwas von dem Barbier. 4. Berrichen. to reign, Troß, in defiance of, by reason of. Die schöne Tochter des alten Schmiedes hat einen Hund und eine Kaße. prevail.

in spite of. Zufolge, in pursuance 5. Der fleißige Tischler hat etwas Schönes. 6. Der Tuchhändler ist ein Hunger, m. hunger. Ueberzeugung, f. con- of, in consequence Sohn des fleißigen Kaufmanns. 7. Der alte Gerber hat die schlaue Kage In'nere, inner, inter- viction.

of.

und den treuen Hund nicht gesehen. 8. Ist der Zimmermann zu Hause? nal.

Umher'geben, to go Zurüd'fchren, to re- Nein, er ist nicht zu Hause. 9. Haben Sie etwas genommen? Ich habe Zn'nerhalb, within. about.

turn.

nichts genommen. 10. Hat Brunnenwasser einen füßen, oder einen Jenseit, beyond, on Un-geachtet, notwith. Zu'sage. f. promise, salzigen Geschmack? Es hat keinen salzigen Geschmack, sondern einen süßen the other side. standing.

word.

Geschmack.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

EXERCISE 20 (Vol. I., page 119).
Xu'berhalb der Stadt haben fich die Outside the town the rich have These forks are of silver.

1. These new tables are great. 2. The white hats are beautiful. 3.

4. Have you silver or gold knives and Reichen schöne Land'Häuser erbaut'. built for themselves beautiful spoons ? 5. We have silver ones. 6. The good boys have beautiful

villas.

pears. 7. Diligent scholars have long exercises. 8. These old soldiers faut eines fai'serlichen Befehla' In consequence of an imperial have old books. 9. The cutler has beautiful new knives. 10. The

mußten tie Bürger ihre Waffen command, the citizens were joys of this man are his lovely children. 11. The pulpits in these ab'geben.

forced to give up their arms.

churches are high. 12. The old lady's pieces are diligent. 13. The Wihrent des fie'benjährigen Krieges During the seven years war preacher's girls are good children. 14. The Dutchmen are cleanly and

honest. bela'gerte Friedrich II. die Stadt Frederic II. besieged the city

15. This market-woman has the great, ripe pears of the

peasant. 16. The great, ripe pears of this market-woman are palatable. Prag.

(of) Prague (8 123. 6).

17. Has this lady your good (lady) friend's thimble ? 18. No, she has Megen seines geselligen und mun'. On account of his social and

your good friend's thimble. 19. Has Miss Louisa your good mother's teten Betra'gens liebte man ihn. cheerful deportment they new parasol ? 20. No, she has your good brother's umbrella.

loved him,

Has the little daughter of this lady a music-master? 22. No, because

she is yet too young; but her sister has not only a music-teacher, but EXERCISE 102.

also a teacher of painting. 23. Who has your brother's books ? 24. 1. Die Kinder konnten wegen tes schlechten Wetters feinen Spaziergang His (lady) friend's sister has the books. 25. H® your old neighbour's machen. 2. Diesseit des Flusses steht ein schönes Landhaus.

3. Gr thut daughter my young friend's gold watch ? efter Ehre Halber. 4. Innerhalb der Stadt herrscht Hunger und Ver- bour's silver watch. 27. The leaves of these trees are yellow, but zweiflung. 5. Senseit des Berges ist ein schönes Thal. 6. Kraft feines their fruit is ripe and good. 28. The rats are troublesome guests.

26. No, she has her neigh

29. This old merchant has great riches. 30. This cavalry and that Amtes berhaftete er den Dieb. 7. Laut seines Briefes erwarten wir ihn infantry are both equally good. 31. The chancellor's little son is beut. 8. Langs des Stromes stehen viele Pappeln. 9. Mittelst. eines the king's favourite. 32. This painter's friend has very beautifSeiles zog er ihn hinauf. 10. Bermittelst eines falschen Schlüsselé tam er paintings.

21.

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LESSONS IN BOTANY.–XVII.

The student will remember that the potato is not a root,

but a tuber. He will also remember the botanical significance SECTION XXXI.-SOLANACEÆ, OR THE NIGHTSHADE TRIBE (continued).

attached to the word tuber, which is a sort of aggregation of

underground buds studded upon a dense mass of starchy matter The capsicum (Capsicum annuum) is another of the Solanacea. and gluten designed for their nourishment. It is an annual, originally a native of India, but cultivated now Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, Fig. 162) is another plant in Europe, Africa, America, and Australia. Its berry is conical, belonging to the natural order we are considering, and the use smooth, and shining, green when unripe, passing gradually into some will say abuse of which is too well known to require a beautiful coral-red. In this pod resides a resinous balsamic comment. acrid principle named capsicine. Cayenne pepper is capsicum When Christopher Columbus, in 1492, first set foot in the fruit reduced to powder.

island of Cuba, he saw, amongst other strange customs, the The beautiful tomato, or love-apple (Lycopersicum esculentum), natives gather the leaves of a plant, dry these leaves, roll them a nativecriginally of the West

into the form of a torch, light Indies, is now cultivated in

the torch, put the unignited European gardens, more es

end in the mouth, and breathe pecially in those of Spain and

the smoke. Such is the first Italy. In the former coun

account we have handed try it serves as a daily arti,

down to us of the manufaccle of food for persons of al

ture and uses of a "mild most every grade of society.

Havannah.” Subsequently, We now arrive at the

when Columbus and his goldgenus Solanum, from which

hunting associates gained the the order Solanaceæ takes

main continent of America, its name. It is very nume

they saw a similar custom ous in species. Its generic

everywhere in force amongst characters may be enume

all classes, slightly varied as rated by a rotaceous corolla,

to detail, some using pipes, anthers not opening by longi

and others preferring the tadinal fissures, but by two

Cuban method of cigar. points at their summits. The

smoking. Nor were chewing most common species of the

and snuff-taking unknown to genus Solanum is the Dulca

the Mexicans and Peruvians. mara, orbitter sweet, a

The Mexican priesta, in parplant which is found grow

ticular, were in the habit of ing in almost every hedge in

taking snuff profusely, for the vicinity of London, known

the purpose of clearing their by its sombre foliage, its pen

brains and exalting their in. dent cymes of pretty flowers,

tellects. From the aborigines and its deep-red berries.

of America, tobacco first By far the most important,

passed to the Spaniards, then however, amongst the genus

to the Portuguese, then to the Solanum is the potato, or

English, and it is now every: Solanum tuberosum, a plant

where; and despite a great which originally was a native

deal of opposition shown to of the Cordilleras, or high

it, there is no great reason to mountains of Peru and Chili.

suppose that tobacco-chevIt is supposed that this

ing, smoking, or snuff-taking useful vegetable was first

will ever be abolished. brought into Spain in the

Tobacco was first brought early part of the sixteenth

into Europe by Jean Nicot, century, by some of the

French ambassador at the Spaniards who invaded Peru

court of Portugal; hence the under Pizarro, and ultimately

name Nicotiana given to the succeeded in annexing it to

genus. It was this ambasthe Spanish dominions in the

sador who, we New World. The term

offered the first pinch of snuff potato is, in all probability,

to Catherine de Medicis. derived from the Spanish

The queen was much pleased batata, a word which was

with the sensation, history originally applied to the sweet and succulent root 162. THE TOBACCO PLANT (NICOTIANA TABACUM).

informs us, took to "snuff

ing” with great ardour, called beet, or beetroot. The tuber and its principal use as a vegetable became known in Italy ledged patroness of snuff, tobacco was called in consequenes

and becoming the acknowand other parts of Southern Europe soon after its introduction Herbe de la Reine. Sir Walter Raleigh took some tobacco from into Spain; but the potato was unknown in England until 1586, Virginia to England, and became remarkably fond of its rise. when Sir Walter Raleigh returned from an unsuccessful attempt His example was soon followed even by the most refined cour to found the colony of Virginia, which was not permanently tiers. James I., every person knows, entertained a furious settled until 1607. The chief result, indeed, of Sir Walter hatred against tobacco. In the year 1619 he fulminated an Raleigh's expedition was the introduction of the potato into edict against it, but tobacco was more powerful than the king. England and Ireland. It is asserted that the potato was first Pope Urban VIII., in 1624, next set to work to check the use of brought to this country by Sir John Hawkins in 1563 ; while, tobacco, against which he launched a special bull. The pope by others, the credit of having introduced a vegetable which did not succeed better than the king. Next in the list of forms such an important adjunct to the mid-day meal is ascribed tobacco-stoppers came the Sultan Amurath IV., the Shah of to Sir Francis Drake. It is, however, most probable that it Persia, and the Grand Duke of Muscovy. These potentates was brought from North America by Sir Walter Raleigh, who more especially directed their efforts to restrain the habit of set about turning the knowledge of its habits and uses to good snuff-taking; and disdaining argument, which had so signally

account by successfully attempting its culture on a large scale failed ander James-disdaining, also, religions enactments, which abou in his Irish estates near Youghal, in county Cork,

had not been more successful under the pope this precious trio of punt by s. is Irish est

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a more

Oriental worthies thought that the shortest way to check the habit The great universal characteristic of the plants of this tribe of snuffing would consist in cutting off people's noses. This is that from which they derive their name Leguminosæ : let us, remedy they carried, we are told, pretty liberally into execution. therefore, examine the anatomy of a legume. A legume, then,

The origin of the word tobacco has been traced to various is nothing more than a long, flat carpel, for the most part consources. By some it is said to be derived from Tabacca, a province taining many seeds, and splitting, when arrived at maturity, of Yucatan, in Mexico. Others, with an equal degree of proba- into two halves. The seeds, it will be remembered, all grow bility, trace the derivation of the word to Tobago, one of the from one commissure or junction line in the inside of the British West India Islands, near Trinidad, belonging to the Wind carpel. ward group. Humboldt, however, says that the word tabacco was As regards relative dimensions, legumes differ considerably, used by the Caribbee islanders as the name of the pipe in which some being longer than they are broad, others the reverse. This they smoked the dried

circumstance, however, leaves of the plant, and

gives rise to no physiolothat the Spaniards' ulti

gical distinction between mately applied this desig.

the two. nation to the plant itself.

As the Leguminosæ form Its culture is attended

an exceedingly numerous with some difficulty, as a

order, and comprehend slight frost will often tend

plants amongst which dif. to check the growth of

ferences of structure exist the young plants, if it

insufficient to justify their does not cause

formation into different serious injury,and destroy

orders, they are divided & great part of the crop.

into groups, the distincTobacco is largely cul.

tions between which will tivated in all parts of

presently come under conSouthern and Western

sideration. One of these Europe, except Great Bri

groups, perhaps the most tain and Ireland, where

important, is the Pea its culture is prohibited

tribe, the members of by Act of Parliament.

which are sufficiently faIts cultivation in this

miliar to all of us. Indecountry was forbidden

pendently of the existence in 1684; but in 1779 per

of a pod, in these plants mission was given to the

there is another striking Irish farmers to grow

peculiarity; the flowers tobacco, and this privilege

are shaped very much like -if privilege it can be

butterflies. Hence arises called—was enjoyed by

the denomination papiliothe Irish until 1831, when

naceous (from papilio, the an act was passed to re

Latin for butterfly), by vive the former act, under

which the pea sub-diviwhich the cultivation of

sion of the Leguminosa is the plant had formerly

known. been prohibited.

Let us now study one The petunia, a beautiful

of these flowers a little in specimen of our half.

detail. The calyx is made hardy herbaceous peren

up of five sepals, all of nials, is closely allied to

which unite in a tube. the tobacco plant, its

The corolla is made up of name being derived from

five petals, not all, howPetun, the Brazilian name

ever, of equal size.

One for tobacco. It makes a

of them is considerably showy appearance in the

larger than the others, borders during the sum

and rises behind them. mer and autumn, but re

This petal has acquired quires to be protected

among botanists the disunder glass during the

tinctive name of vexillum winter and early spring.

or standard. The two

shorter petals which stand SECT. XXXII. LEGO.

in front of the standard MINOSÆ, OR THE LE.

are termed alo, or wings. GUMINOUS TRIBE. 163. BLOSSOM, ROOTS, AND LEAVES OF THE MEXICAN TOBACCO PLANT

They are protected by a The structural charac. (NICOTIANA RUSTICA).

portion of the corolla, teristics of the fruit termed

formed like boat, by botanists a legume we shall presently enumerate; meanwhile, from which circumstance it derives the appellation carina, or we will inform the reader that a legume is merely another name keel. for pod, the sort of fruit borne by the pea, clover, laburnum, and Next observe the stamens, and you will find they are collected many others which will easily suggest themselves.

in groups, or, to use the expression of Linnæus, they are “adelCharacteristics : : Calyx free and monosepalous; corolla perigy- phous." All the common papilionaceous flowers are adelphous; nous or hypogynons, regular or irregular; stamens double the but many foreign species, especially certain natives of New number of petals, or occasionally indefinite; pistils united South Wales, Pultanæus Gompholobimus, Daviesias, etc., are not. into one carpel; fruit, a legume; seed, dicotyledonous; em. Next come the plants, which, although bearing legumes or bryo straight or carved, exalbuminous ; leaves, alternate, stipu- pods, are not provided with papilionaceous flowers. This divi

sion comprehends all the Cassias and their allies. Lastly, This is an exceedingly large and very valuable order of vege- have the Mimosa tribe, the great characteristic of whiot tables, all of which present good external marks for distinction, the possession of flowers like those of the Cassia in stri and, moreover, possess a similarity of chemical and physiolo- but so very small that they can scarcely be recognised gical qualities.

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

a

lated.

naked eye.

mus.

mus.

mus.

mus.

mus.

one.

once.

unus

una

unum.

uni

uni

unum.

uno

LESSONS IN LATIN.-XVII.

300, trecenti. trecentesi- triceni. trecenties. CCC. THE NUMERALS,

400. quadringenti. quadringen. quadringeni. quadringen- CD. As in English, so in Latin, the numerals have various forms.

tesimus.

ties. Thus we say, one, first, one each, once. One, and the corre- 500. quingenti. quingentesi- quingeni. quingenties. D. sponding two, three, etc., we call cardinal (from cardo, -inis, m.,

mus. a hinge), because they are the chief numbers, those on which 600. sexcentia sexcentesi. sexceni. sexcenties, DC. the others hinge. First, second, third, etc., we call ordinals

DCC. (from ordo, -ínis, m., an order or series), because they show the 700. septingenti. soptingentesi- septingeni. Septingen

ties, order or place in a series which a person or thing holds. One

800. octingenti. octingentesi. octingeni. octingenties. DCCC. each, two each, three each, etc., may be oalled distributives, be

mus. cause they distribute the numbers severally to persons or things, 900. nongenti. nongentesi- nongeni, nongenties. CM. declaring how many each possesses. Once, twice, thrice, etc., are called adverbial numerals, because they imply some verb,

1,000 mille.

millesimus. singula milia. millies. M. and state how often the action of the verb takes place. You 2,000 duo milia. bis millegi. bina milia. bis millies. may see a full view of the Latin numerals in all their forms in

MM. the ensuing table, with the English figures on the left hand, and 100,000 centum milia. centies mille- centena milia, centies millies. the corresponding Latin characters on the right hand.

simus.

CCCL300 1,000,000 decies centum decies centies decies milia. decies milies. TABLE OF NUMERALS.

milia,
millesimus.

CCCCL5000 Cardinal. Ordinal. Distributive. Adverbial. 2,000,000 vicies centum vicies centies vicies milia. vicies millies. unus, -a, -um, primus, -a, -um, singuli, -2, -a, semel,

milia.

millesimus.
first.
ome each.

On this table, I submit to you the following remarks. Unus, 1. unus, one. primus, first. singuli, one each, semel, once. I. duo, and tres are declined as follows:2. duo, two. secundus, second, bini, two each. bis, twice. II.

N. 3. tres, three. tertius, third. terni, three each. ter, thrice. III.

G. unius unius unius. 4. quatuor, four. quartus, fourth, quaterni, four quater, four

D.

uni.
each.
times. IV.

Ac. unum unam 3. quinque, five. quintus, fifth, quini, five cach. quinquies, five

Ab.

uni times.

uno.

V. 6. sex, six. sextus, sixth, seni, six each. sexies, six times. Where specially observe that the genitive ends in ius, and the

VI. dative in i. I put together in a form easy of remembrance the 7. septem, seven, septimus, septēni, seven septies, seven words declined like the preceding example:

seventh.
each.
times. VII.

Pronouns that make ius in the genitive and i in the dative. 8. octo, eight. octāvus, eighth, octoni, eight each, octies,eight times.

unus, ullus, nullus. VIII.

solus, totus, alius. 9. novem,

nine.
nonus, ninth. novēni, nine each. novies, ninetimes.

uter, alter, neuter,

IX. The English of the numerals that follow can be easily supplied in the feminine and the neuter. Uter forms its genders thus :

Observe that the ius and the i of the masculine gender remain by the learner.

uter, m., utra, f., utrum, n. Alter, thus : alter, m., altera, f., Cardinal, Ordinal. Distributive. Adverbial.

alterum, n. But neuter, thus : neuter, m., neutra, f., neutrum, 10. decem. decimus. deni.

decies.

n. So in their compounds : by adding que, uter becomes uterque, 11. undécim. undecimus. undeni. undecies. XI. 12. duodécim. duodecimus, duodeni. duodecies.

which signifies both, and is formed thus: nom. uterque, mi,

XII. 13. tredecim. tertius deci- terni deni. terdecies. XIII. utrăque, f., utrumque, n.; gen., utriusque; dat., utrique; 50,

nom., unusquisque, m., unaquæque, f., unumquodque, n.; gel, 14. quatuor quartus deci. quaterni deni. quaterdecies. XIV. uniuscujusque; dat., unicuique. Alius in the neuter, has aliud; děcim.

in the genitive singular, alius (contracted from alisus), and 15. quindecim. quintus deci- quini deni. quindecies. XV. dative alii. In alteruter, one of two, commonly uter alone is

declined thus:16. sedocim. sextus deci- seni deni, sedecies. IVI.

alteruter, m. alterutra, f. alterutrum, n. mus.

alterutrius 17. septenděcim, septimus deci- septeni deni, septies decies XVII.

alterutri alterutrius.

Declension of duo, duæ, duo, two. 18. duodeviginti. duodevicesi. duodeviceni. duodevicies. XVIII. mus.

N. & V. duo

duæ

duo. 19. undeviginti. undevicesi. undeviceni. undevicies. XIX,

G,
duorum
duarum

duorum. D. & Ab. duobus

duabus

duobus 20. viginti, vicesimus. viceni. vicies. XX.

Ac.
duo or duos duas

duo. 21, unus et vi- unus et vicesi- viceni singuli, vicies semel. XXI.

Tres, m., tres, f., tria, n., three. ginti.

mus.
22, duo et viginti, alter et vicesi- viceni bini. vicies bis, XXII.

M.
N. & V. tres

tres
mus.

tria. 28. duodetri

G.

trium duodetricesi. duodetriceni, duodetricies. XXVIII.

trium

trium. ginta. mus.

D. & Ab. tribus

tribus

tribus 29, undetriginta. undetricesi- undetriceni, undetricies. XXIX.

Acc.
tres
tres

tria
mus.
Milia is declined like tria, thus: milia, milium, milibus, miiz

. 30. triginta. tricesimus. triceni. tricies. XXX. Milia requires after it a genitive; for instead of saying, as we 40. quadraginta. quadragesi- quadrageni. quadragies. XL.

do, ten thousand men, the Latins said, decem milia hostium.

ten thousands of men; but mille considered as a whole, a thousand. 50. quinquaginta. quinquagesi. quinquageni, quinquagies. L.

is indeclinable: thus, dux cum mille militibus, a general man mus. 60. sexaginta.

sexagies. sexagesimus. sexageni.

LX.

a thousand soldiers. The ordinals are declined like noons of 70. septuaginta. septuagesi- septuageni. septuagies. LXX.

the first and the second declension. The distributives are also mus.

declined after the same manner. Mark that singuli is in the 80. octoginta, octogesimus. octogeni. octogies. LXXX. plural. The plural is necessitated by the meaning, inasmuch 90. nonaginta. nonagesimus. nonageni. nonagies. XC. as the adjective is a distributive, for distribution implies mora 99. undecentum. undecentesi- undeconteni, undecenties. XCIX. than one ; thus the Latins said, inter singulos homines, among

the men severally. 100. centum. centesimus, centeni. centies. C. 101, centum et centesimus et centeni sin- centies semel. CI.

If now you carry your eye down the numbers, you will find UDUS. primus. guli.

that for every separate number from one to nine, there is : 102. centum et centesimus et centeni bini, centies bis. CII.

separate word. With ten (decem) a new series begins, which duo. alter.

goes on to nineteen, when again at twenty (viginti) a new word nti,-,-a, ducentesimus. duceni. ducenties. CC. begins a new series. In centum and in mille, you also find new

mus.

mus.

mus.

N.

mus.

M.

F.

mus.

F.

mus.

mus.

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