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like duo).

an

nor.

words and the commencements of new series. From eleven the laws are sacred. 4. Happy is the king whom all the citizens love. (undecim) to seventeen (septendecim) inclusive, each consecutive 5. O king, who governest our state, thou art pleased (resolved) to word is compounded of decem and a number taken from the honour good citizens, to terrify evil-doers, to succour the wretched, first series. When they come to eighteen, instead of saying and to hear the request of the good. after their former manner, and as we say in English, eight, ten,

EXERCISE 60.- ENGLISH-LATIN. the Romans said, two from twenty, dao de viginti. Having

1. Reges qui civitates gubernant omnium civium salutem curare passed twenty, they made use of it to form the numbers between debent. 2. Eoni homines libenter parent regibus quorum imperium

est mite et justum. 3. Regibus quibus leges sunt sanctæ libenter twenty and thirty; thus : unus et viginti, one and twenty; they also said, viginti anus, viginti dao, viginti tres, viginti quatuor, parent boni cives. 4, Reges qui civibus cari sunt, sunt felices. 5. O

reges, qui civitates gubernant, colere virum bonum magnumque debetis. and so forth. In all cases, eight and nine are expressed by 6. O Deus, colimus te cui placet miseris succurrere. 7. Hostes quisubtracting two and one from the next ensuing new term; thus buscum confligitis patriam vestram devastant. twenty-eight is duo de triginta, two from thirty; thirty-nine is

EXERCISE 61.-LATIN-ENGLISH. undequadraginta, one from forty; so in the ordinals duodequadra

1. Who calls me ? 2. What art thou doing, my friend ? 3. Who gesimus, undesexagesimus.

writes this letter ? 4. What art thou thinking of P 5. What am I VOCABULARY.

doing? 6. Why do I torture myself? 7. What friendship is there Ago, 3, 1 drive, I do. Infidus, -a, -um, un. Pars, partis, f., a part among the ungrateful ? 8. What poem art thou reading ? 9. What Ambo, both (declined faithful.

(E. R. partial). man is coming ? 10. What poet is sweeter than Homer? 11. Whose Irrumpo, 3, I break in. Pedes, pedřtis, m., a voice is sweeter than the voice of the nightingale ? 12. What sins do Annum ago, I am in Major natu, greater footman, an infantry we most easily yield to ? 13. Whatever is honourable is useful. 14. the - year. by birth; that is, soldier.

Whatever thou seest, runs (away) with (in the lapse of) time. 15. HowAssentator,- oris, m., a older.

Post, prep., after.

ever the fact is, I defend my view. 16. Whatever opinion opposes Aatterer. Minor natu, younger.

Post Christum natum, virtue is false. Cognitus -2, -um, known Moderator, - ris, m., since Christ born;

EXERCISE 62.- ENGLISH-LATIN. Eques, equitis, m., a govornor.

that is, since the birth 1. Quid dicis? 2. Quis est ille homo? 3. Quæ est illa femina ? 4. horseman. Natus, -a, -um, born, of Christ.

Quibus cum ambulat amicus tuus ? 5. Quem quæris? 6. Quei librum Et-et, and—and, both. Natus, -üs, m., birth. Pretium, 1., a price, legis? 7. Ad quem has literas scribis ? 8. Quocunque modo res sese Es, prep., out of, from. Neque, conj., neither, worth (E.R. precious). habent, sententiam tuam laudamus. Exercitus, -ūs, m.,

Quotus, -a, -um, how army. Neque-neque, neither much? what?

EXERCISE 63.—LATIN-ENGLISH.
Fidem habeo, I repose

-nor,
Societas, -ātis, f., con-

1. If we fear death, some terror always hangs over us. 2. If fortune confidence. Nunc, now, donoting mection, society.

takes away his money from any one (a person), he is not on that acHides, -ei, f., fidelity, a point of time ; Victoria, -e, f., victory. count miserable. 3. Greece holds a certain small space of (in) Europe. trust, whereas jam de- Vitium, n., vice.

4. There is (inheres) in our minds as it were an augury (presage) of Locola, -e, m., an in- notes the present in Vix, adv., scarcely.

future ages. 5. God dwells in every good man. 6. Justice gives his habitant. relation to the past.

due to every one according to his dignity. 7. The love of life is planted

in every one of us. Alins is used with alius in a peculiar manner, nearly equal to

EXERCISE 64.- ENGLISH-LATIN. our one another, the one, the other, differently, in different ways, as :

1. Malis aliqui terror semper impendet. 2. Quid terroris tibi im. Alias alium occidit. Alii alio currunt.

pendet? 3. Si cuipiam fortunam adimis, vituperaris. 4. Parvum The one slays the other. They run in different directions.

quendam Græciæ partem tenent. 5. In unoquoque malorum hominum EXERCISE 67.–LATIN-ENGLISH.

habitat malum. 6. Unicuique merita ejus tribuit justitia. 7. Pecu. 1.. Quota hora est? 2. Decima. 3. Estne sexta hora ? 4. Quinta niam habent quidam. est hora, 5. Annus quo nunc vivimus, est millesimus octingesimus

EXERCISE 65.—LATIN-ENGLISH. sexagesimus et octavus post Christum natum. 6. Pater meus agit annum 1. There are as many views as there are men. 2. That princes do quartum et sexagesimum. 7. Soror tua agit annum sexagesimum ter- wrong is as great an evil as that there arise very many imitators of tium. 8. Mater mea agit annam octavum et quinquagesimum. 9. princes. 3. As many kinds of orations as there are, so many kinds of Pater tuus agit quinquagesimum octavum annum. 10. Frater major orators are found. 4. As are the generals, so are the soldiers. 5. As zatu agit annum tertium et tricesimum. 11. Frater minor natu agit is the king, so is the flock (people). 6. As princes are in the state, andum alterum et vicesimum. 12. Soror major natu agit annum duo.

80 the citizens are wont to be. 7. A good man does not despise detricesimum. 13. Soror minor natu agit annum vicesimum. 14. In wretched men, of whatever kind they are. 8. The goods of the body urbe sunt mille milites. 15. Duo milia hostium urbem obsident. 16. Aliud alii placet.

and of fortune, how great soever, are uncertain and perishable. 9. 17. Aliud alii displicet. 18. Milites utriusque exer- All the men that livo love life. 10. All the writers there are speak of citus sunt fortissimi. 19. Utrumque est vitium et omnibus credere, the justice of Aristides. et nulli. 20. Perfidus homo vix ulli fidem habet. 21. Unius fidi ho.

EXERCISE 66.-ENGLISH-LATIN. minis amicitia habet plus pretii quam multorum infidorum societas. 2. Boli sapienti vera vis virtutis est cognita. 23. Incolæ totius urbis

1. Quot homines tot animi. 2. Quot pueri tot puellæ. 3. Quot de victoria exercitus læti sunt.

4. Quantus est tuus meror tantum est meum 24. Nullius hominis vita ex omni patres tot matres. parte beata est. 25. Habeo duo amicos, ambo valde diligo. 26. Ami

gaudium. 5. Quales sunt parentes tales sunt liberi. 6. Qualis pastor cus meus habet duo filios et duas filias.

talis grex. 7. Res qualescunque sunt non contemno. 8. Ab omnibus

scriptoribus, quotcunque sunt, justus prædicatur Aristides. EXERCISE 68.-ENGLISH-LATIN. 1. The enemy breaks into our country with 10,000 soldiers. 2. A thousand soldiers defend the city. 3. The city is defended by 2,500 LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.—XVII. soldiers. 4. 28,000 cavalry and 13,500 infantry defend the country: 5. The circle affords us a ready means of constructing regular My father is in his seventy-fifth year. third year. 7. My elder brother is in his thirty-seventh year. 8. My polygons of any number of sides; but before entering on this younger brother is in his thirtieth year. 9. My elder sister is in her part of our subject, it will be necessary to say something about thirty-fourth year. 10. My younger sister is in her eighteenth year,

the inscription of the triangle and square in any given circle, 11. What o'clock is it? (what is the hour ?) 12. It is eleven o'clock. and the circumscription of the triangle and square about any 13. How old art thou ? (in Latin, What year dost thou lead P) 14. I am given circle, the triangle being equiangular and similar to ifty-two. 15. We repose confidence in neither of the two, neither the a given triangle, both in the case of inscription in a square faithless nor the flatterer. 16. The life of no one is happier than (the and circumscription about a square.

17. The father takes a walk (ambulo) with his two First, however, let us arrive at a clear understanding of what song and two daughters. 18. Two faithful friends are one soul in is meant when we speak of describing a figure, inscribing one two bodies.

19. Some things please some (persons), some others. figure within another, and circumscribing one figure about 20. This displeases some one, that another. 21. God is the governor of the whole of lifo (in Latin, the whole life).

another. The latter part of each word is immediately derived from the Latin word scribo, I write or draw; the distinctive

meaning of each of the three words given above depends on KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.—XVI. the meaning of the Latin preposition with which each word is EXERCISE 59.–LATIN-ENGLISH.

commenced. In the first the prefix de gives the word the 1. The king who governs the state ought to take care of the safety meaning of "writing down” or “copying off;” in the see of the citizens. 2. All the citizens willingly obey a king wbose govern the prefix in gives the word the siznification of dra ment is mild and just. 3. The citizens respect a king to (with) whom figure within the limits or boundary lines of another fi

life) of the Eage.

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to the utmost extent that the limits of that figure will per. the point E, the point of intersection of the straight lines A c, mit; and in the third the prefix circum gives the word the BD, at the distance E A, E B, E C, or E D, describe the circle meaning of drawing one figure round another. Inscription and ABCD. This circle touches the sides of the given square circumscription indicate operations that are precisely the reverse FG X K, and is inscribed within it, as of each other.

required. PROBLEM XLII.-In a given circle to inscribe a triangle equi- To circumscribe a circle about the angular to a given triangle.

given square F G H K, find the point Let A B C (Fig. 61) be the given triangle, and D E F the given E as before, and then from the point circlo : it is required to inscribe in the given circle D'EF a triangle E as centre, with a radius equal to x

equiangular to the the straight line joining E with any
given triangle A B C. At one of the four corners of the square,
any point p in the cir- describe the circle FGI K. The
cumference of the circle circumference of the circle F G H I
DEF draw XY as a passes through the other three corners
tangent to the circle, of the square, and the circle F GIK
and at the point p in is therefore circumscribed about the

Fig. 63. the straight line x y square F G H K, as required.

make the angle Y DF We may now pass on to the construction of regalar polygons. Fig. 61.

equal to the angle ABC, The term polygon is derived from two Greek words, tolus (pol-use),

and the angle x D E much or many, and ywria (go'nia), an angle, and means a figure equal to the angle ACB; and let the straight lines D E, D F that has many angles. Many-angled figures are also called cut the circumference of the circle D E F in the points E and F. multilateral or many-sided figures, from the Latin multus, much Join E f. The triangle D E F, inscribed in the circle D E F, or many, and latus, a side. “Polygon" and "multilateral is equiangular to the given triangle A B C.

figure” are terms which may be considered to mean precisely If it is desired to cut off a segment of a circle that shall con. the same thing, for a figure that has many angles must, of tain an angle equal to a given angle, as in the above figure course, have many sides. It has, in fact, just so many sides as to cut off from the circle DEF a segment that shall con. it has angles, and the most familiar illustration of this that can tain an angle equal to the angle A B C, all that we have to do be given is that of a room, which, generally speaking, has just four is to draw a tangent to the circle, and at the point of con. sides and four corners or angles. The terms "polygon" and tact make an angle equal to the given angle, as the angle YDF"multilateral figure” are applied, as we have been taught in was made equal to the angle A B C. The leg D F of the Definition 33 (Vol. I., p. 53), to any figure that has more than angle TDF must then be produced far enough to cut the four sides. A polygon may be regular or irregular—that is to circumference of the circle D E F in the point F. Any angle say, its sides and angles may be equal or unequal. The student that may then be formed by drawing straight lines from D and has already been shown the method of making triangles equal F to any point in the segment, as the angle D E F or the angle to given irregular polygons; and the construction of an irregular D G F, is equal to the given angle A B C.

polygon of any number of sides, having its angles equal to PROBLEM XLIII.—About a given circle to circumscribe a triangles of any prescribed opening, would be a thing that he angle equiangular to a given triangle.

could readily accomplish, provided that he has paid sufficient Let Ā B C (Fig. 62) be the given triangle, and DEF the given attention to our lessons to understand thoroughly all that we circle about which it is required to circumscribe a triangle equi- have advanced. It is with the construction of regular polygon3 НА

angular to the given triangle only that we have now to do.
A BC.

In Definition 34 we were further taught that polygons are Produce B c, the base of divided into classes according to the number of their sides and the triangle A B C, both ways angles. Some of these classes have no distinctive name, as will to x and y. Draw k l touch- be seen from the following table; but many of them have a ing the circle D E F in the name by which the number of their sides can be recognised at

point E, and from the centre once. Thus the polygon that has five sides and five angles is Y G of the circle D E F draw called a pentagon, from the Greek hevte (pen'te), five, and gavis

, the straight line G E per. an angle; the polygon that has six sides and six angles is called pendicular to K L. Then at a hexagon, from the Greek és (hex), six, and yevia, an angle; the point G, in the straight and so on, the Greek or Latin word for the number of the sides,

line E G, make the angle or some modification of it, being prefixed to the termination gon. Fig. 62.

E G F equal to the angle A triangle would be called a trigon, and a square a tetragon, ACY, and the angle E G D equal to the angle A B x. Through according to this system of naming figures from the number of the points D and F draw the straight lines , 1 L, meeting their angles. each other in the point n, and the straight line K L in the The number of degrees in the angle of any regular polygon points K and L. The triangle HKL circumscribed about the may be found arithmetically by the following process :circle DEF is equiangular to the given triangle ABC.

The angles formed by any number of lines meeting together in PROBLEM XLIV.--To inscribe a square in a given circle, and a point, such as the lines drawn from the angles of any polygon about the same circle to circumscribe a square.

to any point within it, or, in the case of a regular polygon, to Let ABCD (Fig. 63) be the given circle, and E its centre. its centre, are together equal to four right angles, or 360 Through E draw the diameters A C, B D at right angles to each degrees. The greater the number of sides other, and join A B, B C, C D, and D A. The figure A B C D thus of any regular polygon, the less will be formed is a square, and it is inscribed in the given circle the angle at its centre, subtended by each A B C D, as required.

of its sides; and to find the number of To circumscribe a square about the circle A B C D, draw the degrees contained in its opening, we have B diameters AC, B D as before. Through the points A and cto do nothing more than to divide 360 by draw the straight lines F G, H K parallel to B D, and through the number of sides. For example, in the points B and D draw the straight lines F K, G H parallel the regular pentagon, or five-sided figure to AC The figure F G H K thus formed is a square, and it A B C D E, in Fig. 64, it is clear that each is circumscribed about the circle A B C D, as required.

of the five angles, A FB, BFC, CFD, D F E, PROBLEM XLV.—To inscribe a circle in a given square, and EFA, formed by drawing straight lines about the same square to circumscribe a circle.

from its five salient angles at A, B, C, D E, Let F G H K (Fig. 63) be the given square : it is required to to its centre, F, is equal to one-fifth of 360 degrees, or, in inscribe a circle within the given square Fork, and to circum- other words, is an angle of 72 degrees. We now wish to scribe a circle about it. First bisect the sides

FG, FK in find the numerical value of any and all of the angles of the the noi- A and B, and through A draw a C parallel to Fk or polygon in degrees. We know that the three interior angles

ngh's draw B D parallel to P & or u K. From 1 of any triangle are together equal to two right angles, or 180

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degrees; therefore, the three interior angles of any of the five consolidate the power he had acquired in Ireland, he would have equal and equiangular triangles, of which the pentagon in Fig. settled his grasp on the island with very little trouble; but 64 is made up, are together equal to 180 degrees. Now the unfortunately, perhaps, for Ireland, he was suddenly recalled in angle at the apex, F, of any of these angles was shown to be the spring of 1172, on account of the proceedings taken against equal to 72 degrees, therefore the angles at the base are together him for his alleged part in the death of Thomas à Becket. On equal to 180 – 72 degrees, or 108 degrees. But as the triangles the 17th of April, 1172, he sailed from Waterford, after having which compose the pentagon are isosceles triangles, the angles arranged for the government of his new kingdom, and having at the base are equal to each other, and each of them contains appointed various noblemen of his army to posts of command. 108 = 2, or 54 degrees. Any angle of the polygon, which is, of Hugh de Lacy was made lord constable; Strongbow, lord course, composed of two of these equal angles, contains 108 marshal ; Sir Bertram de Vernon, high steward ; and military degrees. The following is a table of regular polygons, from the commands were given to Fitz-Stephen and Fitz-Gerald, Raymond triangle or trigon of three sides and angles to the polygon le Gros, and other soldier chiefs. The laws of England were of twenty sides and angles, with the numerical value of the also imposed on the realm of Ireland. angle of each polygon in degrees, minutes, seconds, and fractional Never before, and perhaps never since, had Ireland enjoyed a parts of a second ; and the numerical values of the angles at quieter and more contented time than during the six months the aper and base of the triangles into which each polygon may after Henry's departure. The strength of the English kept the be divided by drawing straight lines from its salient angles to Irish from interfering with them, and their far-reaching power its centre.

even restrained the Irish from internecine war. The land TABLE OF REGULAR POLYGONS.

breathed again, and all went well till the restless spirit of the

Irish, not enduring the presence of strangers, broke out again Name of Polygon.

angle at Apex Angle at Base Angle of in armed resistance. The fortune of war gave the advantago of Triangle. of Triangle. Polygon.

now to this side, now to that, and at one time it seemed as if Triangle or Trigon 3 120 00

the work of conquest in Ireland would have to be done all over

30° 0 OM 60° 0 0 Square or Tetragon 0 0 45° 0 0

again; but in the end the root which had been planted spread

90° 0 0 Pentagon 72° 0 0 54° 0 0 108° 0 0

abundantly, and by a treaty made between Henry and Roderic Hexagon 60° 0 0 60° 0 0 120° 0 0

O'Connor, it was agreed that the latter should be king over all Heptagon 51° 25' 429" 64° 17' 84 128° 34 17"

Ireland, except about one-third, which was given to the English Octagon

45° 0 0 67° 300 135° 0 0 (it was afterwards called the Pale), and that he should do Enneagon or Nonagon

9 400 0 0 700 OO 140° 0 0 homage for the same, receiving in return the homage of all the Decagon

10 36° 0 0 720 0 Om 144° 0 0 lesser Irish princes. An arrangement of this sort was fruitful Undecagon

32° 43 384 730 38 1048" 1470 16 217" in disturbances; the English encroached upon the Irish, the Dodecagon

12 30° 0 0 75° 0 0 150000" Irish ever sought to oust the English, and bloodshed, rapine, Polygon of 13 sides

27° 41' 32,4" 76° 9 131/" 152° 18' 27,5" and misery were made part of the natural order of things. The 14

25° 4251" 77° 8' 347" 154° 17' 87" only way, at length, in which the island could be governed, if Quindecagon

24° 0 0 78° 0 0 156° 0 Om held by the English at all, was by means of a military governor, Polygon of 16 sides 16 22° 300 78° 45 cm 157° 300"

armed with large discretionary power; and this system of 17

17 210 10 35,4" 79° 24' 42 158° 49' 2441" government was adopted from the time of. Strongbow till quite 20° 0 80° 0 0 160° 0 0

modern times, the idea of the ruling power being, not to do 18° 56' 50404| 80° 31' 3473" 161° 39185" what was best for the interests of the governed, but to secure 20 18° 0 0 81° 0 0 1620' 0"

the conquest which had been made.

Government conducted on this principle, or rather on this want of principle, could have but one result-discontent with,

and hatred for, the dominant power. Whenever an opportunity HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XVII.

presented itself, whenever the oppression of the government, HOW IRELAND BECAME PART OF GREAT BRITAIN.- PART II.

or the yet more insufferable insolence of the foreign settlers, IT were long to trace out step by step the history of the became too unbearable, rebellions broke forth; and though they English campaigns in Ireland, before Henry II. himself came did not succeed in breaking the yoke from off the necks of the over and assumed the lordship of the country; to show how St. rebels, they involved the country in such confusion as to make Lanrence O'Toole, Archbishop of Dublin, rallied for a time the it a thorn and a trouble in the side of England, and English numerous Irish princes round the national standard, and how governors and statesmen, it is to be feared, looked rather to the his exertions were nearly rewarded with the destruction of all plucking out of the thorn than to remedying the causes which the invaders ; how the English adventurers suffered many things led to that thorn being pricked into her. Here are words written at the hands of the Irish, and how they saved themselves by the by Edmund Spenser, the poet, in Elizabeth's time, in his “ Views exhibition of a desperate and splendid courage. It is sufficient of the State of Ireland," words which, for their vigour and apt for the present purpose to say that Strongbow, having in the relation to the case of the sister island, might have been written summer of 1171 gone over to England, and made his peace with yesterday :-"There have bin divers good plottes devised, and Henry at the price of surrendering to him all sovereign rights wise councels cast already about reformation of that realme; and all the ports and fortresses in Ireland, returned with his but they say it is the fatall destiny of that land, that no purmonarch, who, being now free from the disquietude which had poses whatsoever which are meant for her good wil prosper or before troubled him, gave his whole attention to achieving the take good effect, which, whether it proceed from the very gonius conquest of Ireland. On St. Luke's Day, the 18th October, 1171, of the soyle, or influence of the starres, or that Almighty God Henry landed at the Crook, near Waterford, with 500 knights and hath not yet appointed the time of her reformation, or that hee 4,000 men-at-arms. Some show of resistance was made in one reserveth her in this unquiet state still for some secret scourge, or two places, but it was feeble and useless against the numbers which shall by her come unto England, it is hard to be knoune, and discipline of the English troops. Prince after prince gave but yet much to be feared.” And thus Spenser answers his in his adhesion, swore fealty to Henry, and was admitted his own questions :

:-"Surely I suppose this but a vaine conceipt of liegeman, so that the English monarch's progress was one of simple men which judge things by their effects and not by their continued triamph; and when, on Christmas Day, he kept his causes : for I would rather thinke the cause of this evill, which court in Dublin, his table was filled with Irish chieftains who hangeth opon that countrey, to proceed rather of the unsoundhad hitherto maintained a perfectly real independence, only nes of the councels and plots, which you say have bin oftentimes doubtingly confessing the superiority of the titular Irish king. laid for the reformation, or of faintnes in following and effecting

Domestic quarrels, bitterly pursued, even in the invader's the same, than of any such fatall course appointed of God, as presence, still further weakened the Irish, who seemed to be you misdeem; but it is the manner of men, that when they are unaware of, or indifferent to, the danger which threatened them fallen into any absurdity, or their actions succeede not as they while they occupied themselves with their own broils. Even the would, they are always readie to impute the blame thereof unto veteran O'Rnarc, after some effort at resistance, succumbed to the heavens, so to excuse their oune follies and imperfections." Henry, and Roderic O'Connor himself was reduced to make terms. The "good plots and wise counsels" above referred to were

There can be little doubt that, if Henry had had time to either not appreciated by the Irish, or-and this is closer to

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truth-they were devised so much in the selfish interests of the PRINCIPAL OCCURRENCES IN THE CHAIN OF EVENTS THAT English and so little in the interests of the Irish, that the latter LED TO THE UNION OF SCOTLAND AND IRELAND WITH would have none of them, and, as has been said, they rose in ENGLAND. rebellion on every favourable occasion. Under Henry III.,

SCOTLAND.

IRELAND. under Elizabeth, under James I. and Charles I., their uprisings Contention of John Baliol Adrian IV. gives permission were general and most formidable, requiring the whole strength and Edward Bruce for the to Henry II. of England of England to crush them, though it did not at the same time

1291 to invade Ireland and hold crush the almost universal discontent. Not until Oliver Crom- Edward I., called in as um. it as a fief of the Church . 1156 well himself took the military command in Ireland could that

pire, decides the dispute Dermot MacMurchad, King country ever have been said to be thoroughly subdued; and the Balicl dethroned by Edward I. 1296

in favour of Baliol . 1292 of Leinster, takes refuge manner in which he behaved there, following out to the utter. Rising of the Scotch under

in England

1168

Landing of Fitz-Stephen to most the traditionary English policy, is remembered to this day Sir William Wallace.

assist Mac-Murehad 1169 with dread and a shudder, and the Irish peasant can wish no Wallace captured by treachery 1304 Landing of Strongbow 1170 worse curse to fall upon the head of an enemy than the “curse Executed at Smithfield, Henry II. lands near Water. of Crum'll.” He marched right through the country, conquering

Aug. 23, 1305 ford, and, receiving the all before him, scarcely forgiving those who did not resist him, Robert Brace crowned King submission of the Irish slaughtering without mercy all who dared to oppose his arms.

of Scotland

princes, becomes " Lord of Whole garrisons were put to the sword, and Ireland, blinded

Battle of Bannockburn,

Ireland"

Oct. 18, 1171 with the blood of her children, remained for a while at rest, Alliance between the Royal

June 25, 1314 English Laws, etc., intro

duced by King John 1910 unable to move, pressed down by the iron heel of the mighty

Families of England and Piers Gaveston, first Lord. warrior who had bound the Kings of England and Scotland Scotland by the marriage

Lieutenant of Ireland. with chains, and their nobles with links of iron. Then came of James IV.and Margaret, Richard II. in Ireland 1394 William III., pursuing into Ireland his father-in-law, outcast danghter of Henry VII. Apparel and Surnames Act. 1465 from England, and the land groaned again under the tramp of

Aug. 8, 1503 Poynings Law passed. armed men and the roar of cannon; but the battle was the Battle of Flodden Field and Rebellion of the Fitzgeralds 1534 battle of English against English, though on Irish ground, and

death of James IV. Sep. 9, 1513 Henry VIII assumes the title

of " King of Ireland”. . 1542 brought no good to the country in which it was fought. The Birth of James VI., the great

1001-2 cause of William once triumphant, the old policy of repression Accession of James VI. to the

grandson of James IV. 1566 Insurrection of Tyrone

Settlement of Ulster in the was adopted towards Ireland, and religious heats which had

English throne under the reign of James I. . , 1609-19 already been thrown out to a large extent, and which had title of James I. Mar. 24, 1603 Massacre of the Protestants severely embittered the relations between Protestants and Scotland declared in Union in Ulster

1641 Roman Catholics, grew fiercer, and rendered the struggle more with the English Common- Cromwell enforceg obedience and more desperate.

wealth by Cromwell 1651 throughout Ireland .

1649-56 Not until after the lamentable rebellion which took place in Legislative Union of England William III. in Ireland .. 1798, and which was assisted by the French, then struggling

and Scotland as the King.

1798

Great Irish Rebellion.

dom of Great Britain by any means to inflict mortal injuries upon Great Britain,

Legislative Union of Great

May 1, 1707 Britain and Ireland Jan. 1, 1801 did English statesmen see the propriety and the wisdom of doing "justice to Ireland.” The immediate political result of this rebellion, which was not put down without much bloodshed both READING AND ELOCUTION.–XVII. on the field and on the scaffold, was the union of Ireland with

ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE (continued). the sister kingdom, and this act was consummated, under the

X, EXPRESSIVE TONES. auspices of Mr. Pitt, on the 1st of January, 1801. Before that date Ireland had borne to England the same sort of relation The word "tone,” in elocution, may be used, as in music, to that Hungary till lately bore to Austria ; she was a separate signify the interval which exists in successive sounds of the kingdom, though acknowledging the same king, had a separate voice, as they occur in the gamut, or musical scale. But it is Parliament of two Houses, and was, as far as her own internal commonly used as equivalent, nearly, to the term “ expression" affairs went, distinct from Great Britain. But it was found that in music, by which is meant the mode of voice as adapted, or the Parliament was steeped in corruption to the lips, that selfish not adapted, to feeling. Thus we speak of the stones” of interests selfishly advocated were alone represented in it, and passion--of a "false" tone-of a “school” tone. that the few brilliant statesmen properly so called, whose voices

Every tone of the voice implies-1, a certain "force," or from time to time were heard in it, were borne down by the

“quantity,” of sound; 2, a particular “note," or "pitch;" 3, dead weight of those who saw no use in legislating for the real a given time,” or “movement;" 4, a peculiar stress;" 5, good of the people.

a special " quality," or character ; 6, a predominating “ infleoMr. Pitt, therefore , in view of this state of things, and recoge low pitch," " very slow movement," ** medial stress," and

tion.” Thus, the tone of awe has “a very soft force,” a “ very nising that the Irish people had many veritable grievances to be redressed, determined to bring about a union between the

"poctoral quality,” or that deep murmuring resonance which countries. In the face of much opposition, and under circum- makes the voice seem, as it were, partially muffled in the chest

, stances of much public danger, he carried his point, and in together with a partial “ monotone,” prevailing at the opening January, 1801, the Irish Parliament, by its own consent, ceased of every clause and every sentence. All these properties belong to exist. Since that time Irish interests have been represented to the natural utterance of awe; take away any one, and the effect by 105 members sitting in the imperial House of Commons of emotion is lost—the expression sounds deficient to the ear. at Westminster, and the peerage of Ireland by 32 representative [xx]* Example 1. The bell | strikes | one. peers, including four ecclesiastics, in the House of Lords. Since [oo] no note of time, that time also Irish interests have been more conscientiously

[=] But from its loss : to give it, thân, a tongue, considered than before, and legislation, of which the distinct

[m.s.) Is wise | in man. As if an ångel I spoke 1

p.q.] I fệel the sõlemn sound. If héard aright, object was to do justice to Ireland as an integral part of the

It is the kněll of my depărted hours. empire, has gone forward with a quick hand. Much remains to

Where are they p-With the yēars beyond the flood. be done, much will be done, in spite of the mad attempts of a few political and military adventurers to paralyse the arm of the enumerated, are the ground of the following classification and

The first five of the properties of voice which have been Government; and there is no reason whatever why, in the face

notation : of equal laws faithfully administered, the kingdom of Ireland

EXPRESSIVE TONE." should not be as really and intimately united to the sister king.

“ Porce." dom of England, as Scotland or Wales; why the memory of old wrongs and old quarrels should not be buried for ever, or why

[I] “loud;" [ll]"very loud;" [x] "soft;" [xx] "very soft;" the three countries should not be as inseparable as the leaves

[<] "increase;" [>] "decrease." on the shamrock, the three-in-one plant, by which St. Patrick is said to have made plain to the Irish the mystery of the unity “very slow;" [m.s.)“ medial stress;" [p.9.] “ pectoral quality."

These marks indicato [xx] "very soft;" [oo] "very low;" [=] of the Blessed Trinity.

Key to the Notation of " Expressive Tone."

We take

KEY TO THE NOTATION OF

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"*

Pitch.”

For HE'AVEN's sake, Hubert ! let me not be BO'UND! [9] "high ;" [0] "very high ;" [o] "low;" [oo] “very low.”

Nay, HE'AR me, Hubert! drive these mén away, Key.”

And I will sit as quiet as a LA‘MB;

I will not stir, nor wi'NCE, nor speak a wo'rd, O] "lively”—(full tone); 6] "plaintive”—(semitone).

Nor LO'OK | upon the irons | ángerly; “ Time.”

Thrust but these mén away, and I'll FORGI'VE you, [.]“ quick;" [..]“ very quick;" [-] "slow;" [=] "very Whatèver torments you do put me to. slow.” Stress."

Terror. [r. s.] “ radical stress ;" [m.s.] “ medial stress;" [v. s.]

AWARE! AWAKE!"vanishing stress ;" [c.s.] "compound stress ;” (th.s.] "thorough

RING the ALARUY BELL: MURDER! and TREASON! stress;" [s. s.] “suppressed stress ;" [tr.] “tremor;" [ef.s.]

BA'QUO, and DONALBA'IN! MA'LCOLM ! AWAKE! effusive stress ;” [expul. s.] "expulsive stress ;" [explo. s.]

Shake off this downy slèop, death's counterfeit,

And look on death itself!-Up! Up! and see " explosive stress."

The great po'om's image ! -MA'LCOLM! BA'NQUO!
Quality.+

As from your GRAVES rise up, and walk like sprites, [h.q.] "harsh quality;" [sm. 9.] "smooth quality ;" [a.q.]

To countenance this horror! " aspirated quality;" [pu. t.] "pure tone ;” (p. 9.] "pectoral

Rule 2.—Wonder and astonishment are expressed by “loud, quality;" [9.9.] "guttural quality;" [o.q.] " oral quality;" high, and slow utterance ;” “vanishing stress;" "aspirated” [oro. 9.] “orotund quality.”

and slightly “guttural” “ quality ;' and prolonged "downward " Combinations."

slide.” Astonishment exceeds wonder, in the degree of these [h. 9. 9.] “harsh guttural quality;" [sm. p.9.] "smooth pec- properties. toral quality,” etc.

Example of Wonder. The above Key, though at first sight intricate, will occasion

What is't ?-a spirit ? no serious difficulty to students who have read attentively the

Sèe! how it looks about ! Believe me, sir, Sections on “ Stress” and “Quality.” The notation will be

It carries a brave form!—but 't is a spirit !found of great service, not only by suggesting appropriate “er.

I might call him pression,” which a young reader might otherwise overlook, but

A thing divine ; for nothing natural by enabling the pupil to prepare for the exercise of reading or

I ever saw so noble ! declaiming, by previous study and practice.

Astonishment. It is a humiliating fact that, in many schools, the sublimest Alonzo. What harmony is this ?-my good friends, HA'RK! and most beautiful strains of poetry-take, for example, Milton's Gonzalo. Marvellous sweet music! invocation, “ Hail, holy Light!”—are, from the neglect of Alon. Give us kind kèepers, HEAVENS !-What were THESE ? "expressive tone,” called out in the same voice with which a Sebastian. A living dròllery! Now will I believe clerk repeats the number or the mark on a bale of goods, or

That there are unicorns : that, in Arabia, read with the "free and easy” modulation of a story told by

There is one trèe, the phænix' throne; one phenix

At this hour ròigning there. the fireside; or, perhaps, with the pompous mouthing of the

Antonio.

I'll believe both; juvenile hero of a “spouting club," with the languishing tone

And what does else want credit, come to me, of a sick person, or with the suppressed, half-whispering utter

And I'll be sworn 't is TRU'E. ance of a conscious culprit.

Note.Amarement, when it does not go to the utmost The notation of “expression” has been adopted with a view extreme, has a louder, but lower and slower utterance, than to the early formation of correct habit.

astonishment; the other properties of voice are of the same RULES ON EXPRESSIVE TONE.

description as those expressed in astonishment, but increased in Rule 1.–The tones of anger, vexation, alarm, fear, and terror, degree. have an utterance "extremely loud, high, and quick," "abrupt,"

Amazement. and "explosive,”-or sometimes marked by "expulsive" and Gonzalo. l' the name of something hòly, sir, why stand you by “vanishing” stress, -an “aspirated,” “ harsh,” and “gut- In this strange stàre ? tural" voice, and are characterised throughout by the “falling [o] Alonzo. Oh! it is MÒN STROUS ! MÒNSTROUS ! inflection."

Methought, the billous spoke, and told me of it;
Example of Anger.

The winds did sing it to me; and the THU'NDER,

That deep and dreadful organ-pipe, pronounced He hath disgraced me, and hindered me of half a million ; laughed at

The name of PRÒSPER; it did bàss my trèspass ! my losses, mocked at my gàins, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine ènemies : and what's his reason ? I AM Á

Rule 3.-Horror and extreme amazement have a "softened " Ji'w, Hath not a Jew eyes, bath not a Jew hands, órgans, dimensions,

force," an extremely "low" note, and "slow" movement, a sérises, affections, passions ? fed with the same food, hurt with the same “suppressed stress," a deep" aspirated pectoral quality," and tréapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same méans, warmed a prevailing “ monotone.” and cooled by the same winter and summer as a CHRISTIAN is ?

Example of Horror.
Vexation.

Now, o'er one half the world
Sdy you so ! Sa'y you so ?-I say unto you again, you are a shallow, Nāture sēems dèad; and wicked drēams abūse
córardly hind, and you li'e. Our plot is a good plot as ever was làid; The cūrtained sleeper; witchcraft cēlebrates
our friends true and co‘NSTANT; a go‘OD PLOT, good friends, and full of Pāle Hécate's offerings; and withered murder,
expectation : an EXCELLENT plot, very good friends. What a FRO'STY. Alārumed by his sēntinel, the wölf,
SPIRITED rogue is this !- An I were now by this rascal, I could brain Whose howl's his watch, thûs with his stēalthy páce,
him with his LADY'S FA'n.-Oh! I could DIVIDE myself, and go to With Tārquin's rāvishing strides, towards his design
BO'FFETS, for moving such a disk of SKIMMED MI'LK with so honourable

Mõves like a ghòst.-[..] Thou sūre and firm-set earth an action !

Héar not my stēps which way they walk, for fear
Alarm.

The vēry stones prāte of my whëreabouts,
Strike on the tinder, Hoʻ!

And take the present horror from the time,
Give me a TA'PER ; cut up all my PEOPLE!

Which now suits with it.
Get more tapers ;

Extreme Amazement.
Raise all my KI'NDRED !-

Oh ! answer me:
Call up my BROTHER!-

Let me not bùrst in ignorance ! but tell
Some | O'NE way, some ANOTHER !

Why thy canonized bönes, hēarsed in death,
Get WE'APONS, Ho'!

Have būrst their cèrements! why the sēpulchre,
And raise some special officers of night!

Wherein we saw thee quietly inūrned,
Fear.

Hath õped his ponderous and marble jāws,
Oh I save me, Hubert, SA'VE me: my eyes are oʻUT,

To cast thee up again! [co] Whát máy this mēan, Even with the fierce Loʻoks of these bloody men !

That thou, dead corse, agāin, in complete steel Alds ! what need you be so boisterous rough?

Revisit'st thus the glimpses of the moon, I will not struggle,– I will STAND | STO'NE | STI'LL.

Māking night hideous; and we fools of nature,

So horribly to shake our disposition, See Section IX, “Stress." + See Section I., “Quality."

With thoughts beyond the rēaches of our souls ?

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