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LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-V. The four most elevated aro executed in a superior style, and

apparently co-eval with Persepolis, and belonging to the early ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE OF PERSIA-GREEK ARCHITECTURE — kings of Persia. The lower tombs appear to belong to the THE PARTHENON-DORIC ORDER OF ARCHITECTURE.

period of the Sassanian dynasty, and therefore to a considerably SIMILAR to the excavated temples of India, are the excavated later period. The description of these remarkable tombs will tombs of Persepolis and Nakshi-Roustam. At the foot of the remind us of the "new tomb” of Joseph of Arimathea, "which rock of Istakhr, thirty miles south of Shiraz, stand the ruins of he had hewn out in the rock," and of the "great stone" which Persepolis, once the capital of the ancient and powerful Persian was rolled to “the door of the sepulchre, wherein was never empire. The platform, which first strikes the eye of the man yet laid," till the “King of kings" himself became the traveller, appears to have been surrounded by a triple wall : I tenant of its walls. It explains also the meaning of the passage of the first two, as described by an.

" she stooped down and looked into cient historians, no trace now re

the sepulchre,” which is so inaccumains; but the third, which still

rately translated in our version, and exists, is a square cut in the moun.

which ought to be simply "she peeped tain, and is 60 cubits high. It is

into the sepulchre.”

is defended by palisades of copper, with

the exact translation of parakupto, doors of the same, 20 cubits high.

and, according to Johnson, signifies The first wall was to inspire awe, the

“ to look closely or curiously, to look second was for strength, and the

through any crevice;” the darkness third for the defence of the palace.

of the interior of the tomb requiring To the east of this, at the distance of

a close and narrow look, to ascertain 400 feet, is the royal mountain con

if its tenant, the “ King of Glory,” taining the tombs of the kings. Here

were there. the rock is hollowed out into several

After this short digression, we prochambers, to gain the entrance to

ceed to remark that the latest monu. which the coffins are hoisted up by machinery; no other way of ascend. REMAINS OF THE PARTHENON AT ATHENS.

ments discovered at Khorsabad, near

Nineveh, having exhibited no examing them exists. This sacred en

ple of a column or even of isolated closure, connected with the platform below, comes within the pillars, no comparison can be instituted between the column bounds of what may be called the castellated palace. The constructed by the Assyrians, if they did erect any, and those illustration below is a sketch of one of the tombs in the Shah of the other people of Asia. The nations we have named in Kuh or Royal Mountain.

our preceding observations were in the height of civilisation, On the ground above appear several mounds and rocky heaps, while the Grecian arts were in their cradle ; and it is difficult presenting the appearance of three distinct lines of walls and to admit that the Greeks had not learned their first lessons in towns. The steep faces of this rocky palace are formed of architecture by the study of the Asiatic or African orders dark-grey marble, cut into gigantic square blocks, exquisitely which we have described. In fact, the most ancient type of polished, and, without the aid of mortar, fitted to each other the Greek orders, the Doric, particularly at its commencement, with such closeness and precision, that the whole platform is nearly the same as that exhibited in the tombs of the must have appeared as part of the

Heptanomis, and which Champollion rock itself. On the interior faces of

called Proto-Dorio or primitive Dorio. the walls of the platform within the

The genius of Greece developed this portal, are sculptured two colossal

first idea, enriched it with details balls, symbolical of power, and suita

which the Egyptians had neglected, bly placed at the gate of the palace

and formed out of it the first basis of the great king. South of the

of its national architecture. The portal appears the magnificent ter

principal character of the Greek Dorio race which supports the Hall of

is the nobleness and dignity of the Columns. This series of columns is

whole order, the severe simplicity of called Chel Minar, or palace of forty

its details, and the moderation of its columns, and is approached by a

ornaments. The columns have no fight of steps remarkable for their

base; the shaft is ornamented by wide grandeur and the beauty of their de.

and shallow flutings; the capital is coration. But tho columns them

composed of a large moulding in the selves are the most surprising in

form of a cup or flat vase, which rests these respects; they are each 60 feet

upon two or three little fillets, and is high, the circumference of the shaft

surmounted by a square tablet. The being 16 feet, and the distance from

triglyphs, the fluted ornaments at the the capital at the top of the shaft to

extremity of the architraves, which the bottom 44 feet. The shaft is

are seen in the frieze and entablature, finely fluted in 32 divisions ; at its

belong exclusively to this order; the lower extremity begin a cincture and

square spaces or metopes between the a torus—the first two inches deep,

triglyphs are frequently occupied and the latter one foot-whence de


with sculptures of isolated subjects ; volves the pedestal in the form of the

but the polished frieze, and consecap and leaves of a lotus or lily. This

quently the continued subject, are in rests on a plinth of eight inches, and in circumference 24 feet 6 this order very rare. Still this order does not exclude all decoinches, the whole from the cincture to the plinth being 5 feet 10 ration; and in buildings of a common charaoter it loses its inches in height. The capitals which remain, though much injured, heaviness, and becomes very elegant; the mouldings then beare sufficient to show that they were surmounted by the demi-bull. come finer, and some are decorated with various ornaments. The heads of the bulls forming the capitals look to the various An example of the Doric column is given in the next page. fronts of the terrace. But it is impossible in our limited space According to Vitruvius, it was in the temple of Juno, at to indulge in the details of these extraordinary ruins; we can Argos, where the Doric order of architecture first rose to a only refer our readers to the works which contain fuller descrip- marked eminence, and became the model for the magnificent tions of them, as those of Le Bruyn, Sir William Ouseley, Sir edifices afterwards erected throughout Greece. It was next Robert Ker Porter, and others. A few miles distant from Perse- employed in the temple of Jupiter Nemeus, at Nemea, between polis stands the excavated hill of Nakshi-Roustam. It is about Argos and Corinth ; of Jupiter Olympius, at Olympia, in Elis, 1,200 feet high, and presents a precipitous face of whitish marble, in a splendid triple portico in the city of Elis; and in three nearly the whole of which is covered with sculptured tombs. temples of the same city-namely, those of Juno, Minerva, and VOL. u.


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Dindymeno στ Cybele; at Eleusis, in the great temple το Ceres '9. Η τυχη πολλακις μεταβολας εχει. 10. Την πενιαν φερετε. in the temple of Minerva at dumus: and in the temple of the 11. Ai nautpai tuxai padiwS TITTOVÕIV. 12. Φερε τας τυχας. 13. suine goddess at Athens, cailed the Parthenon ; in the entrance Hapety, OUK ELKELTAIS TUXGUS. 14. Atexeo de twv xaletav pepes to the Acropolis, and other publie imidings of great magai. vv. 15. Η βασιλεια λαμπραν βασιλειαν εχει. 16. Η στολη εστι tude and splendour st Athens in many of the islands of kal. 17. Kalas otolas exouer. Greece and Magna Grzels, shez rere siso temples of the Dorie


ENGLISH-GREEK. style of architecture, as nat si apoio, in Deios; of Jano, in Samos; of Jupiter Panhailemas, of Egns, and of Silenus, in

1. Flee cares. 2. Baseness begets dishonour. 3. Virtue shcziy; and many others • pisces of inferior note. Many of follows fame. 4. They bear poverty easily. 5. Poverty is these tempies were a great sagnitude. They were aniversally borne easily. 6. You bear poverty easily. 7. Thou hast changes.

Ji as oblong form. La some the porticoes 8. Abstain from baseness. 9. They have a beautiful robe. 10. vere only at the end, in others they were Do not yield to fortune. 11. They yield to fortune readily

. extended sgiat pound the interior of the 12. Do ye restrain (hold back) the tongue (that is, in English

building, some in single, and others in your tongue). 13. Wrong judgments are made right.
double ranges. Some were covered with Having in the previous lesson treated of feminine poans of
roofs, others were left partly uncovered, the first declension, I now pass on to
and some were divided by ranges of pillars

along the middle of the interior. The super-
structure was placed upon a platform com.

posed of three steps, which surrounded the

A citizen. Mercury.

A youth. whole building, and upon which the columns Sing. Nom. πολίτης. . 'Epuñis (eas). νεάνιας. . were all placed without bases. The num.

Gen. πολίτου. . 'Epuoü.

νεάνιου. . ber of columns were either six along the

Dat. πολίτη. . 'Epun.

νεάνια. . ends, and thirteen along the sides, or eight

Aco. πολίτην. . 'Epuñv.

νεανιά. . along the ends, and seventeen along the

Voc. πολίτα, . Ερμή.

νεάνια. . sides. When built upon so large a scale, Plur. Nom. πολίται. . 'Epuai. νεάνιαι. . with the ranges of columns so distinctly

πολίτων. . Ερμών. νεάνιων. . isolated, the essential parts of the Doric

Dat. πολίταις. .


νεάνιαις. . order produced effects not surpassed for

Acc. πολιτάς. . 'Epuas.

νεάνιας. . simplicity and majesty; and even the im.

Voc. πολίται. . 'Epuai.

νεάνιαι. . perfect remains which have escaped the

Dual. N.A.V. πολιτά. ravages of time and barbarity appear to


νεάνια. .

G.D. have far exceeded the expectations of con

πολίταιν. . 'Epuaiv. νεώνιαιν. noisseurs. In the earlier examples of this The vocative of such nouns as have ns in the nominative order the diameters of the Doric columns singular ends in a in the following cases, namelywere very considerable in proportion to 1. In all nouns in ons, as TogoTns, an archer, vocative Togota; their height. For instance, the column po nins, a foreteller, a prophet, vocative #poonta.

of the temple of Silenus, in Sicily, was 2. In all substantives in ns compounded of a substantive and Rotul COLUMN only fivo diameters in height, but in the a verb, as Yewuetas, a land-measurer, a geometrician, vocative

courwo of time these relative dimensions | γεωμετρα και μυροπωλης, α perfumer, μυροπωλα. Wer ohanged, and a proportion more adapted to the pro- 3. In names of nations in ns, as lepons, a Persian, Nepra. duolion of delicato offoot was introduced. The Doric style of Several nouns in as have the genitive that is customary in widutsoture was, with very fow exceptions, the only one em- the Doric dialect, * ending in ā, e.g., Fatpalosās, -ă, the slayer of alebord

in (recce or it. Europonn colonies in Sicily, and Italy; a father; morcadonas -a, the slayer of a mother; opeo de ad ni Ania Minor, until after the period of the Macedonian (also ou), a bird-catcher ; also several proper names, as Zundas, -a, 4yuoali

lu Asia Minor, and particularly in Ionia, there Sylla; finally, contracted nouns in ås, as Boppas (from Bopeas), powlily wrowe, wubuoquent to that period, an order of architec- genitive Bopša, the north wind.

But our notice of this order Que me elegant than the Dorio,

According to these models decline adjectives of one termi1401 Ilorin the subjool of our next lesson.

nation, in 17 and as-e..., ededovans Tolirns, a willing citizen; μονιας νεανιας, α lonely youth.

A masculine noun and adjective of the first declension are LICNNONS IN GREEK.-V.

inflected thus :NOUNN OF TIDIG FIRST DECLENSION (continued).

D€Lovrns apotns, a willing ploughman.

Sing. Nom. Imantha Imarmor may have sufficiont practice in declining feni.

εθελοντης αροτης, 8 willing ploughman.

Gen. εθελοντου αροτου, of a willing ploughman. How the Griloclonalon, he should write out the nouns

Dat. 0ovtņ apotn, to or by a willing ploughman. Iwobiven to the following vocabulary according to the

Aco. εθελοντην αρoτην, a willing ploughman. Hoghen in the luat lennon (pages 98, 99).

Voc. ededorta apota, 0 willing ploughman.

Plur. Nom.

εθελονται αροται, willing ploughmen. Ayumi w Alura, me, 1, man. | Daumpa,

Gen. mer of life (Eng. splendid.

DMovtWv apotwy, of willing ploughmen.

Μεταβολη, -ης, ή,

Dedovtais apotais, to or by willing plonghmen.

Aco. εθελοντας αροτας, willing ploughmen.
Atay ng, h, glory.

Voc. εθελονται αροται, O willing ploughnen. Ο Μαι , , κυνομια, ας, ή, re- Πιπτω, I fall.

', easily. Dual. N.A.V. EDEROVTA apota, two willing ploughmen. waom.good, honest. Exodia,


G.D. εθελονταιν αροταιν, of two willing ploughmen. Wowo 1 make wrong.

In addition to the exercises given above, in declining adjectives wtraight, make Eroan, -ns, , a robe. of one termination in ns and as, the learner shonld write out at

Tuxn, -ns, ñ, fortune, length the nouns given in the following vocabularies.
der kan bestifal.

Kariyu, I hold Pepw (Lat. fero), I

The "Doric dinlect

was a form of the Greek tongue employed

by the Dorians. As Greece was divided into several small states, so GREEK-ENGLISH

there were several dialects, such as the Doric, the Ionic, the Attic

These dialects must be distinguished from our provincialisms, for they 4, Ραδιως φερε την πενιαν.


were in their own locality severally classical. The Attic, however, is the Yul. 4. 'H apetn eoBAmy Dotar generally recognised form of the Greek tongue in its highest perfection ; mus. e. Aiken din TIKTEL KAI and the writings of Xenophon (Attic) are accounted the model for pros? wy. 8. Kotexe TNV YAwttav. in Greek, as Cicero's writings are held to be the model for Latin prose.



τη λυρα. .

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EXERCISE 4.-ENGLISH-GREEK. Αδολεσχης, -ου, δ, ε Θαλαττα, ης, ή, the | Ορεγομαι, I roach 1. Απεχου της βιας. 2. Απεχεται της βιας. 3. Ουκ απεχεται της βιας. 4. chatterer.

towards, strive | Απεχονται της βιας. 5. Φευγε την αδικίαν. 6. Φευγετε την αδικιαν. 7. Φευγω Ακουα (with Gen. | Θεάτης, -ου, o, a after (with Gen.). την αδικίαν ώς μανιαν. 8. Η βια λυπην επαγει. 9. Δια δικης γιγνεται ηδονη.

spectator or Acc.), I hear. (Eng. Πρεπει, it becomes, | 10. Αληθιναι φιλιαι δια αρέτης γιγνονται. 11. Η καρδια πενια τειρεται.

12. theatre). Ακροάτης, -ου, 6, 8

it is proper.

Αι μεριμναι

λνονται hearer. Mavdavw, I learn.

Mpoonker, it is suitBlattu, I injure. Medet (with Gen. of able.


the thing, and sopia, -as, n, wisdom. a master (Eng. Dat. of the per- Etaptiātns, -ov, d,


son), it concerns ; a Spartan. No character has in it any moral worth or beauty unless there Ευκοσμια, ας, ή, de- Medel Mol, I have {ußapirns, -ov, d, a be in its outworkings a manifest consideration for others. We corum, politeness. to do with.


live in a world where we are mutually interested and dependent, 'Houxia, -as, , tran- Nautns, ov, d, a Texmn, -ns, , art. and no man can live to himself alone without damaging his quillity; ησυχιαν sailor.

Τρυφητης, -ου, ο, και own interests quite as much as he damages the interests of ayelv, to be quiet.

voluptuary. others. Those words in the English language which speak of

the highest happiness—such as transport and ecstacy-come, EXERCISE 7.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

the one from a Latin compound, and the other from a Greek 1. Μανθανε, ω νεανια, την σοφιαν. 2. Πολιτη πρεπει ευκοσμια. word which mean to be lifted out of ourselves. And, most cer3. Την νεανιου αδολεσχιαν ψεγομεν. 4. Φευγε, ω πολίτα, την tainly, any acquaintance with human life shows us that the αβικιαν. 5. Την ορνιθοθηρα τεχνην θαυμαζομεν. 6. Ακροαταις και

selfish are seldom happy, and that the considerate and unselfish θεαταις προσηκει ησυχιαν αγειν. 7. Φευγετε, ω ναυται, βορραν. | are commonly so. 8. Βορίας ναυτας πολλακις βλαπτει. 9. Ορεγεσθε, ω πολίται, της Selfishness is an evil to be especially guarded against, inasαρετης. 10. Συβαρίται τρυφηται ησαν. 11. Nautais jedel mos much as its growth is so rapidly developed. The I and the Me, θαλαττης. . 12. Φευγε, ω Περσα. 13. Σπαρτιαται καλην δοξαν and the My and the Mine, so often heard in conversation, έχoυσιν. . 14. Φευγω νεανιαν τρυφητην. . 15. Twv adoneo yw bespeak very often an undue concern about self which has been απεχου. 16. Ακουε, ω δεσποτα.

the slow development of a long course of time: while, on the EXERCISE 8.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

other hand, it is equally certain that an unselfish disposition is 1. Flee, O Persians. 2. Wisdom becomes citizens. 3. It

the result of much culture and care, and becomes habitual only

through continuous exercises in the school of self-denial. concerns a citizen to be quiet. 4. O youths, learn wisdom. 5. They learn wisdom. 6. You learn wisdom. 7. I learn wisdom. It is the subordination, not the extinction, of natural inclina

What, then, it may be asked, is in the main unselfishness? 8. Wisdom is learned. 9. Decorum becomes a youth. 10. Otions for the good of others. Self-denial at some times, and north wind, injure not the sailor. 11. O sailor, avoid (peurw) self-abnegation at others, is necessary for that consideration for the north wind. 12. The north wind is avoided. 13. O Spartan, another's weal which constitutes an unselfish person. When strive after glory. 14. Chatterers, be quiet. 15. Abstain from Sir Philip Sidney, on the battle-field of Zutphen, was borne a chatterer.

away dying from the conflict, he had just placed a cup of VOCABULARY.

cold water to his lips, when there was carried past him a Alkalogůvn, -ns, , KETTNS, -ov, d, a OLKETIS, .ou, d, a wounded soldier, who looked with longing eyes on the draught of justice. thief.


the more favoured Sidney. He withdrew his lips, and instead Επιμελομαι (with Kp.tns, -ov, d, a Etpatiwns, -ou, d, of drinking himself, gave the cup to the poor maimed soldier, Gen.), I care for judge.

a soldier.

with the simple utterance, " Thy necessity is yet greater than Eparts, -ov, d, a Maxouai, I fight. Texviņs, -ov, d, an mine.” That was an illustrious instance of unselfishness, and lover, a friend. Ναυαγια, ας, ή, ship- artist.

does honour to his character in the sphere of heroic deeds more Esti (with Gen.), it wreck (literally Tpeow, I nourish, than the most brilliant passage of arms. is the duty of. ship-break).

bring up.

But it may be asked, does not unselfishness clash with that Θαυμαστη, admirable

VevotnS, -ov, d, a liar. proper self-love which is essential to the growth and development EXERCISE 9.-GREER-ENGLISH.

of civilisation ? To which query it may be replied, that unselfish

consideration for others is quite consistent with the honour and 1. Η Σπαρτιατων αρετη θαυμαστη ην. 2. Φευγε, ω νεανια. 3.

advancement of ourselves; as the higher and wider the sphere Φευγετε, ω ερασται. 4. Οι κλεπται φευγονται. 5. Κριταις πρεπει of our life, the more opportunities are afforded for the generous δικαιοσυνη. 6. Εστι των στρατιωτων περι των πολιτων μαχεσθαι. | exercises of an unselish spirit. 7. Φευγε ψευστας. 8. Εστι δεσποτου επιμελεσθαι των οικετων.

Unselfishness is the secret of much real happiness. The selfish 3. Μη πιστευε ψευστη. 10. Τεχνίτην τρεφει η τεχνη. 11. Εκ

are often morbid and miserable concerning their own health or ψευστων γιγνονται κλεπται. 12. Σπαρτιαται δοξης και τιμης fortune, and become s0 susceptible about every insidious attack ερασται ησαν. . 13. Ex Boppa mollaris regvetai vavajia. 14. of disease, lest it should enter the fortress of their nature, that Θαυμαζομεν την Ερμου τεχνην.

by their very intensity of anxiety, unconsciously to themselves, EXERCISE 10.--ENGLISH-GREEK.

they do their best to let the enemy in; with others there is often 1. The lovers of glory flee not. 2. Liars are not lovers of life becomes a feverish state of hope and fear. The unselfish, in

so much susceptibility to praise or blame, honour or insult, that virtae. 3. The virtue of the Spartan was admirable. 4. O Spartans, believe not liars. 5. The art of (Mercury) Hermes their thoughts driven from their own anxieties and their own

thinking about others as well as themselves, necessarily have was admirable. 6. We admire the virtue of the Spartans. 7. ailments, and so, becoming interested in the common weal, are o Spartan, avoid a liar. 8. It is the duty of a master to care less particular and sensitive concerning matters which affect for his servant. 9. It is the duty of servants to care for masters.

themselves alone. 10. The arts nourish the artists. 11. It becomes the soldiers

Unselfishness is also the secret of true esteem and respect so to fight for the citizens. 12. Be quiet, O north wind. 13. I precious to most men. We ought not, indeed, to let that operate admire Mercury.

as a motive power, or selfishness would be actually present in the

latent desire to gain the honour of men; but we cannot exclude KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-IV.

from our considerations the fact that rewards of the highest kind EXERCISE 3.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

do fall upon the hearts of the unselfish, not only in the joys of 1. Yield not to force. 2. The lyre dissipates cares. 3. Friendship doing good, but in the love and veneration of mankind. promises refuge and aid. 4. Care corrodes the heart, 5. Worship

As unselfishness may very early form part of the training of (cultivate) the Muses. 6. Do not believe falso accusations. 7. Justice childhood, so selfishness, at an earlier period, perhaps, than often yields to injustice. 8. We are often worn down by hard (severe) most people think, begins to be germinant in the breast of the poverty. 9. Flee from (avoid) talkativeness. 10. Wickedness brings grief. 11, Luxury begets injustice and avarice. 12. Avoid luxury as young. The petulant moods of childhood ought not to be med a shame (or a bade). 13. True friendship arises through (from) virtue by the gratification of their wishes and desires, but in the in and intercourse.

stages of child experience they ought to learn the lesson of


up for the weal and pleasure of others. Thus will be avoided time, some iron-rust, which is the oxide of that metal, we shall many of those scenes of discord in after years which are the never be able to drive off the oxygen and leave the pure iron outgrowth of the gratification of every whim in childhood. behind ; but if we heat the oxides of gold, silver, platinum, or

Unselfishness is the very life of the marriage estate. Without mercury, the heat will be sufficient to overcome the affinity the existence of the spirit of self-sacrifice there will come con. which unites the gas and the metal—the former will escape and flicts of will, and many other elements of discord and division. the latter remain. We do not advise the student to attempt to If true happiness in every stage of lfe is dependent upon a collect oxygen by this means, for more heat is required than is consideration for others, it is pre-eminently so in that relation given by a spirit-lamp; but the experiment may be successfully in which through a long course of years there is a companionship in anxiety and duty, as well as in pleasure.

Nothing enfeebles the whole life so much as selfishness. The age of the decline of Rome was an era of the greatest personal gratification, and obliviousness of the wants and woes of others. Nothing braces the character so much as a spirit of self-surrender for the common good. This has been existent in the best days of all empires, and its presence or absence mark a rising or declining people.

One of the beautiful moral aspects of the family constitution is to be seen in the blessings which result from the care and training of children. It is, perhaps, one of the best antidotes to selfishness to have those we must by the very instincts of our nature love, dependent upon us for many years. Amongst the best cares for covetousness are the constant demands which a family makes upon the estate, as it hinders the growth of a too great self-care to have around and about us those whose sicknesses and necessities demand alike our sympathy and help.

Easy as it is to detect the presence of selfishness in others, it is most difficult to detect it in ourselves. Selfishness uses so many masks, and approaches the heart in so many insidious ways, that we sometimes think we are practising virtue when we are in reality only pleasing self. It becomes, therefore, the

Fig. 15. duty, as it is in reality the wisdom, of all men to crush the shown, as in Fig. 14. With the red oxide of mercury (H50) noxious weed of selfish inclination, and to cultivate with assi- in the test-tube put a piece of charcoal; the oxide will give duity and care the graces of a self-denying character.

off the oxygen, the charcoal will burn brightly, and globules of

mercury will be found at the bottom of the tube. Fig. 15 shows LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.–V.

convenient forms of clips for holding test-tubes; A can be made

by the student; s is an india-rubber strap; w, a piece of wood OXYGEN.

which serves the purpose of a hinge. SYMBOL..0 - Atomic Weight . 16 – DENSITY . . 16. 2. The more general way is by heating in a Florence flask potas. Thus, the most widely-spread, and the most important of all sium chlorato (KCIO). By adding one-third its weight of the the elements, was discovered independently by Priestley

and the black oxide of manganese (MnO,), the gas will come off at a lower Swedish chemist Scheele, in 1774.

temperature; the manganese itself undergoes no change, but It constitutes of the atmosphere, of the weight of water, acts by its presence : this phenomenon is called catalysis

. The and at least of the materials composing the solid crust of the red oxide of iron (Fe,0z), the black oxide of copper (Cu), or even earth. It is a tasteless, colourless, inodorous gas.

sand, has the same effect, though not in so eminent a degree.

The apparatus is arranged as in Fig. 16. The stand is conTO PREPARE OXYGEN.

venient, but superfluous, as the flask may be held by a clipper, or It cannot be got from the air very readily; for we are not a piece of paper, as the test-tube in Fig. 14. Instead of making acquainted with any re-agent which will absorb the nitrogen with which it is associated; yet there are substances which will com

bine with oxygen at cer-
tain temperatures, and
again give it off at other
temperatures. If, for
example, humid
be passed through a
porcelain tube containing
baryta (BaO), this oxide,
when heated to a low red.
heat, will become the per.
oxide (Ba0,)—that is, the
highest oxide not exhibit-
ing acid qualities ; when
strongly heated it gives
off the oxygen again,

Fig. 16.
and returns to its former
state (BaO).

bends in the glass tubing, it is as well to have a short piece of Melted silver has also small india-rubber tubing to join the tube from the cork and the

the property of absorb. delivery-tube, thus forming a flexible bend. A bowl is filled with Fig. 14.

ing oxygen from the air, water, and the jar into which the gas is to be received is laid down

which it gives off as it in it; when in this position it must be covered completely by the returns to the solid state. It need not be said that these water, and there must be left in it no air-bubbles.Now raise it methods of obtaining oxygen from the atmosphere are neither up, mouth downwards, but not out of the water, so that the jar easy nor inexpensive.

will be full of water so long as its month is below the surface. 1. The most simple of all methods of obtaining this gas Should there not be a bowl at hand deep enough to allow the would appear to be by heating the oxides of the noble metals. jar to be completely covered when

lying down, a shallow dish Snoho those which can be reduced from their oxides may be used. In this case the jar must

be filled with water until to any temperature, or for any length of it runs over the brim; then place over the mouth a piece of glass



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