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One hundred and forty-six prisoners, including one woman, were the plan originated by Mr. Pitt, of making the government of the thrust into a dungeon, “ the Black Hole," a place eighteen feet East India Company controllable by the homo government, was by fourteen, and having but two small windows, without water, carried into effect. Hyder Ali, the adventurer, who had risen by and so densely packed that the doors had to be pressed on the sheer force of will and unscrupulousness to the throne of Mysore, last to enter, and were shut by main force. Only twenty-three and who, nourishing a secret hatred towards the English, had survived the horrors of that night, and they were driven from nearly succeeded in expelling them from Madras, was compelled their factory, in which a garrison was placed, while the Nabob to make apparent submission, though he bequeathed his hatred marched back to Moorshedabad, his capital, flushed with his and his power to his son Tippoo, commonly called Tippoo Saib, victory, and pleased with the plunder he had won.
or Tippoo Sultan, whose restless hostility brought on the war As soon as the news reached Madras, Clive started, with 900 against him, and ended in his death at Seringapatam, his Europeans and 1,500 Sepoys,* to re-capture Fort William, and to capital, which was stormed by the British forces under General avenge the raid on it. The garrison filed at the mere sight of Harris and Colonel Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington. him; the English ilag was hoisted once more on the walls of Lord Cornwallis, who, in the short time he was Governorthe fort and the factory; and Surajah Dowlah, who with 40,000 General, added to the British dominions 24,000 square miles, men came down to give him battle, ended by granting the Eng. was succeeded by Sir John Shore (created Lord Teignmouth), lish full right to do as they liked at Calcutta, and entered into an whose policy was to play off one native prince against another
, offensive and defensive alliance with them.
and not to interfere in any of their quarrels—a policy which It were long to tell how Clive, finding Surajah Dowlah incom- was dictated by the East India Company at home, and was patible with the British rule, contrived his overthrow; how he backed by the Imperial Government. It was not, however, the defeated him with an incredibly small force of about 3,000 policy which suited the British interests in the East : in order Europeans and natives at the battle of Plassy (fought June 23, to maintain the Anglo-Saxon power, it behoved the Anglo-Saxon 1757); how Meer Jaffier, the Nabob's general, was placed on to take the lead: to do otherwise was to cause that power to the throne; and how the Nabob was taken and slain by his own retrograde. people. Nor will space permit us to trace out the course of Indian The policy, then, pursued by successive governors-general, politics, to show how-sometimes by fair means, often by foul from the time that Clive changed the holding of the British -the English managed to acquire territorial rights far beyond from a precarious into a territorial holding, has been a policy of the wildest dreams of the first settlers ; but it should be men annexation. Up to this policy the British have acted as rapidly tioned that the French power in India was crushed for ever on as their digestion has allowed, and the pursuance of it has added the 22nd of January, 1760, when at the battle of Wandewash, to the lustre of their military glory many a battle-gem. Not Count Lally Tollendal, the French commander who had been only in Mysore, but in Scinde, Oade, and the Punjab, have they sent out on the renewal of war between England and France, found “foemen worthy of their steel;" on Indian battle-fields was totally beaten by Colonel Eyre Coote, and driven to take some of their best warriors have been trained, and in Indian refuge in Pondicherry, which subsequently surrendered at dis- administration has been found an outlet for the energy and cretion, and Lally and 2,000 European troops became prisoners talents of some of their wisest sons. of war to the English.
Not unchequered, however, has the course of their rulo been. Through the instrumentality of Clive and his brave assistants, Secure from any real danger from foreign enemies since the final the British power in India was made dominant over that of all extinction of the French power, the British power has had to other European powers, and in Bengal at least, where their tool, face and countervail the exertions of the dispossessed princes to Meer Jaffier, was enthroned, they also had the dominion. But regain their thrones, and in 1857 to stand a shock which made troubles came thick and fast, through the mismanagement of it vibrate to its very roots. The great mutiny which sprang from the rulers who succeeded Clive, through the reckless cupidity of national and religious causes was, perhaps, the greatest and individual merchants, and through the restless enmity of the most terrible blow that ever fell upon English shoulders; the more active native princes.
| horrors of the outbreak and repression will still remain in the Clive was at home when the disorganised state into which memory for many a long day. But the mutiny ended with the affairs had got in India necessitated his re-employment. In British power more thoroughly riveted on India than ever it had spite of many enemies, his election was carried to the post of been before ; it revealed the sources of weakness both of the Governor of Bengal and Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, and natives and their rulers, and showed what was faulty and wrong in May, 1765, he landed at Calcutta, with full power to root out in the principles of the administration. Since the mutiny was the injurers of the government and to restore order. Promptly, quelled, sincere efforts have been made to remedy many nn. thoroughly he did so, and while he stayed the rapacity of the doubted wrongs which previously existed, and exertions are yet Company's servants on the one hand, he disarmed the ill-will of being made which it is hoped and intended will have the effect the Bengali princes, and obtained on terms for the English the of improving and raising the condition of the people. For, right of sole administration throughout the provincos of Bengal, morally speaking, there is no other reason for the existence of Orissa, and Bahar, the independent rights of the Great Mogul the British power in India than the reason that under it the having been bought off; and he placed the administration of native population is better off materially and morally than they the native affairs of the provinces on a firm and substantial would be under their own princes. Judging from these princes basis. Then ho applied himself to remedy evils which had not only by what we found them, but also by what we know of grown up in the civil and military services; stopped, for a time the Asiatic mind and character, we cannot escape the conclusion at least, the practice of receiving presents from native princes; that a selfish despotism, by which all general interests are made and deprived the army of certain pecuniary profits which it subservient to those of the sovereign, and which would never was deemed scandalous they should enjoy. He quelled quickly trouble itself about the real progress and advantage of the and firmly a mutiny among the officers which this latter step country, is all that could be hoped for from them. engendered, and in the course of a few months he had restored At one time it must be confessed that this description would order and strength in the governmental affairs of Bengal; but have applied equally to our own government in India, at the work, anxiety, and climate told upon him, and in January, 1767, time when men sought only how they might grow rich quickly
, he returned home to recruit his shattered health. He never omitting, while doing so, the weightier matters of the law, juswent back, but died by his own hand in 1774.
tice and mercy. Now, however, when the system of government After him came Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General by a trading company, directly interested in gain, has been of India, whose administration was marked by a great accession abolished, when the premiums on extortion and peculation in of power to the British, and by the overthrow of many native high places have been taken away, when the fountains of justice princes. The manner in which he ruled, and the unhesitating are purer and more accessible, and the character of the govern. use he made of his power, led to his impeachment before the ment has become paternal instead of commercial, we may not House of Lords in 1788. The trial lasted for seven years and unreasonably claim to hold the rule in India, governing it as we three months, but ended in his acquittal. Under him the three should any other trust committed to us by the Most High. presidencies of Madras, Bombay, and Bengal were united under The Queen's Government in India (the government was transone general government, of which the seat was at Calcutta, and ferred from the Company to the Crown in 1858) extends over
about 160,000,000 of people, and over an approximate area of Sepoy is a corruption of sipahi, the Indian word for soldier. 1,500,000 square miles of territory.
Among the most venerable and at the same time the most
objectionable of these appliances, are the cork-floats or buoys, SWIMMING.-I.
which may be seen in the shop of almost any cork-cutter. They SWIMMING may be ranked both as a pastime and as a purely usually consist of several circular pieces of cork, of various sizes, gymnastic exercise, but it has a still higher claim to be included fastened together by a strap or thong of leather, the larger in these papers. It is one of the most essential features in pieces in the centre, and the rest tapering off at top and bottom. physical education; and it should never be left to the choice of Two of these floats are used by each person, and are fastened youth to acquire the art, but its practice should be inculcated under the armpits, so that the chest rests upon them in swim. as an absolute duty, It is strange that this branch of bodily ming, and the head and shoulders are thus buoyed up in the training should have been hitherto so much neglected in this water. But the contrivance is an awkward and cumbersome country, even among the classes whose lives are passed chiefly one : it hampers the free movement of the arms, and, even if it on the waters. Lamentable accidents are frequently reported should lead to nothing worse, it causes the learner to contract a as the consequence of this neglect, such as that which oc
very clumsy and defective style of swimming. The floats, curred in 1865 at Erith, in which several boys belonging to however, are liable also to slip from their position, and in this the training ship Worcester, unable to swim, were drowned by case they become worse than useless. The novice in this case the upsetting of a boat. But a change is in progress, and at feels his legs thrown upward instead of his head, and, the some of our public schools the rule has been very properly proper movement of his arms being checked, his supposed means adopted, that no youth shall be allowed to practise rowing of safety become a source of positive danger. Some fatal acci. until he has been certificated as a swimmer.
dents have happened in this manner. The use of floats is, We would have all our readers cultivate this most useful art, therefore, gradually being discarded, as their evils become more not only for the benefit it may possibly be in delivering them at widely known. some time from danger, but also as at all times one of the most Better by far, and perhaps best of all such aids, is a modern healthy and invigorating physical pursuits. We shall give a contrivance made of the same material, and known as the cork few plain instructions, calculated to assist any youth in learning jacket. Stout strips of cork are attached together in such a to swim ; but we must advise him to have recourse at the out- fashion that they encircle the body completely round, and, being det, if he can, to the practical aid of some friend who has fastened by strings at top and bottom, leave the limbs comacquired the art. His example and occasional help may inspire paratively free, while the necessary buoyancy is obtained from the learner at once with confidence in the water, which is the the light armour in which the chest and back are thus encased. first thing to be acquired in swimming, and will make the rest This jacket was invented more particularly for the purpose of
saving life at sea, but its obvious utility has commended it to There is little difficulty, either in town or country, in obtain the use of persons learning to swim, and it is likely to meet with ing access to the water. We believe all our large towns are wider favour as its merits become more generally known. It now supplied with swimming baths, in which it is preferable was first brought before the public by that excellent society, the that the beginner should practise, rather than that he should Royal National Lifeboat Institution, through whose agency, we seek an open stream for the purpose. The baths are usually at- believe, it may be obtained, at the cost of a few shillings. tended by experienced persons, from whom lessons may be An ordinary life-belt, fastened round the waist, is sometimes obtained if desired, or whose help may be useful in an emer- used for the same purpose, and is far less objectionable than gency; and at such places the learner may also gain kindly the cork floats; but it must be obvious to our readers that hints and assistance from others who have recently experienced, even such appliances as the jacket and the life-preserver leave and are ready to sympathise with, his difficulties. But if the less freedom of action to the body than is the case when they beginner is the denizen of a rural locality which is destitute of are dispensed with, and consequently that the learner who such an advantage, he should exercise care in the selection of a desires to swim with grace and ease is placed at a disadvantage spot in which to practise. Let him, in the first place, choose a by their use. Moreover, when such help has been habitually stream the bottom of which slopes gradually from the bank, relied upon, it becomes a source of embarrassment to part with and ascertain its precise depth at various distances. Let him it suddenly; something has to be unlearned, and something be very careful to select a place which is free from weeds, either more to be learned-namely, the power of the body to float by attached to the bottom and scarcely seen from the bank, or its own natural buoyancy while the limbs maintain a proper floating freely on the surface. A clear stream, with a gravelly position. or sandy bottom, is by far the best. One with a muddy or In some swimming baths, where a teacher is present, use is rough and stony bottom should be avoided; and especially keep made of a leather belt fastened round the waist, and suspended clear of water the bed of which is full of deep and sudden holes. by a rope from a projecting arm of wood or iron. The belt is
Bathing on the sea-shore can only be practised with safety adjusted by the swimming master, who, when his pupil has when the beach is shelving, and its general features, as to free-entered the water, holds it by the hands while he guides and dom from rocks, etc., are well known. The novice should select regulates the movements of his pupil. If proper care were still weather only for the purpose, or the sudden coming in of exercised in the adjustment of such a rope, the learner who & wave may take him off his legs, and carry him helplessly out cannot command the aid of a teacher might adapt the con. to sea. A terrible calamity occurred very recently in this way, trivance to his own use, with a beneficial result. He might select seven youths out of eight who were bathing on the Hampshire a spot in some stream overhung by the strong branches of a tree, coast being swept away and drowned.
to which his suspending cord might be attached; and then, taking The best time for practising is in the morning, an hour or two care to adjust the belt securely round his waist at the proper after sunrise; but bathing or swimming on an empty stomach balance for the body, he might enter the water without fear, and is not advisable. A crust of bread, with the addition of a cup draw himself out of it at any moment, by grasping the rope of coffee if practicable, is all, however, that will be necessary. above his head. But we need hardly point out that every preBathing either shortly before or shortly after a full meal is caution should be taken by the solitary learner in availing injurions, but the latter especially so. Take a brisk walk before himself of this method, as he is placed in a position of danger if you enter the water, that the body may be in a glow when you any part of the apparatus should slip from its proper position, step in; then strip as quickly as possible, and take your plunge and especially if, through the strain produced by the movement while the blood is still coursing freely through the veins. When of the body, the belt should suddenly give way. you have learnt to swim, you will be able to enter by diving ; Confidence, founded on a right apprehension of the principles bat until you have, you must walk into the water, and in this involved in swimming, and self-command, or presence of mind latter case you should dip the upper part of the body in and out in the water, are the first essentials in learning the art. If the again, otherwise the blood will be driven too much to the head. learner could trust to theory only, confidence should come at
We must say a word as to the mechanical aids to Swimming, once, for he has only to be told that the specific gravity of the as the youth desirous of learning the art may, in the absence of body is less than that of water, and consequently that the all other help, think it necessary to have recourse to such body, if left to itself, with the limbs in a proper position, will assistance. Hardly any contrivance, however, yet devised is float of its own accord. Benjamin Franklin's method of demon. free from some objection; and we must not be understood as strating this
, by entering shallow water, and trying at once to recommending the resort to either, if it can be avoided. dive in the direction of the shore, requires more nerve and coolness on the part of the novice than many are in posses. | accompanying diagram (Fig. 3). The arms, gathered up at a, sion of. All who can satisfy themselves of the buoyancy with the hands together, are then thrust forward to b, and swept of the water without such a practical test, may be content round to c, when the elbows are bent inwards and the hands to attempt the simple motions of swimming, and leave diving come back together as before described. The movement of the of every kind until they have become somewhat used to the legs cannot be properly shown in the diagram, but will be at water. Supposing, then, that the learner is about to make once understood by a comparison of their position in Fig. 1
before the stroke, and that after they are fully thrown out, in Fig. 3.
In the stroke of the legs, you should press against the water with the soles of the feet, not with the toes only; and in that of the hands, you should not only thrust or sweep the water aside, but press it downward also. By these combined move. ments, the resistance afforded by the water is turned to account both in propelling the body and keeping it on the surface. You rise with a rebound from the downward motion, and you are made to shoot forward by the backward impulse of the
limbs. Fig. 1.-BEFORE THE STROKE.
The various movements thus described may be practised
before the learner attempts to enter the water. Ho may take his first effort, without either personal or mechanical assistance, a stool or form, and, lying across it on his stomach, may go he must carry out into practice what we have already remarked through the successive evolutions, so as to become familiar, to as to the selection of a spot characterised by a shelving a certain extent, with the nature of the stroke, and to learn to bottom, and having done this, walking into it until he is nearly time the action of his hands and legs. A little practice of this breast high, turn round towards the shore, and try to reach it by swimming. The head must be held up and thrown back. ward, the chin being kept well clear of the surface of the water; the chest must lean, as it were, upon the water, being well inflated with air before the stroke is taken ; and, while the chest is thrown well forward, the back should be hollowed, so that all the muscular power of the body may be exercised in the forward motion. These movements, the work of a second in exccution, are preliminary to the stroke itself, which is per. formed in the following manner :-Bring the hands together a few inches below the surface, and a little in advance of the chin, the elbows being bent below the stomach ; the fingers should be quite close together, and the palms slightly concave. Now extend the hands forward as far as possible, and, when the full distance is reached, separate them with the palms down. ward, and sweep the water backwards in a half circle. The elbows thus come back to the body, and the hands are brought quickly together as before, the edges only being presented to the water until the hands meet.
While these movements are being performed by the arms, the legs have their part to play as follows:-At the moment when the learner's arms are first thrown forward, as described, he will find his legs rising towards the surface; the knees should then be bent forwards, so that the legs may presently be thrown well out behind; the feet should be kept apart, and the toes turned out. When the hands have made their sweep, the legs are thrown downwards and sideways by a vigorous effort, the stroke of the legs thus alternating with that of the arms, and the
FIG. 3.—THE ACTION OF THE LIMBS. movement of both arms and legs being so timed that the legs are fully extended out behind at the moment when the arn.s are stretched straight forward. The movement of the legs is kind will be useful, by helping to give him the necessary selfperformed with more celerity than that of the arms, and you possession when he first trusts himself to the open stream. must time their action accordingly, remembering that, in pre- We shall follow this preliminary paper by a description of the
methods of floating, and of the principal modes of "fancy" swimming; and meanwhile append, for the reader's attentive comsideration, Dr. Arnott's reasons why people drown :-“1. From their believing that their constant exertions are necessary to prevent the body from sinking, and their hence assuming the positions of a swimmer with the face downwards, in which the whole head must be kept out of the water in order to enable him to breathe ; whereas, when lying on the back (i.e., in " floating "), the face only need be above the water. 2. From the groundless fear that water entering in at the ears mag drown AS if it entered the mouth or nose, and their employing exertions
to prevent this. 3. The keeping of the hands above water. 4. FIG. 2.-AFTER THE STROXE.
Neglecting to take the opportunity of the intervals of the
waves passing over the head, to renew the air in the chest by paring for each stroke, the legs and the arms are both drawn an inspiration. 5. Their not knowing the importance of keerback towards the body at the same instant.
ing the chest as full of air as possible, which has nearly the The illustrations given with the present paper will enable the same effect as tying a bladder filled with air round their necks learner to comprehend these instructions clearly. Fig. 1 shows would have.” To these we may add, that vague and unthe position of the swimmer in the water just before the stroke reasoning fear of the water which leads people to suppose is made, and Fig. 2 the attitude when the limbs are fully ex- that the body, in relation to it, is something like a lump ded, the arms being just about to make their sweep. The of lead, and must infallibly go down; whereas the contrary is
in of the stroke itself is shown as far as possible in the the case.
GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.-I. distances between objects, or parts of the same object; no heights
or depths are expressed on plans. Thus, when a house is being
built, before the walls are raised, and the foundations only are THERE are several very important remarks to be made before laid, we then recognise the plan of the house. A map is a plan, we enter upon the subject of Geometrical Perspective. In the say of a county; we can understand by it the relative positions first place, we must say a few words respecting the instruments of the towns and villages, their distances from one another, the and materials required for this branch of drawing. 1. A courses of the rivers, and the directions of the roads. If a card T square; 2. A parallel ruler, or set square and flat ruler ; 3. A be laid horizontally on a sheet of paper, and a pencil is drawn drawing-board ; 4. A sector; 5. A pair of compasses, with a about it close to the margin, we shall have a plan of the whole morable pencil-leg, and pen; 6. A ruling-pen ; 7. A protractor, extent of the card. If the card is placed perpendicularly to the for making and measuring angles ; 8. A plane scale-all fully sheet of paper, the plan would be only a line, because perpendiexplained in Lessons in Geometry, III. and IV., pages 95 and cular lines projected from every portion of the upright card 113, Vol
. I. It will also be indispensable that the student should would only produce a line. This will, perhaps, make it evident be well acquainted with the theory and practice of Plane Geometry: that all plans are merely the tracings of perpendicular lines it is the language of the science upon which depends the prac- from every part of the object upon a horizontal plane. tical working of all the problems that we shall have to propose 2. The Picture Plane is the surface of the picture upon which in the course of these lessons. In previous parts of the POPULAR the object is represented. In Fig. 1 it is shown by the letters EDUCATOR will be found all that is necessary for this purpose. fgih; in this case it is shown in position between the eye at E, Trusting, therefore, that these lessons have been carefully and and the object, a b c d. Fig. 1 will be further explained prediligently studied, we take it for granted that it will not be sently. When practically working out a problem, the lower
necessary for us to do more than refer the pupil to any particular | line, h i, is the only line drawn to represent the picture plane, problem in plane geometry which may be required in connection because this h i is the plan of the picture plane, the picture with our subject as we proceed. It is our intention, as far as plane being always considered in a perpendicular position. possible, to make a practical application of all that we shall 3. The Horizontal Line, or Line of Sight, represents the advance, knowing the valuable assistance Geometrical Per. height of the eye in the picture, and is marked in Fig. 1 and spective affords to those who are engaged in any constructive figures in future lessons, H L. art, as well as to draughtsmen in general. We hope, also, to 4. The Point of Sight is the point opposite the eye in the create an interest in this useful science amongst those who have picture, and consequently upon the line of sight. It is marked P S. a loving sympathy with art for its own sake, and who take a 5. The Station Point, marked s P, is the place where the specpleasure in all scientific inquiries, especially those which claim tator is supposed to stand when viewing the object represented. to have a mathematical foundation. In a pictorial sense, there 6. The Distance Point, marked DP, represents the distance is no other branch of drawing more capable of satisfying the between the eye and the picture plane. Sometimes the distance mind with regard to the appearances of nature than perspective; point and station point represent the same thing. It will be it is an art which enables us to draw upon a plane surface things found in the course of our lessons to vary according to circumfar and near as they appear to the eye, the effect of which can stances; in some instances it refers to the distance of any be as clearly and as truthfully presented to us by the help of geo- vanishing point in the picture from the eye. All these variations metry as if the objects themselves had been traced upon a piece will be explained in their proper places. of glass placed between them and the eye. We will now request 7. Vanishing Point. If a line be drawn from the eye parallel the pupil to make himself familiar with the following terms and to any original straight line of the object, the point marked v P, definitions:
where that line cuts the picture plane, marked PP, is the vanish1. The Plan of an object. A plan is the representation of all ing point of that original line. horizontal lengths and breadths, showing only the horizontal 8. Visual Rays are lines proceeding from every part of the
object to the eye. Fig. 1 will assist to explain this. Let a b cd either a little more or less; the length is not important, so that be a slab or board lying upon the ground, let s p be the station there be a sufficient number of parts on the scale to make it point where we are supposed to stand, and e the eye; f gi h is useful, but the average length of about 6 inches is the most conthe plane of glass, or picture plane, through which we see the venient for general purposes. slab. Lines from each angle of the object passing through the To obtain the average length, we raise or lower both terms, as picture plane towards the eye are termed visual rays, and where the case may require, by multiplying or dividing each by the they pass through the picture plane determine upon the plane same figure, so that the proportion remains the same for the points of the original object; these points united by straight example, 1 inch to 7 feet, 1x 6 = 6, 7 x6 = 42. Therefore 1 to 7 lines produce the perspective representation required. It must is the same proportion as 6 to 42. Again, 14 inches to 100 feet; be understood that these visual rays are not limited to proceed this must be lowered, because a scale 14 inches long would be of from the angles only; they come from every part at the same unnecessary length, therefore 14 = 2 = 7,100 = 2 = 50; so that time; but when representing the object we use only those lines we can make a more manageable scale of 7 inches long to reprewhich proceed from angles and terminations of lines, and thus sent 50 feet, which will be the same as 14 to 100. It will be determine the proportion of the object in sight upon the picture rendered clearer if we propose to make a scale of 1 inch to 33 plane. It will be seen when we come to work the problems that feet. The pupil will see the difficulty of dividing an inch into these visual rays are drawn from the various angles and charac- | 38 parts and then constructing a lengthened scale from it. To teristic points of the plan of the object towards the station point, avoid this, we first raise the terms by multiplying both by 6, SP. It will be noticed, also, that it is not necessary to draw which will be 6 to 228, and then state the question in the form these lines beyond the picture plane, PP, but invariably in the of a Rule of Three sum. But as we do not wish to go throngh direction of the station point.
the trouble of dividing 6 inches into 228 parts, we must find the 9. The Point of Contact is that point found by continuing in length of line necessary to include the nearest whole number to the same direction ang original line of the ground plan, until it 228, which is 200, and say as 38 : 1 :: 200 : 5:26. meets the picture plane; if the original line touches the picture It will be seen by this that 5.26 inches to 200 feet is the plane, it then produces its own point of contact.
same proportion as 1 inch to 38 feet, and this simplifies the work 10. Line of Contact is a term given to that line which is in making the scale. To do this we draw a line 5.26 inches long (to drawn perpendicularly from the point of contact; it is some measure this distance, see Lessons in Geometry, page 113, Vol. I.), times called a measuring line, from its being used to point, or and divide it into two equal parts to represent hundreds, and the mark off, all heights in working a perspective drawing. Of first division into ten equal parts to represent tens. (See Fig. 3.) course in this case the same scale is used as that for laying out the distance, 170 feet, measured from this scale will be from the ground plan.
a to b. To divide a line into any given number of equal parts, 11. All retiring lines have vanishing points.
see Lessons in Geometry, Problem XII., page 192, Vol. I. 12. All horizontal retiring lines have their vanishing points We will give two other examples, and leave the pupil to upon the line of sight.
practise this method of constructing scales of any given pro 13. All parallel retiring lines have the same vanishing point. portion. Construct a scale of 1 inch to 13 feet. 13x6 = 78.
14. All horizontal lines which are parallel with the picture In this case 80 is the nearest whole number to 78, to be stated plane are drawn parallel with each other and with the line of thus : as 13:1:: 80 : 6-15; therefore draw a line 6:15 inches sight.
long, and divide it into eight equal parts to represent tens, and 15. All horizontal retiring lines forming right angles with the the first division into ten equal parts to represent units. Sapposa picture plane have the point of sight for their vanishing point. it were 2 inches to 13 feet, then we should have to raise the
16. All lines inclined with the horizon and with the picture number 13 by 3. 13 x 3 = 39 ; 40 would be the nearest whole plane have their vanishing points above or below the horizontal number in this case ; then as 13 : 2 :: 40 : 6:15. Therefore a line, or line of sight, according to the angle they form with the line 6:15 inches long is to be divided into four parts to reprehorizon, their vanishing points being always on a line perpen. sent tens, and the first division into ten parts to represent dicular to the vanishing point upon the line of sight to which units. they would have retired had they been horizontal. Observe, all We will now explain how a' V d d', on the picture plane f gih heights are set off on the lines of contact; all horizontal lengths of Fig. 1, is the perspective representation of the square a bed, and breadths are arranged on the ground plan.
the plan of the square.
E is the eye of the spectator when he is As it is our intention to apply these lessons practically—that standing at s p, the station point; P s is the point of sight, and is, to make the drawings according to some given scale—it will be u L the horizontal line; the lines from a b c d to e are the necessary to step aside a little from our course,
and explain what visual rays; the lines from a b c d to s P are the plans of the is meant by a scale, and the method of constructing it, so that visual rays; from the points where these last lines (the plans any one who wishes to make a perspective drawing of a building the rays) cut the base of the picture plane, h i, draw perpendior any other object, according to some stated dimensions, may cular lines to cut the corresponding visual rays in a'We d', join have no difficulty in this respect in carrying it out. A scale these points respectively, and then will be produced on the is a means by which a proportional measurement of an object is picture plane, f g ih, the perspective representation required represented; or, by having a plan of that object, it is a means This figure is intended only to show how the plan, the eye
, and by which we may obtain an exact idea of all its parts in pro- the picture plane are supposed to be arranged with regard to portion to one another and to the original object. For instance, each other, and that the point of sight, P s, is opposite the ese suppose a room to be 20 feet long and 15 broad, represented by and on the horizontal line, 1 l, which is on a level with the eye. a plan in the proportion of 1 inch to a foot, the drawing or plan will be then 20 inches long and 15 broad; and if we require single inches in the scale for the plan, the first inch of the scale
LESSONS IN GREEK.–VI. must be divided into 12 parts. The scale being thus completed,
THE SECOND DECLENSION. we can measure spaces not limited to feet. Suppose the distance from one corner of the room to the side of a window should THERE are in the Greek second declension two terminations. measure 6 feet 8 inches, the scale divided as above in the first that in os corresponding with the Latin us, and that in or COTTOdivision will enable us to show that distance on the plan.
sponding with the Latin um. Of the nouns which terminate in To construct a scale of half an inch to a foot, draw a line of os the greater number are of the masculine gender, some ara any length, and upon it mark off any required number of half. also feminine ; nouns in ov are of the neuter gender, except diinches. (See Fig. 2.) Divide the first division into twelve minutive female names, as ý laukepov, Glycerium. parts, to represent inches, or into four parts to represent spaces
The following table presents of 3 inches, and number the divisions as shown in the figure. THE CASE-ENDINGS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. To measure 9 feet 9 inches, we must place one leg of the com
Plural passes on nine of the main divisions, and the other
on nine of the Nom. minor divisions, marked in Fig. 2 from a to b.
Gen. Sometimes scales are much smaller than the above, when the Dat. subject is extensive and the drawing small. It is advisable to Acc.
ă ke our scales generally about 6 inches long-they may be Voc.