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συκου

συκον

συκα

συκων
συκοις

man.

συσω

Before passing on, let the learner turn back and compare Acc.

. σοφους, -ας, -α.

κόσμιους, -α. these terminations with those that are given in connection with Voc. σοφοι, «αι, -α.

κοσμιοι, . the article; then he will readily commit these to memory:

Dual.
Ν. Α.V. σοφω, -α, -ω.

κοσμίω, -ω. PARADIGMS OR EXAMPLES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION.

G.D. σοφοιν, -αιν, -οιν.

κοσμιoιν, -οιν. Singular.

Before you attempt the following exercises, you must underWord, Island. God. . Messenger.

Fig. Nom. λογος (m.) νησος (f.) Θεος (mm.) αγγελος (m.) συκον (n.) | stand that Greek nouns in the neuter plural require their verb

to be in the singular number. Gen. λογου νησου

Θεου αγγελου
Dat. λογω νηση

Θεω
αγγελφ

VOCABULARY.

συκο Aco. λογον νησον

Θεον
αγγελος

Αγαθος, , -ον, good. Eταιρος,-ου, o, a com- | Οινος, -ου, o, wine. Voc. λογε νησε

Θεος
αγγελε συκον Αδελφος, -ου, o, a panion, friend.

Παρεχω, I give, be-
Plural.

brother. .

Θεος, o, God, the true stow.
Αλλ' (αλλα), but. God. .

Πιστος, , -ον,

faithNom. λογοι νησοι

Θεοι
αγγελοι

Ανθρωπος, -ου, ο, ο Κακος, , -ον, bad, τα ful. .
Gen. λογων νήσων Θεων
αγγελων

κακα(Latin,mala), Πολλοι, -αι, -α, many, Dat. λογοις νησοις Θεοις αγγελοις Διδασκαλος, -ου, ο, ο evils.

numerons. Acc. λογους νησους Θεους αγγελους συκα

teacher. .

Καλος, -η, -ον, fair, Φιλος, , -ον, loving, Voc. . λογοι νησου

Θεοι
αγγελοι συκα
Δουλος,-ου, o, a slave. beautiful.

friendly. .
Dual.

Εργον, -ου, το, 8 work. Κινδυνος,-ου, δ,danger φροντιζω (gen.), I Ν.Α.V. λογω

νησω
Θεω
αγγελω

Εσθλος, , -ον, excel- Μετεχω, (with gen.), care for.
G.D. λογοιν νησoιν Θεoιν αγγελουν συκοιν

lent. .
I partake, share. Χαιρω (dat.),I re-

joice at. The vocative of the words in os commonly ends in s, but | Εχθρος, -α, -ον,hostile, Μισγω(Latin, misceo,

hateful, και εχθρος, English, onia), Ι| Χαλεπος, ,-ον, hard, often, especially in adjectives and participles, in e; as w DIAE,

the enemy.

mix (acc.and dat.). difficult. also ω φιλος; but θεος, like the Latin Deus, makes no change in the vocative.

EXERCISE 11.-GREEK-ENGLISH. As in Latin nouns in um, the Greek neuters in ov have the 1. Διωκε καλα εργα, ω φιλε νεανια. 2. Πειθου τοις τον διδαsame ending-namely, oν in the nominative, the accusative, and | σκαλου λογους. 3. Παρ' εσθλων εσθλα μανθανεις. 4. Πιστος έταιρος the vocative; and this, too, in the plural as well as in the singu- των αγαθών και των κακων μετεχει. 5. Οι Θεοι των ανθρωπων lar-namely, in a.

φροντιζουσιν. 6. Οι ανθρωποι τους Θεους θεραπευουσιν. 7. The models just given are followed by adjectives in os (m.), Πολλοις εργοις έπεται κωδυνος. 8. Μισγεται εσθλα κακoις. 9. ον (π.), as αγαθος (αγαθη [f.], like the first declension), αγαθον; | Ο κακος τοις θεοις και τους ανθρωπους εχθρος εστιν. 10. Οι ανas appears in the following

θρωποι τοις εσθλοις χαιρoυσιν. 11. Παρεχε, ω Θεος, τους φιλους MODELS OF ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS OF THE SECOND

ευτυχιαν. 12. Φερε, ω δουλε, τον οινον το νεανια. 13. Ο οινος ου DECLENSION.

λυει αλλα τικτει τας μεριμνας. 14. Χαλεπω εργη δοξα έπεται. Singular.

EXERCISE 12.-ENGLISH-GREEK.
A Good Word.
A Good Child.

1. Good men obey God. 2. Bad men obey not God. 3. O Nom. αγαθος λογος.

αγαθον τεκνον.

good youths, obey your (the) teacher. 4. Bad men are hostile to Gen. αγαθου λογου.

αγαθου τεκνου.

the good (the badthe good). 5. Abstain from bad men. 6. Dat. αγαθω λογω.

αγαθω τεκνω.

Good men take care of their (the) children. 7. Trust not the Acc. αγαθον λογον.

αγαθον τεκνον.
word of a liar, o dear boy. 8. Danger follows many words.

. Voc. αγαθε λογε.

αγαθον τεκνον.

9. Good youths honour their (the) teachers. Plural.

Remarks.

The Greeks are fond of such an arrangement of Nom. αγαθοι λογοι.

αγαθα τεκνα.

words as is found in the phrase τοις του διδασκαλου λογοις, Gen. αγαθων λογων.

αγαθων τεκνων.

given above. Literally, and in the Greek order, the words run Dat. αγαθοις λόγοις.

αγαθοις τεκνοις.

--the of the teacher words; that is, the words of the teacher. Aco. αγαθους λογους.

αγαθα τεκνα.

Imitate this construction. In general, the Greek order of words Voc. αγαθοι λογοι.

αγαθα τεκνα.

approaches more nearly to the English than does the Latin.

The sense, however, logically considered, prevails over other conDual.

siderations in the Greek collocation of words. The chief place Ν.Α.V. αγαθω λογω.

αγαθω τεκνω.

of emphasis is the commencement of a sentence, the next is the G.D. αγαθοις λογοιν.

αγαθουν τεκνοιν.

end. Not by any mere rule can the beginner acquire the tact The foregoing relates to adjectives of three terminations. of placing the Greek words in their idiomatic order. Of course Adjectives of two terminations are also declined in the same he will study to do his best, and from attention to the sentences manner-namely, such as end in os, m. and f., and ov, n., as given in the exercises, and making them, as far as possible, παγκαλος, παγκαλον, entirely beautiful : for example, ο παγκαλος | models, he may learn much and make an approach to correctλογος, the entirely beautiful speech; το παγκαλον τεκνον, the ness; but, after all, nothing but a long and careful study of the entirely beautiful child.

writings of the classics themselves can give him complete skill. N.B.-It must be well remembered that adjectives of two The student, however, is especially requested to note what is terminations are generally Compounds or Derivatives.

called the emphatic collocation of the adjective with its nounFor the sake of practice, I here subjoin an example of an where the adjective and noun have each an article, in the followadjective of three terminations, and one of two terminations, ad- ing order :-article, noun, article, adjective, as in to ows to vising you to learn them horizontally as well as perpendicularly. andivov, the light, the true light (John i. 9). With this we ADJECTIVES OF THREE AND TWO TERMINATIONS, LIKE THE

may compare in English (especially in poetry) the repetition of

a noun with the adjective for the sake of emphasis, as in ShakeFIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS.

speare-"Farewell, a long farewell ; A frost, a killing frost.” Singular.

VOCABULARY. Nom. σοφος, , -ον, ise. κοσμιος, -ον, orderly.

Αξιος, -α, -ον (gen.), Διχοστασια, ας, ή, Θυμος, -ου, ό, mind, Gen. σοφου, -ης, -ου.

κόσμιου, -ου.

worthy.
division. .

courage, spirit. Dat. . σοφω, , .

κοσμια, φ.

Απολυω (gen. of the Ευφραινω, I make Θυρα, ας, ή, a door. Acc. σοφος, -ης, -ον. κοσμιον, -ον. thing), I free joyful.

Κλειω, I shut. Voc. σοφε, , -ον.

κοσμιε, -ον.

from. .

Θανατος, •ου, ό, Μετρον, -ου, το, Plural.

Αργύρος, -ου, δ, silver. death. Nom. σοφος, -αι, -α.

κόσμιοι, -α.

Bιος, -ου, , life. Θειος, , -ον, divine, Μοχλος, -ου, o, a bolt. Gen. σοφων, -ων, -ων.

Βουλη, ης, ή, a coun- το Θειον, the Divi. Μυριος, , -ον, innaDat. . σοφοις, -αις, «οις.

κοσμίων, -ων.

κοσμιοις, -οις.

sel.
nity. .

merable.

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measure.

ται.

9.

Νεος, -α, -ον, young; ο Ουχ (ουχ comes be- Πονος, -ου, ο, labour. | (or δεσποτου εστι) επιμελεσθαι του οικετου. 9. Οικετων εστι επιμελεσθαι των veos, a young man. fore an aspirated Σιγη, ης, ή, silence. | δεσποτων. 10. Τεχνιτας τρεφουσιν αι τεχναι.

11. Τοις στρατιωταις προσημει Nocos, -ov, “, sick. vowel, instead of Xpovos, -ov, d, time. μαχεσθαι περι των πολιτων. 12. Η συχιαν αγε, ω βορρα, 13. Τον “Ερμην ness.

UK and ou), not. Χρυσος, -ου, ο, gold. | θαυμαζω.

EXERCISE 13.-GREEK-ENGLISH. 1. Το καλον εστι μετρον του βιου, ουχ ο χρονος. 2. Ο θανατος

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XIX. τους ανθρωπους απολυει πονων και κακων. . 3. Ο οινος ευφραινει CONSTRUCTION OF THE MAP OF THE WORLD. τους των ανθρωπων θυμους. . 4. Συν μυριοις πονοις τα καλα γιγνε- To construct a Map of the World, consisting of the Eastern

5. Το θειον τους κακους ayet #pos tnv Oknu. 6. Motos and Western Hemispheres, as in page 144, on the common Pixos xpuoov kai apyupov afios Cotiv ev xalean Oixoo TAO19. 7 projection, which is done without any regard to the principles of Πολλαι νοσοι εν ανθρωποις εισιν. 8. Bovan eis ayadov ayer 9: perspective, or the distance of a point of view, is the simplest Σιγη νεη τιμην φερει. 10. Η θυρα μοχλοις κλειεται. 11. 'H

thing in the world to him who knows how to make a circle pass τεχνη τους ανθρωπους τρεφει. 12. Ω φιλοι μαθηται, της σοφιας | through any three points on a plane, which are not in the same και της αρετης ορεγεσθε. .

straight line. The method of doing this has been clearly shown EXERCISE 14.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

in Problem XXXVI. in Lessons in Geometry, XV., page 49 of 1. By death (dat.) men are set free from labours. 2. Many this volume. labours follow life. 3. The wisdom of the Divinity leads good

Now, to make the necessary projection for drawing the Map of men to happiness. 4. Follow the words of the judge. 5. The the World, as shown in our last lesson, first draw two circles of words of the youth are bad. 6. The lyre dissipates (auw) the any convenient, but of the same size, and draw in each two diacares of the mind. 7. Silence becomes a boy. 8. Art nourishes meters, 0, 0, and North Pole and South Pole, at right angles to good men. The bolt shuts the door.

each other (Lessons in Geometry, Problem I., Vol. I., page 156); then divide each quadrant of these two circles and each radius

or half of the two diameters into nine equal parts. Mark the KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-V.

divisions of the quadrants between 0 and North Pole, and between EXERCISE 5.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

O and South Pole, with the numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 1. Dishonour follows vice. 2. Bear poverty easily. 3. Thunder and 80; then it will be understood that at the point 0, the mark arises from shining lightning. 4. Virtue has excellent repute. 5. is 0 degrees, while at the North or South Pole the mark is 90 Regard to law sets right wrong judgments. 6. Justice begets justice, degrees. and injury injury. 7. Pursue a good manner of living. 8. Restrain Next, mark the diameters of the two circles which are draw your tongue. 9. Fortune often has (brings) changes. 10. Bear ye poverty. 11. Splendid fortunes easily fall. 12. Bear thou fortunes across the page from 0 to 0 with the word Equator; the centra (changes of fortune). 13. Virtue yields not to misfortunes (fortunes). of the Eastern Hemisphere with 70; and the centre of the 14. Abstain from hard (severe) cares. 15. The queen has a splendid Western Hemisphere with 110; then, in the Eastern Hemisphere kingdom.* 16. The robe is beautiful. 17. We have beautiful robes. mark to the left of 70 the numbers 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10, 0, 10, EXERCISE 6.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

and 20; and to the right of 70, the numbers 80, 90, 100, 110, 1. Perzete tas mepluvas. 2. 'H kakta TARTOL atuav. 3. '

Hapern dokim longitude, the first meridian being that marked 0, and the others

120, 130, 140, 150, and 160. These are to denote the degrees of έπεται. 4. Ραδιως φερουσι την πενιαν. 5. Η πενια φερεται ραδιως. 6.

at 10 degrees distance from each other ; the meridians to the Φερετε την πενιαν ραδιως. 7. Εχεις μεταβολας. 8. Απεχου της κακίας. Kalnu orolnu exovat. 10. Mn cike my tux». 11. 'Padıws eixovai ir tuxy

. 12. right of that marked 0 being in east longitude, and those to the

left being in west longitude. Κατεχετε την γλωτταν. 13. Σκολιαι δικαι ευθυνονται.

Having done this, in the left-hand circle or Western Hemisphere EXERCISE 7.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

mark to the right of 110, the numbers 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 1. Learn wisdom, O young man. 2. Politeness becomes a citizen. 30, and 20; and to the left, the numbers 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 3. We blame the talkativeness of a youth. 4. Avoid injustice, 0 citi- 170,

180, 170, and 160; but here it is necessary to remark, that in 5. We admire the art of the bird-catcher. 6. It is proper for this hemisphere, all the numbers are degrees in west longitude, auditors and spectators to keep silent. 7. O sailors, avoid the north wind. 8. The north wind (compare our Boreas) often injures sailors. except the last-mentioned etwo, 170 and 160, which are in east 9. O citizens, strive after virtue. 10. The Sybarites were voluptua. longitude, because these are the continuation of the degrees in ries. 11. Sailors have to do with the sea. 12. Flee, O Persian. 13. The the Eastern Hemisphere, to the right, which stopped at that Spartans have an honourable reputation. 14. I avoid a youth (who is) point, namely, 160. The degrees of longitude, whether east or vest, a voluptuary (or a voluptaous youth, or a youth given to pleasure). must be limited by 180, because this number extends over one15, Abstain from chatterers. 16. Hear, 0 master (sovereign lord). half of the globe either way, and the meridian marked 180 is EXERCISE 8.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

the continuation of the meridian of Greenwich, that is, the 1. Φευγετε, ω Περσαι. 2. Πολιταις πρεπει η αρετη.

3. Την ησυχιαν αγειν

circle which passes through 0°, 180°, and the two poles, in the προσηκει πολιτη. 4. Μανθανετε, ω νεανιαι, την σοφιαν. 5. Την σοφιαν μαν- meridian of Greenwich; there are some, however, who call the θανουσι. 6. Την σοφιαν μανθανετε. , 7. Την σοφιαν μανθανω. . 8. Hoopia semicircle which extends from pole to pole, through any given μανθανεται. . 9. Νεανια πρεπει ή ενκοσμια. . 10. Mn Blatte, w Boppa, tous place, the meridian of that place; and the opposite semicircle, ναυτας. 11. Φευγε, ω ναντα, τον βορραν. 12. “ο βορρας φευγεται. 13. Ορεγου, | the anti-meridian; but it is better to consider the meridian as a ω Σπαρτιατα, της δοξης. 14. Ησυχιαν αγετε, ω αδολεσχαι. 15. Adoleoxou complete circle. Lastly, mark the semi-diameters or radii of each

circle or hemisphere which are at right angles to the diameters EXERCISE 9.-GREEK-ENGLISH,

marked equator, with the numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 1. The bravery of the Spartans was admirable. 2. Flee, O young and 80, placed consecutively from the centre of each to the

3. Do you flee, O lovers. 4. Thieves are avoided. 5. Justice poles north and south. becomes judges. 6. It is the duty of soldiers to fight for the citi- Now draw arcs, or portions of circles, throngh the two points zens. 7. Avoid liars. 8. It is the part of a master to take care of marked 80, on the north quadrants, and the point marked 80 cm his domestics. 9. Do not trust a liar. 10. Art supports the artist. the north radii of both circles, and this will give the projection 11. From liars thieves are produced. 12. The Spartans were lovers of of the parallel of north latitude of 80° in the Northern Hemi glory and honour. 13. Shipwreck often arises from the north wind. Sphere ; do the same in the south quadrants and south radii of 14. We admire the skill of Hermes (Mercury).

both circles, and this will give the projection of the parallel of EXERCISE 10.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

south latitude of 80 in the Southern Hemisphere. Next, draw 1. Ou ens done epao tai ov pevyovtat. 2. O. VEVO tai tns ainbecas our econ arcs, or portions of circles, through the two points marked 70.00 ερασται, 3. “Η του Σπαρτιατου αρετη θαυμαστη ην. 4. Μη πιστευετε, ω Σπαρ- the north quadrants, and the point marked 70 on the north relii τιαται, τους ψευσταις. 5. Tou texvn nu Davuaoon

. 6. Thu twv Snaps of both circles, and this will give the projection of the parallel of τιατων αρετην θαυματα

Inn, w Inapoiata. 8. Eote deonotov

, north latitude of 70° in the Northern Hemisphere ; do the same In the G hen the words for queen and king.

in the south quadrants and south radii of both circles, and this dom is rund

m: thus, queen, Barileva, has the will give the projection of the parallel of 70° in the Southern socant or

ible but two, reckoning from the Hemisphere. Proceed in the same manner until you have proend),

he accent on the penult, or the jected on the map all the parallels of latitude in both hemi

spheres, from 80 to 10 inclusive.

zen.

απέχετε.

man.

[graphic]

To draw the meridians in the Eastern Hemisphere, describe and by referring to the diagram (Fig. 4) on that page you will ares of circles through the north and south poles as two points, see that they arise from the different positions of the earth in and through each of the degrees marked 0, 10, 20, 30, etc., of her orbit or path which she describes in a year in her motion longitude, whether east or west, as the third or middle point, and round the sun. The constant inclination of the earth's axis to the this will give the meridian of each point so marked, at every ten plane of the orbit, or the parallelism of that axis to itself in all degrees from 0 to 180°, east or west; these meridians will serve positions, occasions all the space around the poles to the extent as a guide to the determination of other meridians, and enable of 23° 28' from each, to be alternately illuminated by the oblique the geographer to approximate to the true position of those rays of the sun for six months of the year, and alternately places which he may wish to lay down on the map, of which darkened by the absence of those rays for the same period. It he has thus drawn the skeleton.

also occasions all the space between the tropics and the equator, By the combined help of the parallels of latitude and the to the extent of 23° 28' on each side of the equator, to receive meridians, the draughtsman may now set to work to fill up this the direct rays of the sun in succession, that is, to have the sun skeleton map from a table of latitudes and longitudes, with the successively vertical to the inhabitants in every latitude, from 0° names of all the most important places in the world; he may to 23° 28' N., and from 0° to 23° 28' S., for a period of six also draw a pretty correct outline of the coast of each continent months alternately. by laying down the latitudes and longitudes of as many coasting It is plain, therefore, that the spaces between the tropics and points as possible from such a table, and drawing a curve the polar circles can never have the rays of the sun vertical to through them, as like other maps of the world as he can ; the them ; but these rays will be more or less oblique to them in the accuracy of the map increasing with the number of points laid course of a year in the former case constituting winter with its down according to their latitudes and longitudes. In Norie's preceding autumn ; and in the latter summer, with its preceding Navigation, Table 56, are given the latitudes and longitudes of spring. the principal ports, harbours, capes, shoals, rocks, etc, in the The mathematical notion of the manner in which these circles world, founded on thousands of observations made by the most are generated is the following:-Suppose the plane of the eminent astronomers and navigators; and this table will enable ecliptic (the real path of the earth in the heavens, and the appaa true student of geography to lay down the outline of the coasts rent path of the sun in the heavens) to cut the globe, it must of almost all the continents, islands, and peninsulas in the Map pass through the centre, o (see Fig. 4, p. 80), as the ecliptic is of the World, to any scale or size which he chooses to adopt. the path of the centre, and forms the circle whose radius is He may then fill up the interior of these with the positions of OR. This circle intersects the equator, E Q, at an angle, ROQ, the most important places of the world, from the tables of lati. of 23° 28', called the obliquity of the ecliptic, and its two oppotudes and longitudes usually attached to the ordinary atlases site points remotest from the equator (called solstitial points),* used in colleges and schools.

generate, by the revolution of the earth on its axis, the two We earnestly recommend all those who are studying our tropics seen on opposite sides of E Q, the equator, the one being " Lessons in Geography" to endeavour to acquire a perfect know- PR, 23° 28' north of it, and the other at the same distance lodge of the geographical positions of places, that is, their latitudes south of it. The extremities of the diameter of the globe at and longitudes; for if they fail in this point, their knowledge of right angles to the circle of the ecliptic whose radius is o R, the world, with regard to the position of its continents, islands, generate, by the same revolution, the two polar circles seen at peninsulas, capes, and promontories, as well as with regard to equal distances, 23° 28', from N. and S., the north and south the position of its oceans, seas, gulfs, bays, and lakes, will poles

, and touching the dotted perpendicular which is the said always be obscure, indefinite, and incorrect; neither will they diameter produced. be able to form any proper notion of the relative distances of The space or belt between the two tropics (from the Greek important places from one another, or from a central point, such Tporos, trop'-os, turning) is called the Torrid Zone. The word as London or Paris. The doctrine of the globe is as plain to torrid, which means burning, is derived from the Latin torreo, the well-instructed mariner or geographer, as the knowledge of to burn or roast, and the zone is so called because it is parched London is to the inhabitant of fifty years' standing in that city. by the direct rays of the sun falling on every latitude in sucWere it not so, the safety of our commercial relations with our cession during the year; its breadth is twice 23° 28', that is, own colonies, as well as with foreign ports and countries in all 46° 56', measured on a meridian. The space between the Tropic parts of the world, would rest on a very insecure basis. But, of Cancer (so called, because when the sun appears to enter this thanks to the progress of mathematical and astronomical science, constellation in the heavens, at midsummer, he seems to turn and thanks to the spirit of activity and mercantile enterprise, again and move towards the equator) and the Arctic Circle is not to speak of the desire to explore unknown regions which called the North Temperate Zone, because the sun's rays fall has wonderfully manifested itself in the present century, the neither so directly as to produce great heat, nor so obliquely as world is now better known than ever it was in any past age, to produce great cold, although on the limits of the zone both not excepting even the palmy days of Solomon the Great, will be felt in a very considerable degree ; its breadth is 43° 4, whose ships went to Ophir—that is, Africa—for gold, and in measured on a meridian. The space between the Tropic of Capriwhose time silver was made as plentiful even as stones in corn (eo called, because, when the sun appears to enter this conJerusalem.

stellation in the heavens, at mid-winter, he seems to turn again Before concluding this lesson, it may be proper to remark and move towards the equator) and the Antarctic Circle is called that there are four small circles on the globe, placed among the the South Temperate Zone, for the same reasons as stated parallels of latitude, which serve to divide the earth into five respecting the North Temperate Zone, and its breadth is the zones (from the Greek (wrn, zo'-ne, a belt) between the two poles. same, being 43° 4', measured on a meridian. The space between The two smaller circles, which are of the same size, are called the Arctic (from the Greek apkros, ark'-tos, a bear, and thence the Polar Circles; the one, the Arctic

, or North Polar Circle ; taken to mean the north, because the constellation in the heavens and the other, the Antarctic, or South Polar Circle. The two called the Great Bear always points to the north) Circle and the larger circles, which are also of the same size, are called the North Pole is called the North Frigid Zone, because it is always Tropics ; the one, the Tropic of Cancer; and the other, the Tropic frigid or cold in this space or portion of the globe, owing to the of Capricorn. The polar circles are each 23° 28' distant from great obliquity of the sun's rays; its breadth is 23° 28', measured the poles, when that distance is measured on a meridian: and, on a meridian. Lastly, the space between the Antarctic (from consequently, the one, the Arctic Circle, is the parallel of latitude the Greek ayti, an'-ti, over against, or opposite to, and apkros) 66° 32' N.; and the other, the Antarctic Circle, is the parallel of Circle and the South Pole is called the South Frigid Zone ; latitude at 66° 32' S.; because the poles being 90° distant from and its breadth is the same, being 23° 28', measured on a the equator, we have 90° -23° 28'=66° 32.

meridian. The Tropics are each 23° 28' distant from the equator when The following table contains the breadth of each of the zones that distance is measured on a meridian : and, consequently, the in degrees and British miles, their surfaces in square miles, the one, the Tropic of Cancer, is the parallel of latitude at 23° 28' N.; and the other, the Tropic of Capricorn, is the parallel of latitude at 23° 28' S.; each being at the distance of 66° 32' from sun, and sto, I stand); it is applied to the apparent motion of the sun

The term solstitial means literally sun-standing (from Latin sol, the the polea, becanse, as before, 90° — 66° 32' = 23° 28'. The at those points, which seems to be so very slow that this luminary may origin of these circles was explained in a former lesson (page 80), be said to all appearance, for a few days, to be stationary.

in

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middle latitude of each zone, and the length of the parallel in

“ From his loins that latitude in miles:

New authors of dissension spring."- Philips.
Breadths Surfaces

Ory, a Latin suffis, seen in promontorium, a promontory (pro,
Mid.

Length of ZONES. in Square

forcard, and mons, a mountain); and auditory, from auditorium
parallelin
Latitude

Miles.
Degrees. Miles.

Mid. Lat. , (audire, to hear).

Ose, from the Latin osus, as morosus (ill-tempered), morose. North Frigid

23° 28' 1,620 8,132,807 78°16'N 5,055 The osus in Latin is sometimes uosus; as, monstruosus, monNorth Temperate

2,974 51,041,534 45 ON 17,576 strous. We have the ending in imperious, imperiosus; religious, Torrid. 56 3,240 79,314,214 0

24,856

religiosus; invidious, invidiosus; suspicious, suspiciosus. The South Temperate 43 2,974 51,041,534 | 45 OS' 17,576

Gsus is Englished also by our termination y; as, ventosus, windy; South Frigid 29 1,620 8,132,807 78 16 S 5,055

lapidosus, stony.
150
0 12,428 196,662,896

Ote, of Latin origin, found in verbs formed from the Latin

participle in otus; as, to promote, from promotus (moved for. The determination of the numbers in the second and third ward); to devote (Latin, devotus, consecrated-rotum, a voi, columns of the preceding table depends on the length of the something sacred or set apart for the gods). mean diameter of the earth, which, as we have seen before, is

"Such on Isis' temple you may find, about 7,913 British miles. Hence, the circumference of the earth

On votive tablets to the life pourtrayed."-Dryden. is about 24,856 miles, and the mean length of a degree on its surface about 69-045 miles.

Ric, as in bishopric, in Anglo-Saxon denotes power, dominion, Consequently, we find that the extent of the surface of the globe, including both land and water, territory; as, to-becume thin rice, i.e., thy kingdom come. Bishopand taking no account of the elevations and depressions of ric, then, is the

jurisdiction of a bishop. either, is about 196,662,896 square miles; and that its capacity, but comes from the Anglo-Saxon scipe, denoting a state, an

Ship, as in hardship, has no connection with ship, a vessel, or solid content, is about 259,332,805,054 cubic miles.

office, a dignity; as, freond-scipe, friendship, the state of being a friend; in German, freundshaft; the shaft represents the older

form of the word, which was sceaft. Here is seen the origin of LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XIX.

worship; that is, weorth-ship, literally, worthiness. SCFFIXES (continued).

"My train are men of choice and rarest parts, Mony, as in alimony, sanctimony, a Latin termination (as in

That all particulars of duty know; parsimonia, sparingness; and matrimonium, the condition of a

And in the most exact regard support mother, matrimony, not in great use) which denotes a conse

The worship of their names."-Shakespeare, " King Lear." quence, as in testimony, the result of the act of testis, a witness. Hence “worship" is a title of honour.

Sea, as found in littleness, nothingness, is a Saxon suffix, “ Dinner is on table; my father desires your worship's company.". signifying the abstract quality. If we compare littleness with

Shakespeare, “Merry Wives of Windsor." the French petitesse (Old English nesse), and take in other Derivatively, “worship” signifies adoration. words, as tendresse, tenderness, we are led to conjecture that “Under the name of church, I understand a body or collection of the n is only a connecting consonant, and that ess or esse in human persons, professing faith in Christ, gathered together in several both French and English are the same. Consider also the places of the world for the worship of the same God, and united into Anglo-Saxon sarenes, soreness, that is, sorrow ; gelicness, likeness ; the same corporation.”—Pearson, heardnes, harlness ; micelness, muchness, that is, greatness; and Sum, from the Anglo-Saxon sum, an adjective of the same you find the same form in the root of our language. If, how- meaning as our adjective some, is employed in both Anglo-Saxon ever, the n is not an essential part of the word, then the ness and in English as a suffix; as, winsum, winsome, that is, winning. or rather ens has no connection with ness in such words as We find the termination in our present lonesome, handsome, Dungen3s, Sheerness, and other proper names, names of places. tiresome, etc. The spelling of some in the Anglo-Saxon_namely, In these the nese comes from the German nase, and the Anglo- sum-shows the origin of our pronunciation of the word. Sound Saron nese, and signifies nose; that is, a headland or promontory. etymology would throw great light on pronunciation.

“ About six of the clock at night the wind vered to the south-west; Ster, str, a suffix of Anglo-Saxon origin, denoting the feminine and we weighed anker, and bare cleere of the ness, and then set our gender, as spinster, a female spinner. We may exhibit the real course north-east and by north until midnight, being then clear of the meaning of nouns ending in ster, found in the Anglo-Saxon, thusYarmouth sands.”—Hakluyt.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.
Ock, as in hillock, a diminutive ; so that hillock is a little hill. Sangere, a singer ; Sangestre, a songster.
So bullock originally meant a young bull or calf; compare Isaiah Bacere, a bakor ;

Bacestre (Baxter), female baker. xi. 6 with Jer. xxxi. 18, where calf and bullock are the renderings Fidelere, a fiddler ;

Fidelstre, a female fiddler. of the same Hebrew term. In the suffix ock the c sound is the

Vebber, a reaver ;

Vebbestre (Webster), a female viata". essential element, the k being merely an affair of spelling, and

Rædere, a reader; Rædestre, a female reader, the o (probably) a connecting vowel. Thus regarded, we find

Seamere, a seamer (sever); Seamstre, a seamstress. the origin of our diminutive c in the Latin diminutive c, as seen In our present termination of these feminines—namely, stress

, in recula (res, a thing), specula (spes, hope), nubecula (nubes, a as seen in songstress—the ess or ss seems derived by attraction cloud), vulpecula (vulpes, a fox), etc. Another form of bullock from the classical termination ess from it. Originally, songstress is bulchin, obviously bull's-kin, that is, bul's child, as in the was songestre, but by the prevalence of such forms as shepherdes, Hebrew," steer, the son of a bull," for a bullock or calf (Exod. songestre was gradually drawn into songstress; and thus came xxix. 1; Lev. iv. 3).

to have a double suffix, both feminine; that is, str of the Saxon, "And better yet than this, a bulchin, two years old.

and ess of the Latin. Not inappropriately may the English A curled pate calf it is, and oft could have been sold." language be called a medley. Drayton, “ Polyolbion."

“Through the soft silence of the listening night, Oon, or on, an augmentive; as in balloon, or great ball. The

The sober-suited songstress trills her lay.”—Thomson. termination oon, or on, comes to us from the Italian, but is ori- Th, of Anglo-Saxon origin, being a termination by which ad. ginally from the Latin, as seen in naso, a man with a large nose ; jectives are transformed into nouns ; as, treowth, truth, from capito, a man with a large head. Like balloon is saloon in the treowe, German treu, English true; whence troth and betrothed. French salon, a place of reception

(French, saluer, to salute, We find the ending in mirth (merry), dearth (dear), breadth greet; Latin, salvus, safe).

(broad), depth (deep), etc. Or, a termination borrowed from the Latin or ; as seen in Tude, a Latin termination, found in latitudo (latus, broad), auctor, in English, author. The correspondent Saxon

ending is latitude ; longitudo (longus, long), longitude. So fortitude (fortis, er, which has already been spoken of. Or denotes the agent. brave), magnitude (magnus, great), etc. Or, in former times, was written our. Author properly signifies Ty, from the Latin substantive termination tas ; as, Comoriginator; the first who does anything.

moditas, commodity. Here we have an instance of the way in " The author of that which causeth anything to be, is author of that which derivatives often depart from the meaning of their primthing pl ereby is caused.”—Hooker,

tives. Commoditas in Latin means proportion, convenience,

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while commodity now signifies a thing, and has a strictly commercial import. The steps by which the derivation took place may be supplied from our older writers. Commodity is found signifying advantage; and as proportion, or due observance of measure, time, or opportunity leads to convenience, so does a regard to con. venience conduce to advantage ; but advantage is only interest or profit, and profit is by commodities, the sources of gain.

Commodity as convenience :"Travellers turn out of the highway, drawn either by the commodity of a footpath, or the delicacy or the freshness of the fields."-B. Jonson.

Commodity as advantage :"They know that howsoever men may seek their own commodity, yet if this were done with injury unto others, it was not to be suffered.” - Hooker. Commodity as wares :"Of money in the commerce of mankind the principal use is that of saving the commutation of more bulky commodities."- Arbuthnot, " On Coins." - Ule, as in globule, from the Latin globulus, a small globe or ball. The termination ule (in Latin both ulus and ula) is found in particule (Latin particula) shortened into particle. Animalcule, a little animal, is formed by analogy rather than authority, inasmuch as the only connected diminutive in Latin is animula, from anima, there being no diminutive from animal.

Ure, from the Latin ura; as, tinctura (a colour), tincture. It is found also in verdure (Latin, viridis, green), immediately from the French; and in tenure, from the word tenura, belonging to feudal or mediæval Latin.

Ute, from the Latin participial ending utus, as acutus (Latin, aci, a needle), sharpened, acute.

Ward appears in the German warts, as in vorwärts, forwards; and the Latin versus, towards. It forms many compounds, traces of which are found in the Anglo-Saxon, as thider-weard, thitherward; ham-ward, homeward. In the use of toward, the to and the ward were sometimes separated by the interposition of the noun under regimen, as in 1 Thess. i. 8"Your faith to God-ward is spread abroad."

Wise, from the Anglo-Saxon wise, manner, is used in both Anglo-Saxon and English as a suffix ; as, rightwis, righteous, formerly rightwise; unrightwis, unrighteous. Wise, denoting manner, is found in the Bible.

"Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise." (Matt. i. 18.)

" If thou aflict them in any wise.” (Exod. xxii. 23.) Webster, in his dictionary, under wise, states that wise is corrupted into ways, as in lengthways. This position may be questioned. Way, signifying manner, is good English. Why, then, inay we not say lengthways ? The s is merely a terminating consonant for the voice to rest on, as in always. Good writers use longuays no less than longwise. Sideways is more common than sidewise. For always, algates; and for otherwise, other. gates (which are the same as our always and otherways; gates being from the German gehen, to go; and gasse, a street or way), are not uncommon in the north of England.

Y, a Saxon termination, in adjectives representing ig, as myrig, merty; wässerig, watery; and in nouns representing for the Latin ia, as victoria, victory; for the Greek, also, ia, as geometria, geometry. See the terminations ance and ce. In such words as yclept, that is, called; yclad, that is, clothed; the y is a softened sound of the German ge, which is prefixed to the past participles, as geboren, born.

“But come, thou goddess, fair and free,

In heaven yclep'd Euphrosyne,
And by men heart-easing mirth."-Milton.

13 or 14 ory

19 ric 20 ship 21 ster 22 th

result diminution dominion effect instrument result agent agent place possession quality female diminution result agent condition family being sonship action division adherenes place female sonship diminution descent result effect quality diminution greatness agency condition authority condition female result result condition diminution capacity belonging to pertaining to state according to quality condition result condition augmentive abundance like condition place, quality quality diminution privation likeness quality a part direction manner quality to make he thou he to make, do to make, do to make, do to make, do

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From Greek.

From Latin.

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From the above table it appears that there are 82 English suffixes, of which 7 are of Greek origin ; 28 Latin ; 8 French, and 39 Saxon.

It is of little consequence in general whether the suffixes ascribed to the French be ascribed to it or to the Latin, whence they originally came. If the eight French suffixes are added to the twenty-eight Latin ones, then the Latin suffixes are nearly equal to those of Saxon origin. Adding all the foreign suffixes together, we find they amount to forty-three, and so outnumber our native or Saxon suffixes.

result being personality condition effect government habit quality discredit condition

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