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that attended the worship of "the image that fell down from extent in every part of their empire; hence it is in edifices Jupiter,” and such was the terror of the Ephesians that their constructed under their influence that the most perfect speci

. temple would be destroyed a second time, that, in the words mens are found. It was only in the construction of temples of the sacred historian, " when they heard these sayings they that the turbulent states of Greece could unite; and in conwere full of wrath, and cried out, saying, Great is Diana of the sequence of this union, they constructed edifices of great mag. Ephesians ;” and having assaulted Paul, and created a violent nitude and splendour. Many of this description were built uproar, the mob continued to utter the same cry, without and maintained at the expense of confederate states, and even intermission, for the “ space of two hours,” in the chief city of all Greece — such were the temples at Delphi, Delos, of Asia. (Acts xix. 23-28.)

Ephesus, Olympia, Eryx, etc.—and these temples had terri. The temple of Diana, at Magnesia, was built under the torial revenues, besides being enriched by private donations. direction of Hermogenes. He made its general dimensions The Greeks appear to have made the greatest progress in the the same as for a double range of columns; but, in order to arts, and to have constructed the most admirable of their afford more space to the porticoes, he omitted the inner range. edifices, during the period from the age of Solon and PythsThus a clear space was left between the outer range and the goras to the era of Alexander the Great. Their architecture body of the building; and thus he established the style called prevailed in the countries where they extended their influence the pseudo-dipterick. Vitruvius speaks with great veneration along the coast of Asia. Alexander and his successors introof this architect. The temple of Minerva Ulea, at Tegea, de- duced it into Egypt, and probably in the cities he built on his signed and erected under the direction of Scopas, was of route to India. To the westward it extended to Sicily, Italy, singular construction. The peristyle of the temple was of the and the south of France. After the brilliant period to which Ionic order; the interior was divided into three aisles by two we have alluded, the manners of the Greeks became Asiatic ; rows of Dorio columns, and over these were placed others of their sublime spirit of independence was subdued ; and the Corinthian order. The sculpture upon the two pediments although they continued for ages to be the instructors of their was executed by the artist himself.

Roman conquerors, their glory in the arts declined, and with The simplicity and severity of the Doric order having now it the purity and elegance of the Greek architecture. been abandoned, the artists of Greece Proper, not to be behind the inventors of the Ionic order, by an effort of genius, gave birth to a third order, which surpassed the Ionic in delicacy of

LESSONS IN GREEK.–VII. proportion and richness of decoration. This order was named the Corinthian. The merit of its invention is generally ascribed INSTEAD of os and ov, some nouns and adjectives have the terto Callimachus, a celebrated sculptor of Athens, who is supposed minations ws (m. and f.) and wv (n.); the w is retained through to have reached the zenith of his fame about 540 B.C. He

all the cases; the vocative is the same as the nominative. is said to have taken the idea of this order from observing the Though this form occurs in Ionic writers, as Herodotus, yet it leaves of the acanthus growing round a basket which had been bears the name of placed, with some favourite trinkets, upon the grave of a young

THE ATTIC DECLENSION, Corinthian lady; the stalks which rose among the leaves

Singular. having been formed into slender volutes by a square tile which

The people. The rope. The chamber.

Merciful. covered the basket. In the Corinthian order the column is Nom. όλεως. . και καλως. το ανωγεων. .

δ, ή ίλεως, το ίλεων. more elegant, and the capital longer and more ornamented than Gen. λεω. . καλω. . arwyew.

λεω. . in the Ionic, spreading in the form of a basket, and com. Dat. λεω. . καλώ. . ανωγεώ. .

idego. mingling the richest and lightest vegetation with the decora- Acc. λεων. . καλων. . ανωγεων. .

{Aewy. tions of preceding orders. The top of the capital, instead of Voc. λεως. . καλως. .

ανωγεων. .

λεως. . λεαΡ. being square, assumes the curvilinear form, having angular

Plural.
projections supported by elegant volutes. The mouldings
possess more beautiful ornaments than those of the Ionic or the

Nom.
λεω. καλω. . avwyew.

οί, αι ίλεω. τα λεω.

Gen.
Doric. The frieze is usually ornamented with scrolls of foliage;

λεών. .
καλών. ,
aywyewv.

λεων. . in the cornice, the corona is supported by modillions, which

Dat.

λεως. . καλώς. . ανωγεώς. . ιλεώς. .

Ace. represent the extremities of the beams of the roof, and are

λεως. . καλως. . avwyew.

λεως. . new. .

Voo. λεω. usually carved into a scroll (see Fig. III, a.). These elegant im

. kala. avwyew. Inece,

ineu. provements introduced into their orders rendered the Greeks

Dual. the real masters of architecture; because, previous to their N.A.V.

καλω. .
ανωγε. .

ίλε. . invention, the Egyptians and the Asiatic nations in general G.D. λεων.

. καλών. . ανωγεων. . in egen. . followed no precise rule in their constructions ; but as soon as the orders were founded on rational proportions, of an exact

Some words of both the masculine and feminine gender often and invariable nature, they were imitated in the edifices of drop the v of the accusative case, as : Aayws, the hare ; Tor every other nation.

Mayw; & Alws, Mount Athos, Toy Abw; ý éws, the dawn, always While awarding every credit to the ingenuity of the Greeks,

has την έω. however, it must not be forgotten that in the columns of

VOCABULARY. several, temples in Upper Egypt, whose

shafts represent bundles Ampws-wv, free from | Evedpeva, I lie in Muros, -w, , Minos of reeds or lotuses bound together in several places by fillets,

old age, deathless wait, capture. the capitals are formed by several rows of delicate leaves. In

(a, not; ypws, Epalvos,-ov, d, praise. News, -e, d, a temple. the ruins of Ellora, in India, the capitals of the columns are

old age).

Ευχομαι,I pray (with Πλειστος, -η, -ον, also composed of similar ornaments; and the Persians, at Aeros, -ov, d, dat.).

mnost, very maus their great festivals, were accustomed to introduce ornaments eagle.

“Ηρα, ας, ή, Hera | Πτερον, «ου, το, 3 of flowers at the tops of the pillars in their public apartments. AixuaAwtos, -ov, ó, (called by the feather, wing. From tradition, report, or personal observation, Callimachus a prisoner.

Latins, Juno). Ραδιος, , -ον, eas, might be made acquainted with these examples, and might be Avõpetos, -a, -ov, Onpevw, I hunt,catch. Laulos, -ov, è, a Sta led to the composition of the Corinthian capital, the chief manly, brave. Θηρευτης, -ου, ο, 8 mian. ornament of the Greek school. The Corinthian order, although Avopoyews, d, huntsman. distinguished for its richness and even luxuriousness of deco- Androgens (a pro- KTI(W, I found, build. worship ration in all its details, is essentially the most simple in its per name). naubavw, I take. Taws, ~, /, & pes. general character, and easiest in execution. The finest Amayw, I lead away. Mevedews, -w, 8, Me- cock. examples of this order were to be seen at Athens, in the monu- Baivu, I walk, go. nelaus (a proper 'Tios, -ov, /, 2 son. ment of Lysicrates, the Tower of the Winds, the Stoa or

name).

'Donep, even as. public piazzas, and the Arch of Adrian, at Athens; the Pantheon of Agrippa, and the three columns of the Campo Vaccino,

EXERCISE 15.-GREEK-ENGLISH. at Rome. The Corinthian order appears to have been but 1. Τοις Θεoις νεα κτιζονται, partially employed in Greece before the time of the Roman Baveu. 3. SIWKOMEV Tous Mayos. - 4. Apopoyews

mv : Mire vies

2. Ου ραδιον εστιν επι καλα conquest; but the Romans themselves employed it to a great 5. Oi nayo Ompevortal imo twy onpevtæv. 6. Exxov tas ideas @ce

λεω. .

(a proper name).

an

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Lebonai, I venerate

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vauv.

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gerous.

7. Οι αετοι τους λαγως ενεδρευουσιν. 8. Σεβεσθε τους ίλεως | But when a word ends in τ, the τ is either discarded or changed
θεους. 9. Οι ανδρειοι αγορων επαινον λαμβανουσιν. 10. Ευχου | into s; as :-
τον Θεον ίλεων εχειν. 11. Οι θεοι τοις αγαθοις ίλεως εισιν. 12.

Stem.
Nominative.

Genitive. .
Αι ήδοναι απαγoυσι τον πλειστον λεών ώσπερ αιχμαλωτον. 13.

πεπερι,
πεπερι, pepper;

πεπερι-. Οι Σαμιοι Ηρα καλους ταως τρεφουσιν. 14. Τα ταω καλα πτερα σωματ,

σωμα, body;

σωματ-0s. τερατ,

τερας, 2 prodigy; τερατ-ος. EXERCISE 16.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

The accusative has v in masculines and feminines ending in 1. You build temples to the gods. 2. Temples are built to

is, vs, avs, and ovs, the stems of which severally terminate in 1, the gods. 3. I build a temple to God. 4. They walk on ropes. v, av, and ov, as :5. We hunt hares. 6. Hares are hunted. 7. The Samians

Stem.
Nom.

Acc. worship beautiful peacocks. 8. They worship the merciful God.

πολι, 10. Huntsmen

πολιν.

πολις, a city; 9. God is merciful (gracious) to good men.

βοτρυ, βοτρυς, a bunch of grapes; βοτρυν. hunt hares. 11. Menelaus obtains deathless praise.

ναν,

ναυς, 8 ship;
VOCABULARY.

βου,
βους, an ΟΣ;

βουν. Ανοητος, -ον, sense-| Γαμετη, -ης, ή, a Θηριον, -ου, το,

If the stem ends in a consonant, a instead of v is found in the lawful wife.

wild beast.

accusative, as φλεβ, φλεψ, φλεβα, a vein; κορακ, κοραξ, κορακ-α, Απαγορεύω, I ame. Δειλος, -η, -ον, timid, Ιερος, ,-ον, (gen.),

a raven; λαμπαδ, λαμπας, λαμπαδ-α, a torch. Αρεσκω, I please. cowardly.

sacred, holy.

The vocative is the same as the nominative or as the stem. Βαβυλωνια, ας, ή, Εκφερω, I bring out, Πλοος (πλούς), -ου, o, The genders of the third declension are best learnt by practice. Babylon. produce.

a voyage. Βασιλειος, -α, -ον, Ελενη, -ης, ή, Helen. Ποιητης,-ου, δ, apoet. the Becond by the fact that it adds a syllable to the nominative,

The third declension may be distinguished from the first and kingly, royal; Ta Επι (dat.), On ac- Ροδοδακτυλος,

-OV, while in them all the cases have the same number of syllables. βασιλεια, the count of.

rosy-fingered.

Nouns which have the same number of syllables in all the cases kingly buildings, Επικινδύνος, -ον, dan- Στηλη, «ης, ή, ο

are termed parisyllabic (in Latin par, equal), and nouns which i..., the palace.

pillar. .

lengthen the genitive and the cases derived from it, are termed EXERCISE 17.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

imparisyllabic (Latin im (in), not). Hence tho first and second 1. Οι ταφ Ηρας Ιεροι ησαν. 2. Θαυμαζομεν Μενελεων επι τη

declensions aro called parisyllabic, and the third is called impari.

syllabic. αρετη. 3. Οι ποιηται την Έω ροδοδακτυλον απαγορευουσιν. 4. "Η αληθεια πολλακις ουκ αρεσκει τω λεφ. 5. Ελενη ην η Μενελεω

In order to facilitate the acquisition of a knowledge of the γαμετη. 6. Η Βαβυλωνια εκφερει πολλους ταως. 7. Εν τοις των

nouns of the third declension, and to afford you thorough pracθεων νεώς πολλαι στηλαι εισιν. 8. Οι λαγω δειλα θηρια εισιν. 9.

tice in them, I shall divide those nouns into several classes : *'o

τερι τον Αθω πλόυς ην κινδυνος. 10. Τα βασιλεια καλα ανωγεω 1. NOUNS WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A CONSONANT ; έχει.

and of these I give in the first placeEXERCISE 18.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

a. Nouns of which the Nominative gives the pure Slem. 1. Menelaus is admired on account of his bravery. 2. We The case-endings are appended to the nominative. admire the rosy-fingered dawn. 3. Many peacocks are produced

Singular. in Babylon. 4. In the temple of Hera is a beautiful peacock.

The Song of 5. Huntsmen catch peacocks. 6. Peacocks are caught by

Meadow. Xenophon,

Nectar. .

Victory. huntsmen. 7. Good citizens avoid the senseless people.

Nom.
ο παιαν. ο λειμων.

δ. Ξενοφων. το νεκταρ. THE THIRD DECLENSION.

Gen, παιάν-ος. λειμων-ος. Ξενοφωντ-ος. νεκταρ-05. The forms of the third declension in Greek are various, and Dat. παιάν-ι. λειμων-1. Ξενοφωντ-ι. νεκταρ-ι.

παιάν-α. can be learnt only by attentive practice. Some aid may, how. Acc.

λειμων-α. Ξενοφωντ-α. νεκταρ.

Voc. παιάν. ever, be given by means of classification.

λειμων. Ξενοφων.

νεκταρ. The variations occur mostly in the singular number, and in

Plural. the nominative and genitive cases. The forms of the nominative Nom. παιάν-Ες. Λειμων-€S. Ξενοφωντ-ες. νεκταρ-α. singular, which are numerous, will appear as we proceed, and Gen. παιάν-ων. λειμων-ων. Ξενοφωντ-ων. νεκταρ-ων. may therefore be omitted from this table of

Dat. παιά-σι. λειμω-σι. Ξενοφω-σι. νεκταρ-σι. THE CASE-ENDINGS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

Acc. παιάν-ας. λειμων-ας. Ξενοφωντ-ας. νεκταρ-α.
Voc.
. παιάν-Ες.

Ξενοφωντ-€5.
Plural.

λειμων-ες.
Singular,
Dual.

νεκταρ-α. Nom.

Dual.
Gen.

Ν. Α.V. παιάν-. λειμων-. Ξενοφωντ-€. νεκταρ-.
Dat.

G.D. παιάν-οιν. λειμων-οιν. Ξενοφωντ-οιν. νεκταρ-οιν.
Acc.
Voc.

The datives plural in full would be παιανσι, λειμωνσι, Ξενο

φωντσι, but the νis dropped before σι for the sake of euphony. Neuter nouns have the nominative, the accusative, and the Απολλων, Apollo; Ποσειδων, Poseidon (in Latin, Neptunus), τocative alike. The student who is acquainted with Latin will | are declined thus :-Απολλων, Απολλων-ος, Απολλων-ι, Απολ. readily see how much this Greek third declension corresponds | λων-α, also Απολλω-α and Απολλω, thus making the accusative with the Latin third declension.

singular in Απολλω; εο Ποσειδω. The terminations given above are affixed to the stem. The Απολλων, Ποσειδων, and σωτηρ, ο deliverer, Saviour, have the stern is, in some words, the same as the nominative; thus, | short vowel in the vocative, as ω Απολλον, ω Ποσειδων, ω σωτερ. λειμων, λειμων-ος, & meadow, where the ending os is simply The neuters of this subdivision end in p (ap, op, wp, up); TO added to λειμων. Ιn masculine and feminine nouns, however, πύρ, fire, has του πύρος. the stem often appears in the nominative in an altered form.

VOCABULARY. When the stem is so altered, you must find it before you aflix Atow, I sing. Γιγνωσκω, I know. Θαλλω, I bloom, flouthe case-endings to it. In order to find the stem, remove the Avayıywotw, I know 'Einnu, ó, a Greek. rish. genitive termination from the noun ; what remains is the stem;

again, recognise, "Ηδεως, pleasantly, Θηρ, -ος, o, a wild 4.9., Kopanos (of a crow), the os is the sign of the genitive, which

read.

with pleasure. beast. . being removed, leaves κορακ as the stem ; and κορακ is, for the Βιβλιον, -ου, το, a Θαλια, ας, ή, a rich | Κιθαρα, sake of euphony, lengthened in the nominative into kopars, that book (Eng., Bible). feast. .

harp. . is, kopats; for the laws of sound in Greek endure at the end of a word only these consonants, namely, v, p, o (€, 4); the other

* This arrangement is taken from the “Elementargrammatik consonants are either changed or thrown away. Hence the r in Griechischen Sprache,” von Dr. Raphael Kühner, 13th edit., Har the stem of Xenophon is dropped, as Ξενοφωντ-ος, Ξενοφωντ, 1852; to which most popular work, as well as to Dr. Kahner Zeywowy. Neuter nouns present the stem in the nominative. Manuals, the writer is much indebted.

ES

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σι (ν)

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v or a

as

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11.

Κρατηρ, -ος, και, a Σπουδαιος, -α, -ov, Xelp, -05, Ý, the diagrams, of which Fig. 11 shows the world in eastern and

goblet, bowl. earnest, or excel. hand; dat. xepoi, western hemispheres on the meridians of 160° W. long. and 20° Niśw, I wash.

lent.

dat. dual, xepow.

E. long. ; while Fig. 12 shows the world on the plane of the TIAELOTO1, -wv, d, very Tepmw, I delight, tep- Xopos, -ov, i, a cho equator in northern and southern hemispheres; and Fig. 13 the many. Trouai (with dat.), ral dance.

world on the plane of the horizon of London in hemispheresllup, -05, 70, fire. I am delighted Wnv, -os, é, a wasp. the one containing the greatest quantity of land, and the other

the greatest quantity of water that can be obtained in single EXERCISE 19.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

hemispheres by any similar bisection of the globe in any plane of 1. Φευγε τους θηρας. . 2. Χειρ χειρα νιζει. . 3. Anexov Tov a great circle. The land in the northern hemisphere is conψηνος. . 4. Οι λειμωνες θαλλουσιν. . 5. Oi otpatitat qdovoi sidered to occupy rather more than two-fifths of the whole hemi. παιάνα. 6. Εν πυρι χρυσον και αργυρον γιγνωσκομεν. 7. Πολλοι εphere, and the land in the southern hemisphere about one-right παρα κρατηρι γιγνονται φιλοι πλειστοι δε εχθροι. 8. Oi av@pwrol of the whole hemisphere. The land preponderates in the north. τερπονται κιθαρα και θαλια και, χοροις και παιάσιν. 9. Οι Ελληνες | eastern quarter of the globe, and the water in the south-western τον Απολλω και τον Ποσειδω σεβονται. 10. Οι σπουδαιοι μαθηται quarter. Scarcely any land has yet been discovered in the sonth τα Ξενοφωντος βιβλια ηδεως αναγιγνωσκουσιν.

frigid zone, and the limits of the land in the north frigid zono EXERCISE 20.--ENGLISH-GREEK.

have not hitherto been correctly ascertained. By far the greater 1. Avoid wild beasts. 2. They avoid a wild beast. 3. Wash portion of the land lies within the north temperate zone ; the the (thy) hands. 4. Keep ye from wasps. 5. A soldier is de- greater part of the remainder lies within the torrid zone; still lighted with the cry of victory. 6. The cry of victory delights less within the south temperate zone; and the least within the soldiers. 7. O earnest scholars, read the books of Xenophon.

north frigid zone. The greater part of the sea lies within the 8. The books of Xenophon are read by (úno, gen.) carnest torrid zone; the greater part of the remainder within the south scholars. 9. We delight in beautiful meadows (dat.). 10. The temperate zone; still less within the north temperate zone; and meadows bloom. 11. Poets worship Apollo. 12. The poet

the least within the north frigid zone. worships Poseidon.

On looking at a globe or map of the world, the student will perceive that all the great and continuous tracts of land, com

monly called continents (from the Latin continens, holding KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-VI. together), become pointed as they stretch towards the south, by EXERCISE 11.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

which they are made to assume a pyramidal or triangular form 1. Pursue honourable deeds, O beloved youth. 2. Obey the words at the extremity. The continents of North and South America of thy teacher. 3. Thou learnest excellent things from the excellent. and of Africa are the most remarkable illustrations of this fact. 4. A faithful friend partakes of (your) good and (your) bad things In consequence of this tendency to taper towards the south, so (fortunes). 5. The gods (eor) care for men. 6. Men worship narrow is the connecting link or neck of land (commonly called (Depanevovoiv) the gods. 7. Danger attends many works. 8. Good an isthmus, from the Greek 100uos, isth'-mos, a neck, or narrou things are mixed with bad. 9. The bad man is hostile to (at enmity passage) between North America and South America, that little with) gods and men. 10. Men rejoice in good (men or things).

more than forty miles of land separate Panama from Porto O God, grant good fortune (happiness) to our friends. 12. O slave, Bello, on opposite sides of the Isthmus of Darien. The southern bear the wine to the young man. 13. Wine (ó orvos) does not dissi- points of the other two continents are well known; Cape Horn pate, but begets cares. 14. Glory follows a difficult achievement.

must be considered as that of South America, notwithstanding EXERCISE 12.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

the Strait of Magellan; and the Cape of Good Hope that of 1. Οι αγαθοι τω θεώ πειθονται. 2. Ου πειθονται τω θεώ οι κακοι, 3. Africa. Here it may be useful to remark that when a tapering Πειθεσθε, ω καλοι νεανιαι, τη διδασκαλω. 4. οι κακοι τοις αγαθοις εχθροι | point of land projects into the sea, it is called a cape, from the

5. Των κακων απεχον. 6. Οι εσθλοι των παιδων επιμελoνται (φρον- Latin caput, a head, a figurative but very natural expression τιζουσι) 7. Μη το ψευστου λογω πιστευε, ω φιλε παι. 8. No los doyous for the extremity of the land, which may be considered as the επεται κινδυνος. 9. Οι εσθλοι νεανιαι τους διδασκαλους θεραπευουσιν. top or vertex of the triangular shape which it assumes when EXERCISE 13.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

jutting out from the continent to which it belongs. When the 1. Virtue, not time, is the measure of life. 2. Death liberates men

land thus projeoting into the sea is elevated considerably above from labours and evils. 3. Wine rejoices the minds of men. 4. With

the sea-level, it is called a promontory, from the Latin pro, in ten thousand trials honourable things arise (are produced). 5. The front of ; and mons, a mountain--that is, mountain-land in front divinity conducts the bad to judgment. 6. A faithful friend in a diffi- of the continent. The English term headland is often used for cult division (strife) is worth silver and gold. 7. There are many capes and promontories on a small scale, connected with the diseases among men. 8. Counsel leads to good. 9. Silence brings land; so is also the term naze or ness, from the Saxon næse, or honour to a youth. 10. The door is shut by bars. 11. Art nourishes German nase, a nose, or projection from the face. With regard

12. 0 beloved disciples (scholars), strive after wisdom and to the term strait, which is applied to a narrow passage of the sea virtue. EXERCISE 14.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

between two continents, or between a continent and an island, or

between two islands, it is evidently derived from streht, the past 1. Ty Oavaty arodvovrai Twv kakW oi av&pwon. 2. Tw Buw wollt nova participle of the Saxon verb streccan, to stretch, and bears the

3. “Η του θεου σοφια προς ευδαιμονιαν τους εσθλους αγει. 4. Τοις same relation to the water that the term isthmus does to the τον κριτου λογοις επου. 5. Οι του νέου λογοι εισι κακοι. 6. Η λυρα τας του land. θυμου μεριμνας λνει. 7. Νεφ προσήκει η ησυχια, 8. Τους αγαθους τρεφει η In reference to the continents of Europe and Asia, there is τεχνη. 9. Ο μοχλος κλείει την θυραν.

also the general tendency to taper towards the south; in the

former continent, however, this tendency is greatly obstructed LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XX.

by the vicinity of the African continent, so that the Iberiau

Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) does not so manifestly assumo NATURAL DIVISIONS OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. the triangular form. Still this tendency is partially developed The whole surface of the globe contains, as we have seen in the in various parts of the sonth of this continent; as in the conlast lesson (page 166), about 197,000,000 square miles. The formation of Italy and Greece, which taper, but very irregularly

, land is considered to contain about 52,000,000 square miles ; and towards the south, evidently in consequence of the feebler action consequently, the water or sea to contain about 145,000,000 of of the Mediterranean Sea, as compared with the full play of the square miles. This makes the proportion of the water to the land great Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In the latter continent, the nearly as 13 to 36, or, speaking in general terms, approximately tendency to taper toward the south has been divided in such as as 3 to 1. The proportion of the land to the whole surface of the manner as to present the three peninsulas of Arabia, India, and earth is about 4 to 15, or rather more than that of 1 to 4. Malacca, of which the

two former are pretty regular in form ; There is much more land in the northern hemisphere than in the but the latter, in combination with what is called the Eastern southern; and considerably more in the eastern hemisphere than Peninsula, is very irregular in this respect. in the western ; this may be seen at once by looking at a map of The term island is well known to signify a portion of land, the world; but it is more clearly seen by looking at a terrestrial whether large or small

, which is completely surrounded by water

. An accurate idea of the relative proportions of land and This word is derived from the Danish čie, an eye, and is literally "he earth's surface may be gained from the annexed eye-land, or land so called because it is surrounded by water, as

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the eye in the face is encircled with the eyelids and the sur- the north-east, and Polynesia in the south-west. Without rounding skin.

regarding artificial divisions, the land on the surface of the The term peninsula, from the Latin pene, almost, and insula, globe is naturally divided into three great sections, namely, originally signified land nearly surrounded by water ; that is, ist. The Old World, in the eastern hemisphere, comprehending according to the etymology, almost an island: but it is now the vast, united, triple continent of Europe, Asia, and Africa, more frequently applied

which extends from Cape to the triangular-shaped

PASTERN"RTMISPHERE
THE WORLD

Severo, or North-east portions of land which

Cape, the most northerly taper in any direction,

MERIDIAN

point of Siberia, in the and jut out from the great

Arctic Ocean, to the Cape continents, as in the three

of Good Hope in the cases above mentioned in

South Atlantic Ocean, a Asia. The great Euro

distance of 8,400 miles ; pean peninsulas have also

and from Cape Verd, the been mentioned; namely,

most westerly headland Greece, Italy, and Spain

of Africa, in the North and Portugal combined ;

Atlantic Ocean, to these may be added

the Isthmus of Suez to the large peninsula of pelea

the east coast of China Sweden and Norway, and

on the Pacific Ocean, a the smaller peninsula of

distance of about 9,000 Jutland or Denmark, the

miles. 2nd. The New latter of which is an ex

Fig. 11.

World, in the western ception to the general

hemisphere, comprehend. rule, as it points northward. The continents of South America | ing the great, united, double continent of North and South and Africa are justly entitled to the name of peninsulas; the America, with the neighbouring islands, extending from still former being attached to North America by the Isthmus of undefined limits in the Arctic Ocean to Cape Horn, a distance Panama or Darien, and the latter to Asia by the Isthmus of of about 9,000 miles; and from the western shores of the Suez. From the consideration of the series of islands which lies Atlantic Ocean to the eastern shores of the Pacific Ocean, between the peninsula of

a distance varying in Malacca and the small

breadth from 40 to 3,500 continent of Australia,

miles. 3rd. Oceania, there is reason to believe Pol

comprehending the conthat the latter was in

tinent of Australia and connected

the groups of islands in with Asia, South

the East Indian ArchiAmerica now is with

pelago or Malaysia, AusNorth America; Austra

tralasia, Micronesia, and lia, and the island of

Polynesia, the principal Tasmania, to the south

of which are the Sunda of it (and no doubt ori.

Isles, the Philippines, ginally forming a part of

Borneo, Papua or New it), then most probably

Guinea, Tasmania, New constituting the apex of

Zealand, and the various the great triangular

clusters of isles scattered shaped peninsula (taper

far and wide over the ing to the south, accord

Fig. 12.

Pacific. ing to the general law)

The Old World, so in which this vast southern continent once terminated. It is called because its history is known for a period of nearly further worthy of remark, in speaking of the great continents 6,000 years, is composed of the three great sections denominated which become pointed as they approach the south, that their continents, namely, Europe in the north-west, Asia in the projections most generally terminate abruptly in lofty mountain north-east, and Africa in the south-west, taking Jerusalem as chains, which there dip beneath the waters of the ocean. the central point. Europe is separated from Asia by a bounIn regard to the divi.

dary composed of sions of the land on the

mountain chain called surface of the globe, we

Perdifia Ocean

the Qural or Ural Mounfind that by the older geo

tains; the river Oural or graphical writers it was

Ural; the Caspian Sea; divided into four great

Mount Caucasus, a range parts, called quarters

of mountains stretching of the world; namely,

from the Caspian Sea to Europe, Asia, Africa, and

the Black Sea; and a America. This division,

chain of inland seas, the however, is very incor

Sea of Azov, the Black rect, inasmuch as it leaves

Sea, the Sea of Marmora, out the continent of Aus

and the Archipelago, the tralia, the great island

north-eastern arm of the of Borneo, etc., and vast

Mediterranean. These groups of smaller islands

four bodies of water are scattered through the

connected by the Strait ocean, and valuable for

Fig. 13.

of Kertch or nikale, their population and pro

the Bosphorus, and the dace. A more common and more accurate division is that of Dardanelles. Asia is separated from Africa by the Arabian Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Oceania, Gulf and the Isthmus of Suez. Europe is separated from Africa six great portions, of which the first five are continental, by the Mediterranean Sea. and the sixth continental and insular. Oceania is further sub- The New World, so called because its history is known divided by geographers into four parts, namely, Malaysia in for a period of rather more than 350 years, is composed the north-west, Australasia in the south-west, Micronesia in great sections denominated continents, namely, North

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and South America, which are connected with each other by the For instance, suppose it to be required to find the value of Isthmus of Darien or Panama (pronounced pan-a-mar'). Between 375 cwt. 3 qrs. 21 lbs. at £4 14s. Ed. per cwt. these continents, on the eastern side, north of the equator and First find the value of 375 cwt, at £4 14s. 6d. per cwt. by within the torrid zone, are situated the West Indies, a range of the previous method. This will be done as follows:islands stretching in a curved line from the Gulf of Florida to the mouth of the Orinoco. South of Asia, and east of the 375 cwt. would cost at £1 per cwt.

375 00 Arabian Sea, consisting partly of the continent and partly of the islands south of it, are situated the East Indies, lying almost

10s, which is of £1

187 10 0 wholly within the torrid zone, and comprehending the penin

} of £1 sulas of India and Further India, Hirdostan within and India

6d.
of 4s.

9 7 6 beyond the Ganges, with the island of Ceylon and the group of islands denominated the East Indian Archipelago, the Asiatic Archipelago, or Malaysia. Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes, Again, by the previous workingthe principal of these islands, are situated directly under the equator.

1 cwt, would cost The relative position of the greater part of the places men- 375 cwt. would cost tioned in this lesson may be ascertained from an inspection of

2 qrs.

1 of 1 cwt., or the figures in the preceding page, or the Map of the World in

1 of 2 qrs., or

3 71 page 144. Our readers will find it useful, when studying our

0 11 91 Lessons in Geography, to make a map of the world on a large

7 lbs.
1 of 14 lbs., or

0 5 109 1 scale according to the directions given in the last lesson, and to mark in the position and name of each place, as soon as it

Therefore 375 cwt. 3 qrs, 21 lbs, would cost . £1776 6 1 occurs for the first time.

The fraction being of a farthing. If, however, the fractional part of the farthing were put in terms of a fraction of a penny,

the result would be written £1776 6s. 1 d. LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XXIX. 11. Sometimes, by inspection, we can see that one or both PRACTICE.

of the compound quantities which are expressed in different

denominations can be simply expressed as a fraction of one of 8. Definition. -- Any fraction of a quantity the numerator of the denominations. This will much simplify the operation. which is unity, is called an aliquot part of that quantity.

EXAMPLE. Find the value of 24 cwt. 1 qr. 9 lbs. 5} oz. at Thus 4s, and 6s. 8d. are each aliquot parts of a pound, being £2 58. 6d. per cwt. respectively and of it.

Here it is readily seen that 1 qr 9 lbs. 5} oz. is } of a cwt. In finding the value of any given compound quantity from Honce the question is reduced to finding the value of 24 ct. the given value of any other given quantity of the same kind, à convenient form of multiplication, called Practice, is often

24 cwt. would cost at £1 per cwt. employed. It depends, as will be seen, upon the principles of fractions and the judicious choice of aliquot parts. 9. EXAMPLE 1.–Find the value of 3589 cwts. at £1 11s. 6 d.

58. which is of £1 per cwt.

60.

as of 5s. This might be effected in various ways. We might, for

54 12 instance, reduce the money to farthings, multiply by 3589, and then reduce the result to pounds, shillings, and pence; or we

| cwt, would cost might reduce the money to the fraction of a pound, and then,

7 2 Ans multiplying by 3589, reduce the resulting fraction to pounds, shillings, and pence. But we may also evidently obtain a correct 12. If both commodity and price are easily expressible by result if we divide the whole sum into portions, multiply each fractions, it will generally be found most convenient to treat of these portions separately by 3589, and then add the results the question as in the following together. This we are able to do, simply by the aid of aliquot EXAMPLE.—Find the value of 15 cwt. 2 qrs. 7 lbs. at £1 6s. 8d. parts, as follows :3589 cwts. at £1 per cwt, will cost

15 cwt. 2 qrs. 7 lbs. = 15 + 1 += 151 cwt.

.£3589 00 Since 10s, is £, 3589 cwts. at 10s, each will cost , of

£1 68, 8d. = £13.

Hence the required valne will be 15,8 x 13 pounds, £3589, or.

1794 100 Since 1s. is io of 108., 3589 cwts. at 18. cach wili

Or,

£20: £20 158. cost 's of the same number at 108. each, or i'o of £1794 108., which is

9 0 Since 6d. is of 1s., 3589 cwts at 6d. each will cost of

13. In employing the method of practice, a good deal must be the same number at 1s, each, or of £179 98., or

loft to the student's judgment as to dividing the compound Since d. is 's of 6d., 3589 cwts, atd. each will cost

quantity into separate portions, so that the aliquot parts shall to of the same number at 6. each, or is of

be the most convenient. £89 14s. 6d., whic' is

7 96 Tables of aliquot parts of £1, of a hundredweight, an acre, Since : a. is of :a., ... 9 cwts at :a. ench will cost į

eto., are drawn up for the convenience of persons much engaged of the same number at ;d. each, or of £7 98. 6 ., which is

3 14 9

in calculations; but the learner had better trust to his memory

and knowledge of fractions in solving any question of the kir.d Honce 3589 at £1 + 3589 at 10s. + 3589 at 1s. + 3589

with which he may be concerned. at 6d. + 3589 at 14. + 3589 at d. will coste . £5063 17 92

EXERCISE 48.-EXAMPLES IN PRACTICE. The above is the explanation of the process, which may be Find the cost of arranged as follows :

d. 1. 1625 yards at

84 per yari. 3589 cwts. would cnet nt £l por cwt.

2. 1 129 yards at 103. which is

. 1794 10 0

3. 749 yards at 1 of ius.

4. 1689 yards at

4 103 per yard. of ls.

89 14
5. 2 176 yards at

0 18
a.
14. oi ca.

9 6.5

6. 313 cwt. at
d.
of 1.

7. 9999 tons at

7 17
8. 5926 articles at
£5663 17 93

9. 1000 articles at
10. 2010 articles at

8 104 each. 10. If the quantity riose vaine is to be found, and also the

11. $9 articles at

3 11

5 each. price given, be each exposed in vari us denominations, then a 12. 535 articles at

1 somewhat different method must be adopted.

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13. 112 cwt. 1 qr. 17 lbs. at

each.

5 10 8 11

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