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"Do you suppose the state of this realm to be so feeble, that it “A being of dependent nature remains independent upon him."cannot bear off a greater blow than this p"—Hayreard.

South. " And bears down all before it with impetuous force."- Dryden. It is a rule that verbs, compounds of the Greek, Latin, and "And ebbing tides bear back upon th' uncertain sand.”—Dryden, French languages, take after them the same prepositions as "Cæsar doth bear me hard ; but he loves Brutus."-Shakespeare.

those which enter into their structure; thus, we say sympathise "Give but the word, we'll snatch his damsel up,

with, for the sym of sympathise denotes with. In the same And bear her of."-Cato.

way we say adhere to; intervene between. Yet we say prefer To this list nautical phrases would add, to bear down on an to, instead of prefer before (præ, Latin, before). We have also enemy, and to bear up against the wind; to bear round a head conformable with, and conformable to. land, and bear over a sea ; to bear by an island, and bear through

“ The fragments of Sappho give us a taste of her way of writing & strait. What variety of meaning arises from these un

conformable with that character we find of her."- Addison. combined suffixes may be seen by taking a single thing as their

“He gives a reason conformable to the principles.”- Arbuthnot. object. Let the first be a river and the second a bridge. With, however, seems to denote a greater degree of resemblance To go near a river.

or correspondence than to. According to the rule just enunciated,

To go near a bridge. To go along a river.

To go along a bridge.

averse (a, from; and verto, I turn) would take from after it; yet To go into a river,

To go over a bridge.

we say not averse from, but averse to. Exception (ex, out of; To go through a river,

To go across a bridge. and capio, I take) would require out of or from; yet we say, To go over a river.

To go under a bridge. exception to.
To go under a river.
To go upon a bridge.

“Pleads, in exception to all general rules,
To go upon
a river,
To go above a bridge.

Your taste of follies with our scorn of fools."-Pope. On a tempestuous night a horseman fatigued with a long day's

The elegance as well as the propriety of language much journey, in attempting to go across a dilapidated bridge, was blown over it into the river. If you go through the Thames you will probably be depends

on a correct use of the prepositions, and, consequently, drowned; if

, by means of the Tunnel, you go under it, you will not wet I shall make them the subject of a series of exercises in English the role of your foot. A balloon will carry you over the Thames, and

composition. you may cross the river in a wherry. I sauntered along the river, and

PARSING. at length went upon its tranquil bosom. My cousin walked under the God made the little worm that crawleth on the ground. I saw a fly bridge, while I was above it in the balloon, and we both saw the sheep crawl up the window pane. Let us go forth into the green fields. go into the river.

John has gone down into the cellar. The buds come out on the trees. These adverbial suffixes must not be confounded with ordinary The cowslips hold up their heads ; Will the cowslips never hang their adverbs. They are only a small portion of ordinary adverbs. heads down ? The goslings are running on the green. They are now Their connection with their verbs is more intimate than is the going down into the pond. The hen sits upon her nest. When the

hen has broken the shell, the chicken will come out. connection of ordinary adverbs, for though uncombined they

The sheep can form a part of the verb in each case, and are essential to its scarcely stand under their wool. The butterflies flutter from bush to

bush. The young animals of very kind sport about. The shepherd signification. The office of the ordinary adverb is not to careth for his sheep, and bringeth them back to the fold. My son, change the import of a verb, but to denote the manner of its take care of your aged mother, and sustain her in her weakness. action. In to bear patiently, the adverb patiently does nothing Your mother brought you up on her knees. You lay in her bosom. more than mark the way in which the evil is borne ; it is borne She fed you with her own vital substance. Therefore, let her now, in patiently, not impatiently, not peevishly, not complainingly. her age, cleave to you, and, upheld by you, let her gently go down But to bear through, as “ the admiral bore through the enemy's

into her tomb. line,” is in the primitive sense of the term not to bear at all, nor

EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION. in the derivative sense to endure, but to sail or direct a ship. Make a simple sentence comprising the words which follow. Besides, ordinary adverbs may be connected with these adverbial

Words with their proper Prepositions. suffixes ; as, for example, " the admiral boldly bore through the

Abandoned to, F. R.* abandon, surrender. enemy's line."

Abhorrence of, horre, stiff with fright.

Abound in,

und, wave. 2. Prepositions.

Absent from,

ens, being. Abstain from,

tene, to hold, I have termed the uncombined suffixes of which I have spoken

Accede to,

ced, to go. adverbs and adverbial suffixes. In doing so I have, in regard to

Acceptable to,

cap, to take. such as into, through, etc., considered them in their connection

Access to,

ced, to go. with their several verbs. Thus viewed, they in construction are

Accessory to,

ced, to go. taken as parts of their verbs. In consequence the verbs become

Account of,

computare, reckoned, compound, and in their compound state govern their objects.

Accuse of

caus, cause. But through, into, and others may be viewed as prepositions.

Acquaint with,

cognosc, to know. When so considered they are connected not so much with the

Acquiesce in,

quies, rest. verb as with the noun, which in that case is governed not by

Acquit of,

quit, to free. Adapted to,

apt, to fit. the verb but by the preposition ; in other words, the noun is

Add to,

do, to give. directly dependent on the preposition rather than on the verb.

Adequate to

æqu, equal. I may illustrate my meaning by an example of

Adhere to,

hære, to stick. 1. A Verb compounded with 2. A Preposition connected with

Adjacent to,

jace, to lie.
a Sufia.
a Noun.

Adjudge to,

judec, a judge. He went under the bridge. He went under the bridge.

Questions : What is the difference between accord with, and accord The boat sailed-down the river. The boat sailed down the river. to ? between accountable to, and accountable for ? between admit, and

In the use of prepositions in connection with verbs, special admit of ? between address, and address to ? regard must be paid to usage. The power of the verb is

In order that you may clearly see what I require, I give a materially affected by the preposition. This fact is broadly sentence or two by way of example. seen in the appending of to or of to the verb to speak; for Such conduct draws upon him the abhorrence of all men. Such example, to speak to, to speak of. Besides the phrase to speak conduct subjects him to the wrath of God. to, we use the phrase to speak with. The two meanings are The former sentence is constructed on draws upon; the latter nearly the same, but to speak to is to address, and to speak with is constructed on subjects to. Suppose that I had given absence is to interchange remarks, to converse.

The usage you

are to from and arrival at, as the germs of a sentence, then I perform follow is present usage. In its very nature usage is a varying what is demanded, thus :thing. Of old, to lay hold on was employed in the way of our

Your absence from home has given your parents much pain. John's to lay hold of. At present we say dependent on, but in

arrival at Portsmouth has inspired all the family with hope. dependent of, yet the two adjectives, as they differ only in the negative in, would naturally require the same construction; and

* F. R. signifies Foreign Representatives, that is, the stem in the in former days on was used with independent as well as Latin, French, etc., which forms the root or substance of the word : dependent.

in these stems, only the essential or radical letters are given.

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXXI. writing, which is slanting and angular, while the former is stiff

and upright. The characters in which the words that form the LEGAL HANDWRITING.-I.

remainder of our specimen of legal engrossing-hand are written, We now introduce to the notice of our readers handwriting of are merely modifications of the ordinary German text, or, which a very different description to any that has yet been set before is pretty much the same thing, our ordinary round-hand letters them, namely, an illustration of the "engrossing hand” used written in a stiff, upright manner, and in such a way as to by law writers and law stationers in writing, or, to use the impart to them the general characteristics of the letters used in technical expression, engrossing deeds and legal documents of German text-hand. various kinds.

A little practice will enable the reader to write a very Amongst lawyers the term engrossing means the making of a creditable engrossing-hand when he has once found out the way fair copy of any document on paper or parchment in clear and in which the pen ought to be held, and detected the method distinct characters, or, in other words, to transcribe in a legible that is followed in the formation of the different letters. It is manner the rough draft of any deed that has been prepared for clear, in the first place, that the pen cannot possibly be held in transcription by a lawyer or barrister. This knowledge will the ordinary way, with the end pointing over the right shoulder help us to ascertain the meaning of the word engross. It is in a direction from right to left, as many of the perpendicular derived, as a little examination is sufficient to show, from the and horizontal thick strokes that appear in the writing could French preposition en, in, and the adjective gros, large. The not be made when the pen is held in such a position. The pen expression to engross, in its literal acceptation, means to make and for engrossing a quill should be used in preference to a

WUbereas te saub ruw of ustury

hat said suus of mouth aut Storki art wow staudiug úc tat uauts of het said Trusters in het Books at iac Baul of England, and the saut suus aud all iwtartst whüra Ras artur frie raaucou sure tac Cestator's Seata belongs to the partico of Hae Haird and fourta parts in total shared and proportious.


large, and therefore distinct, as the larger in reason are the steel pen) is held pointing over the knuckle of the forefinger of characters in which a document is written, the more distinct the right hand in a direction bearing from left to right, while and legible they are. Hence the word engross, which, in its the nib is placed at such an angle with the paper that a thick primary sense, merely means to make large, has taken a perpendicular or horizontal stroke may be readily made, the secondary meaning, namely, to copy writing in large or distinct former by turning the pen a little to the left and drawing characters; and we can also trace the force of the simple and downwards in a straight line, and the latter by turning the pen original meaning in a third signification that has been assigned a little to the right and drawing it in a transverse direction to the word, when we speak of a person who is occupied in from left to right. some absorbing pursuit as being wholly engrossed in his occupa- The remainder of the strokes that form the rest of the letters tion-his employment, be it what it may, having taken such a in onr specimen are formed, for the most part, by moving hold on him, and assumed such large proportions in his mind, the pen downwards in a semi-circular

motion from left to right. that he has little or no room

there, if we may be permitted to The kind of stroke that is meant will be recognised on looking use the expression, for other thoughts.

at the letters m and n, which are formed entirely by a repetition In the specimen of legal engrossing-hand before us, we may of the stroke, thrice for the letter m, and twice for the letter n. trace the very source from whence it has sprung by an exami. The small letters, C and e, which may be seen together in since, nation of the characters that are used in it. Of the letters that the second word' in the sixth line, present the most striking compose the first word of the first line, Whereas, there can be peculiarities in engrossing-hand : the former is a short, thick, no doubt whatever, as they are simply characters written boldly perpendicular stroke, crossed at the top by a short horizontal and clearly in what is called German text, so termed from its line slightly turned upwards towards the finish; while the e is the close resemblance to the characters in which the majority of stroke

of which the letters m and n are formed,

with a stroke German works are printed. It must be borne in mind that rather longer and

turned up more at its completion than that German text in no way resembles the ordinary German hand with which the letter c is finished.


the presence of an involucrum surrounding each flower, by the

adhesion of the ovary to the calyx at its upper portion only ; SECTION XXXVIII.-COMPOSITÆ, OR COMPOSITE

lastly, by the pendant and albuminous seed. FLOWERED PLANTS (continued).

The great family, Compositæ, is dispersed all over the globe ; We must not omit to mention, while discussing the various nevertheless, the number both of species and of individuals means taken advantage of by Nature to promote the dissemina- rapidly diminishes towards either pole, and slightly towards the tion of Composito, a very grotesque arrangement possessed by equator. They chiefly inhabit temperate and hot regions, more certain species, in virtue of which animals are made the uncon especially tropical islands, and districts on the sea-coast of troscious bearers of the precious vegetable charge. The bract, pical continents. America is richest in the greatest number of which we have already seen competent to assume so many shapes, species. Herbs belonging to this order grow in climates which becomes in certain species of this natural order hooked, covering are temperate and cold; shrubs in regions still hotter; and each torus with hundreds of claw-like arms. Who has not seen trees in the hottest of all. Moreover, the latter are exclusively this curious provision on the burdock, though, perhaps, the confined to intertropical and antarctic islands. Tubuliflore are utility of this singular appendage has not suggested itself? numerous between the tropics, Liguliflore in the northern temThe use of this book, no doubt, is for the purpose of causing the perate region. Labiatifloræ are rare out of America, where they torus to lay hold of the skins of animals or other passing objects. abound between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn.

The Composite being a natural order which includes so large Whatever may be the locality of any one species belonging to a number of species, some kind of subordinate classification this order, it is rare that such family can be naturalised else







becomes necessary.

Botanists are by no means agreed as to the where. In this respect the Composito are peculiarly unbending ; best method of accomplishing this. Perhaps the system of neither care nor culture will generally suffice to effect a permaDecandolle and Endlicher is most generally convenient : accord- nent reconciliation between the transported plants and their new ing to which the order Compositoe is divided into three series ; homes. first, Lipuliflore, or strap-shaped flowers, from the Latin ligula, The immense family of Compositoe furnishes mankind with a strap; second, Labiatifloræ, or lip-shaped flowers, from the numerous useful products, some of which will now be rapidly Latin labium, a lip; third, Tubuliflorą, or funnel-shaped flowers, enumerated. The radiated Tubuliflore, regarded in the aggrefrom the Latin tubulus, a funnel or small tube. These sub- gate, may be said to contain in the flower a bitter principle comfamilies are divided into eight tribes, which are again divided bined with a resin or volatile oil; associated with these there is and subdivided until each final species is arrived at.

frequently discoverable in the root a material something resem. There are a few natural orders which, regarded in the tout bling starch, and designated chemically by the specific name Ensemble of their general characteristics, approach the Compo: inuline, because it is chiefly found in the elecampane (inula). sito. The little family of Calyceraceæ presents a great analogy According to the mutual proportions in which one or another with them, both as regards the inflorescence and the structure i of these bodies may predominate, the various species become of individual flowers. It differs from Composito, however, in i endowed with different medicinal properties. Some are tonics, the circumstances that the seed, instead of being erect the others excitants or stimulants, others are astringents. The base of the ovary, is suspended from the summit of the latter; great genus Artemisia, represented throughout all the world by that the embryo is enclosed in a fleshy albumen; that the radicle different species, furnishes us with various bitter aromatics, the is superior; that the style, always undivided, is terminated by a properties of many of which have been celebrated from periods capitular stigma. Next come the Dipsaceæ, of which the greater of very high antiquity. Two species, Artemisia absinthium, and portion resemble the Compositæ, by their inflorescence being that Artemisia Pontica, are indigenous. Southernwood, or Arteof a capitular involucrum ; but which differ from the family in misia abrotanum, originally from the East, is now cultivated in the circumstance of imbricated æstivation and free anthers, by our gardens, and of world-wide reputation for its penetrat







odour. All these species of composite-flowered plants owe their merce, being employed as a substitute for, or an adulteration of, properties to the presence of a bitter principle, a peculiar acid, coffee. We should remark, however, that throughout Germany and a volatile oil. Perhaps the most valuable product of the and France the coffee-drinking public has become so accustomed Composite family is a volatile oil, acrid in some species, only to the flavour of coffee mixed with a certain amount of chicory, bitter in others. Pre-eminent in the list stands chamomile, use- that simple coffee is never by preference employed. Endive ful in so many diseases. Arnica montanum, a plant which grows (Cichorium endivia), so much employed as a salad, is also one in Germany, Switzerland, and France, also owes its medicinal of the Chicoraceæ, etiolated, or bleached, by protecting it during qualities to the presence of a volatile oil.

growth from the direct action of air and light. Two varieties of The genus Helianthus, in which the common sunflower is endive are known to gardeners; one with large oblong leaves, included, deserves especial notice for the products which it very slightly charged with the bitter principle; the other more yields. Helianthus tuberosus is a perennial plant, indigenous to decidedly bitter, and having leaves which are very much subBrazil, though now cultivated in various European countries. divided and crisped. Its subterraneous stem produces enormous tubercles, charged The genus Lactuca, or lettuce, is a very important one belongwith inuline, and therefore very nutritive. Their odour is nau- ing to the sub-tribe Chicoracec. All the members of this genus seous, but their taste agreeable; consequently, after being well are characterised by possessing a bitter acrid juice, and being seasoned, they may be eaten by man, They resist the attack of strongly odorous. All the lettuces contain wax, caoutchouc frost, in which respect they are different to most tubers, and or india-rubber, a resin, a bitter crystallisable matter, and a consequently furnish good winter fodder for cattle. The Helian. peculiar volatile principle. Most of the lettuce genus are medithus annuus, or sunflower, is familiar to most of us.

cinal, the predominant medical quality of each being determined The sunflower, however, has other merit than this. Its seeds by the preponderance of one principle. Even common garden afford, by expression, large quantities of a fixed oil admirably lettuce, in the condition in which we eat it as a salad, is known adapted for purposes of illumination and the soap manufacture. popularly to be endowed with soporific properties; but the We shall now conclude this notice of radiated Tubulifloro by narcotic energy is most strongly developed in the Lactuca virosa, mentioning the synchodendron, a tree fifty feet in height, and a plant growing in Central Europe. the largest of the Composite. It is a native of Madagascar, in the deep valleys of which island it grows; and although it does not furnish a product useful to man, it aids him in another way.

LESSONS IN LATIN.-XX. When the synchodendron flowers, the natives know the best season has arrived for sowing their rice.

PARADIGM OF THE VERB SUM--COMPOUNDS OF SUM. The genus Cynara comprehends many species, of which one, full.' This verb is sometimes called an auxiliary verb, as by

It will be convenient here to present the verb Esse, to be, in the common artichoke (Cynara scolymus), is familiar to most of its aid (auxilium) parts of other verbs are formed. It is also us. The part which we eat in this vegetable is the bracteal called the substantive verb, as in its essence it denotes being or involucre, or rather the fleshy base of each bract, and the common receptacle. The Italians are more expert in turning the

substance. urtichoke to account. They tie all the petioles together into one mass, curve the plant at right angles, and surround it with earth. In this manner, not only the capitulum, but the whole Singular.


Singular. upper portion of the plant, becomes etiolated, or bleached, and Sum, I am.

Eram, I was. Fui, I hate beon. forms a sort of cabbage head, caten as a salad by the Italians.

Es, thou art.

Eras, thou wast. Fuisti, thou hast been. Several individuals of the Carthamus tribe of Composite are

Est, he is.

Erat, he was, Fuit, he has been. conspicuous on account of the colouring matter which they yield. Sámus, we are.


Plural. Of these the Carthamus tinctorius, or safflower plant, is the Estis, you are.

Eramus, we were.

Fulmus, we have beer.

Erätis, ye were. most valuable. It is an annual, indigenous to India, but now Sunt, they are.

Fuistis, ye have been, Erant, they were.

Fuērunt, they liave been. cultivated in various other parts of Asia, America, and Europe. Its florets contain two colouring principles, one of which is much more soluble in water than the other. It is this latter, however, Fušram, I had been.


Singular. which the dyer seeks. Although rather insoluble in water, it is Fučras, thou hadst been. Eris, thou shalt be.

Éro, I shall be.

Fuero, I shall have becii. easily extracted by alkaline leys, from which it admits of ready Fuěrat, he had been.

Fueris, thou shalt have beer;

Erit, he shall be. Fuerit, he shall hare been. precipitation by the addition of an acid. The colouring prin.

Plural. ciple thus obtained is denominated carthamine. The cartha- Fuerāmus, we had been. Erim us, we shall be. Fuerimus, we shall have been


Plural. mine of Egypt and of Persia are most esteemed ; that of Spain Fuerātis, ye had been. Eritis, ye shall be. follows next in order ; that of France, Mexico, and Germany is Fuérant, they

had been. Erunt, they shall be. Fuerint, they shall hare bez.

Fueritis, ye shall han ben. of less value. Unfortunately, the tint communicated by safilower, although beautiful, is very fleeting. Carthamus florets are fre

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. quently mingled with those of true saffron as an adulteration. The marigolds are regarded by the generality of botanists as Sing. Sim, I may be.

Sing. Essem, I might be. a sub-tribe of the Carduacee. The common marigold (Calendula

Sis, thou mayest bo.

Esses, thou mightest be. Officinalis) is cultivated in gardens; it contains a bitter muci- Plu.

Sit, he may be.

Esset, he might be. Simus, tre may be.

Plu. laginous substance, various salts, and a small quantity of volatile

Essemus, tre might be. Sitis, ye may be.

Essetis, ye might be. oil. It was formerly celebrated in medical practice, and is now Sint, they may be.

Essent, they might be. again employed by the homeopathic practitioner (Fig. 174).

The Ligulifloro, or Chicoraceæ, contain a milky juice in their circulating vessels, also bitter, saline, resinous, and narcotic Sing. Fuerim, I may have been. Sing. Fuissem, I might have beent. principles. Their properties vary according to the predominance

Fueris, thou mayest have been.

Fuisses, thou mightest hareban. attained by one over the other of these substances. The herb Plu. Fuerimus, we may have been. Plu. Puissem is, we might have been.

Fuisset, he might have been, part of several of the Chicoraceæ, if cooked whilst young, before Fueritis, ye may have been.

Fuissétis, ye might have beet. the milky fluid has become completely formed, is an agreeable Fuerint, they may have been.

Fuissent, they might have been. article of food; but the Chicoraceæ are more celebrated in medi. cine than in dietetics. One of the most useful as well as the

IMPERATIVE MOOD. most common of Chicoracece is the dandelion (Taraxacum leon

Es or esto, be thou,

Este or estöte, be ye.


Esto, lot him be. todon, Fig. 175), a small perennial, having a wide distribution.

Sunto, let them be. Not only is it found abundantly in the British Isles, but through

INFINITIVE MOOD. out Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. The chicory (Cichorium Present. Esse, to be.

Future. intybus), remarkable amongst indigenous Compositæ for its blue

Perfect. Fuisse, to have been.

be about to be. flowers, is scarcely less common than the dandelion, and, perhaps,

PARTICIPLES. equally valuable as regards the results it yields. The root of Prosent. Ens, being (not used in good Latin, but found in the compound wild chicory is employed in medicine ; that of garden chicory,

præsons). when dried and roasted, is the object of a considerable com

Future. Futūrus, -a, -um, about to be








Fore, or futörum esse, to


The verb esse is made up of parts of two separate verbs; first,

EXERCISE 75.—LATIN-ENGLISH. a verb of which es is the root; and secondly, of a verb, the stem 1. Quamdiu felix eris, multi tibi erunt amici. 2. Pugna fuit atrocig. of which is fu (compare fio in Latin, and ouw, fu'-o, in Greek). sima, propterea quod utriusque exercitus milites fortissimi fuerunt. From es (esum originally for sum) came the present, the imper. 3. Ante belii initium in urbe fuerāmus. 4. Demosthenis ætate multi fect, and the first future tenses; from fuo came the perfect, the oratores magni et clari fuerunt, et antea fuerant, nec postea defuērunt.

5. Hæc res non profuit nobis sed obfuit. 6. Si quis virtutis compos pluperfect, and second future tenses. The verb sum has neither gerund nor supine, and is in other erit, semper beātus erit. 7. Quamdiu sorte inea contentus ero, ero

felix. 8. Actio recta non erit, nisi recta fuerit voluntas. 9. Si probi respects defective, as appears from the paradigm just given.

fuerimus, non deerit hominum laus. 10. Attenti este, discipuli. 11. Sum takes before it certain prepositions, and is modified by Homines mortis memores sunto. 12. Contenti estote sorte vestra ! them in its meaning; thus, with ad, adsum, it means I am at 13. Mi fili, semper virtutis præceptorum memor esto! 14. Vir prudens or near; with ab, absum, it means I am from, away from, absent; non solum præsentia curat, sed etiam præterita mente repetit, et futura with pro, prosum, it means I am for, that is, I aid or benefit. ex præteritis providet. 15. Boni bonis prodesse student. In prosum, the letter d is inserted to prevent the hiatus which

EXERCISE 76.--ENGLISH-LATIN. would be caused if two vowels came in succession; thus,

1. Our soldiers were very brave in the fight. 2. Why were our pro-(d)-es, pronounced prodes; also prodest, proderam, prodero, soldiers braver than yours in the fight? 3. So long as you are happy, prodessem.

friends will not fail you. 4. Friends fail the wretched. 5. Before the From the root mentioned above-namely, fu, fuo-come two beginning of the fight, I was in the city. 6. The brave will always be forms not so common as those given in the table-namely, useful to the brave. 1. My enemies injure me. 8. If you are partakers forem and fore; forem (-es, -et; -emus, -etis, -ent) is the imperfect of virtue, you will be happy. 9. So long as I am content with my lot, subjunctive, and signifies I might be; corresponding to essem

I shall be happy. 10. O scholars, you ought to be attentive in school! of the table ; fore is the infinitive future, to be about to be ; corre

11. They endeavour to be very brave. 12. Be brave, my son.


Prudent men foresee the future (pl.) from the past. sponding with the futurum esse of the table.


Et-et, and-and (and Prius, adv., before. Quantum, how much. Absens, part., being | Hodie, to-day. Presum, præfui, præ

--also), both.
Qualis, -e, of what kind Quantus,

-um, absent, Intersum, interfui, in. esse, I am before, I

In, towards.

(E. R. quality).

how great (E.R.quanAbsurn, abfui, abesse, teresse (E. R. inte- preside over, command

Nescio, I lenow not. Qua mente sis, of tity). I am absent.

rest), I am among, I Prosum, profui, prod. Nescius, -a, -um, ig- what disposition you Scio, 4, I know (E. R. Adsum, adfui, adesse, am concerned, I take

esse, I am for, I am

are, what your feeling science).
I am present,
an interest or part in. useful, I do good to.
Non sum nescius, I am is.

Tum, them. Arm2, -orum, n., arms. Ita, so.

Pugna, -, f., a fight

aware of. Carðlus, -i, m., Charles. Longe, far.

(E. R. pugilist). Concilio, 1, I reconcile, Magistrātus, .-ūs, m., Quamdiu, as long as, Observe that in indirect questions the dependent verb must unite, a magistrate or go

how long ?

be in the subjunctive (or dependent) mood; as, for example, Dam, conj., while.

Quum (pronounced narra mihi ubi fueris, tell me where you have been. Such a form Fera, -æ, f., a wild boast Nisi, conj., unless. cum), conj., when, is called an indirect question. The direct question would stand (E. R. fierce). Oratio, -ōnis, f., from the time when.

thus-ubi fuisti ? narra mihi, where hast thou been ? tell me. In Foris, adv., out of doors, speech (E. R. orator). Ubi, adv., where, when. Heri, yesterday.

the latter case the question is direct, and the verb, as not being Pěregre, abroad. Ut, as.

dependent, is in the indicativo mood; but put narra mihi first, Observe that these compounds of sum require their object to and then your question is implied rather than stated; it is, be in the dative case; as, prodest Mihi, he does good to me, or therefore, an indirect question. In both direct and indirect queshe benefits ME.

tions the English is in the indicative; consequently, in putting EXERCISE 73.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

the dependent verb into English, you must in English use the 1. Deus omnibus locis adest. 2. Parvi pretii (of little avail), sant indicative mood ; but in putting the dependent verb into Latin, arma foris, nisi est consilium domi, 3. Contemnuntur ii qui nec sibi you must in Latin use the subjunctive mood. Compare what Dec alteri prosunt. 4. Ut magistratibus leges, ita populo præsunt is said of the sequence of tenses, and similar and dissimilar magistratus. 5. Ratio et oratio conciliat inter se homines, neque ulla tenses, in the last lesson. re longius absimus a natura ferārum. 6. Ego sum lætus, tu es tristis. 7. Si sorte vestra contenti estis, beati estis.


8. Dum nos in schola Eramus, sorores nostre in horto erant. 9. Quum Carolus heri domi 1. Non sam nescius qui mente tu in nos sis. 2. Scio qnā mente tu nostræ erat, ego pěregre eram. 10. Quamdiu tu et frater tuus domi in nos semper fueris. 3. Non sum nescius qnā mente tu et prius in Dostræ eratis, tu lætus eras, sed frater tuus erat tristis. 11. Quamdiu nos fueris et nunc sis. 4. Non eram nescius qua mente tu in nos esses. tu aběras, ego eram tristis. 12. Cur heri in scholā non fuisti? 13. Quia 5. Scio quam sint incerti animi hominum. 6. Cogita quam brevis sit cum patre peregre fui. 14. Quamdiu tu et pater tuus domo abfuistis? vita! 7. Qualis sit animus, ipse animus nescit. 8. Cogita quantum 15. Sex menses abfuimus. 16. Cur milites nostri pugnæ non inter- nobis bona exempla prosint. 9. Incertus sum ubi frater meus nunc fuerunt ? 17. Quia longins abfuērunt. 18. Ubi heri fueras quum

sit. 10. Incertus sum ubi amicus meus et fuerit et nunc sit. 11. Indomi tuæ eram ?

certus eram ubi heri esses. 12. Narra nobis ubi heri fueritis. EXERCISE 74.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

EXERCISE 78.-ENGLISH-LATIN. 1. I am useful to thee. 2. Thou art useful to me. 3. The boys are 1. Tell me where thou art. 2. Tell me where thy father and mother not useful to (their) mothers. 4. Why are the girls not useful to are. 3. I know not where my sister is. 4. Dost thou know how much (their) fathers? 5. When thou wast absent, I was sad. 6. How long good boys do good (prosum) to their parents ? 5. I know where my has your father been absent ? 7. Charles took part in the fight. 8.

son is,

6. My son, where art thon? 7. I knew where my son was. Wast thou yesterday at my house ? 9. I shall be at thy house to-day. 8. I am uncertain where the enemies are. 9. Is the general ignorant 10. Unless thou art happy at home, thou art not joyful abroad. where the army is? 10. I know of what mind thou art toward the VOCABULARY.

king. Actio,-õnis, f., an action, Exercitus, ūs, m., an | Pretium, -i, n., a redring (E. R. action). army.

ward (E. R. price,

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-XX. Ætas, ætätis, f., age, a Inimicus, -i, an enemy precious). generation. (E. R, inimical). Propterea, on account of

THERE is a curious connection between the proportions of the Amicus, -i, friend. Initium, ..., n., a begin- Provideo, 2, I see before sides of a hexagon and a heptagon inscribed in the same circle, Antča, adv., before. ning (E. R. initial). hand, foresee (E. R. and that is, that the length of the side of the heptagon is equal Atrox, - cis, frightful Mens, mentis, f., mind provide).

to the perpendicular let fall froin the centre of the circle on any (L. R, atrocious). (E. R. mental). Prudens, -tis, prudent. side of the hexagon. This may be seen from the following Attentns, -a, -um, at- Nunquam, never. Quod, because.

problem tentive.

Nisi, conj., unless, if Rectus, -a, -um, right. PROBLEM LII.-To inscribe a heptagon in a given circle. Compos,-&tis,partaking not.

Repěto, 3, I seek again,

Let AC E (Fig. 74) be the given circle in which it is required to of, andued with. Obsum, obfui, obesse,

I repeat. Desum, defui, deesse, I am in the way of, I Sed, but.

describe a heptagon. Draw any diameter a K, passing through I am down, I fail. oppose, I injure. Solum, alone.

L, the centre of the given circle ACE; and from one of its Demosthenes, -is, m., Postča, afterwards. Studeo, 2, I endeavour. extremities A as centre, with the distance A L, describe the arc

Demosthenes, the cele- Præteritus, -a, -um, Voluntas, -átis, f., will BL M, cutting the circumference of the circle ACE in brated Grecian orator, past,

(E. R. voluntary.) points B and m. Join B M, cutting A K at right angles

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