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people, under the guidance of Henry, Jefferson, Adams, Frank. Von nun an floß tie übrige Zeit From this time forth the relin, and Lee, made good, as again it all the world, the declara. feines Lebens ruhig tahin.,

maining time (portion) of his tion of independence which they made on July 4, 1776. The

life passed tranquilly away. British troops fought bravely enough, but were badly handled; Daher kommt es, daß so viele Thence it comes, that so many the American troops fought equally well, and were admirably Deutsche und IIngarn nach Ames Germans and Hungarians handled, and had the satisfaction to receive, as the reward of rifa audwandern.

emigrate to America. their valour, the surrender of almost all the British forces with Der Knabe ist Schuld taran', teß'. It is the boy's fault, therefore their generals in succession. Finally, the British king was wegen erbul'tet er die Strafe. te suffers the punishment obliged to acknowledge the independence of his former colonies, Bis ter Bote ankam, verfloß eine Till the messenger arrived, an to treat with them on the basis of an independent nation, and Stunte.

hour elapsed. to accept a representative from them for all international Bis auf ein fleines habe ich ten I have, within a little (all but), purposes.

Brief been rigt.

finished the letter. Ninety-two years have now gone by since Independence Day 68 thut mir wirklich in der Seele It really pains me to the soul. first dawned. In the course of that time either side has found weh. out that there is room enough for both in the world, and that Morgen also reisen wir ab.

To-morrow then we depart. there is no à priori reason why they should not exist with peace Das Band gehört' um den Gut. The ribbon belongs around (to) and good will towards each other. There have been times when

the hat. the silver bowl was threatened with destruction, when the cord Darum ist er auch so traurig. Therefore he is likewise so which bound the two nations together strained at the tension

sorrowful. which would rupture it; but with one exception (1812-14), when Wie befin'ten Sie sich ?

How do you do? for a short time there was war, peace has been maintained; the Id tanke Ihnen, ich befinte mich wohl. I am very well, I thank you. interests and the better parts of the people on both sides are

EXERCISE 112. averse to violence and bloodshed, and the efforts of statesmen are happily encouraged to attempt peaceful solutions of all

1. Tad in ter Zeitung angekündigte Concert wird heute Abent nicht difficulties that may arise. Old jealousies, old suspicions have Statt finten. 2. Wollen Sie meine Bitte gewihren? 3. Im werte kie worn away; new principles, new bonds of union have taken their gewähren wenn Sie von nun an vorsichtiger find. 4. Demuth zeigt sich in place; so that as an American of to-day still takes pleasure in wahrer Liebe zum Nächsten. 5. Von nun an wart die Gegend iminet England as the home of his race and his family, so an English. reizenber. 6. Wir wollen von nun an zufrieden sein. 7. Daher kam e!, man of to-day finds not any difficulty in sympathising with him aß To viele Unternehmungen mißlangen. 8. Er ergriff taber til when he talks about American independence, and tells with Gelegenheit

, ihin Vorstellungen zu machen. 9. Ihr seid selbst Schult ratin, pride and satisfaction the story of how in the old time the fonnt euch taber nicht beklagen. 10. Karl Iernt stets fleißig, teßwegen k ben States came to earn their motto-E pluribus unum !

ihn seine Lehrer. 11. Sie brauchen deswegen (Sect. XLIII.5) nicht life zu sein, weil ich Ihre Feter gebraucht habe. 12. Der fleißige Stület

überwindet die Schwierigkeiten, welche eine jete fremte Sprache hat. 13. LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXX.

Joseph II. war ein aufgeklärter Fürst und ter Vater seines Volfes, refinegen

spricht man noch stets mit vieler Achtung von ihm. 14. Er stieg bis auf SECTION LIX.-PECULIAR IDIOMS (continued).

(Sect. LVII.) tie Spiße tes Verges. 15. Wollen Sie nicht warten, bis Wie befinden Sie sich ? (literally, how do you find yourself ?) an. Sie eine Antwort haben? 16. Nein, ich kann nicht länger warten. 17. swers to our phrase "how do you do?"

Da er nicht tableiben wollte, bis ich meinen Brief geschrieben hatte, so mußte Sich befinden is also applied to inanimate objects, and is then ich also glauben, daß er mir diesen Befallen nicht thun wolle. 18. Alerantet well rendered by" to be,” as :-D18 Buch befintet sich in meinem besiegte bei seinem Regierungsantritt viele Völfer und begann also feate Zimmer, the book is in my room.

Laufbahn mit friegerischen Thaten. 19. Nach tiefer Nachricht kann er also The adjective befindlich is frequently best translated by a rela. Hoffnung haben, seinen Vater noch einmal zu sehen. 20. Ich werte Shnen tive clause, as :—Das Haus und sie darin befintlichen Leute

, the house alles pünftlich besorgen; haben Sie tarum feine Sorgen. 21. Er tror and the people who are in it (literally, the house and the therein nicht zu Hause, deshalb fonnte ich ten Brief nicht selbst an ihn abgeben

. being people).

22. Nachtem ter Oberst die Fahne aufgepflanzt hatte, schaarten fid tie 1. Statt finten is equivalent to " to take place,” as :—Wann Soltaten tarum. 23. Befintet sich Herr N. wohl? 24. Ja, et kefinize fand tie Revolution in Baden Statt? when did the revolution in sich ausgezeichnet wohl. Baden take (find) place ?

EXERCISE 113. 2. Schuld sein is equivalent to “to be in fault,” as :- Ich bin Schuld daran, I am to blame for it, it is my fault.

1. Is there also a monument to Guttenberg, the inventor of

the art of printing? 2. Yes, there are two; one is in Mainz, VOCABULARY.

the other in Strasburg. 3. Are there naughty children in your Also, thus, therefore. Daran', thereat,about Kerner, m.orator, pub- school? 4. Oh, yes, there are many. 5. These hoops belong An'fündigen, to an- it.

lic speaker.

to those casks. 6. The interment of the Duke of Wellington nounce.

Darum, for that cause Reif, m. hoop. took place the 18th of November, 1852. 7. In the assembly Antwort, f. answer, Demuth, f. humility. Reizend, charming.

which took place yesterday, some public speakers spoke with reply.

Denkmal, n. monu- Schaaren, to flock to great enthusiasm. 8. From that time forth he strofe for Aufgeflärt, intelli- ment.

gether, to form greater fame. 9. He seized the first occasion to convince his gent, enlightened. Deßwegen, for that into bands.

brother of the truth of his assertions. 10. Till to-day I had Aufpflanzen, to plant, reason.

Schöpfer, m. Creator. not received any answer from him. 11. The rain has wetted us set up. [ably. Durchnäf'sen, to wet Spiße, f. summit, through to the skin; for that reason we shall postpone ou Ausgezeid, 'net, remark- through.

height.

voyage till this evening. 12. In former times more wonders Befin'den (fich), to find Erfin'der, m. inventor. Stattfinden, to take and signs took place than in the present time.

oneself, to be. Ergrei'fen, to seize, place. Begei'sterung, f. enthu- lay hold of. Streben, to strive. siasm. Fahne, f. standard, Ueberwin'ten, to over.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. Begin'nen, to begin. flag, colours. come, surmount.

EXERCISE 27 (Vol. I., page 164). Bukla'gen (sich), to Gebrauchen, to use. Unternehmung, f. un. 1. Which table have you ? 2. I have that of my friend, the joiner.

complain. Gegenb, f. region. dertaking. 3. Which paper have you P 4. I have that of my friend, the teacher Buch truckerfunst, f. art Krie'gerisch), warlike, Verschie'ben, to post. 5. Which of these boys has my blue ink ?

6. None of them has your of printing. martial.

ink, but one of these boys has your beautiful pink-coloured paper..

pone. Dafer', thence, there- laufbahn, f. career.

Which of them has it? 8. Adolphus has it, and Henry, your litt
Vorʻstellung, f. remon.
Oberst, m. colonel.

cousin, has your wooden pencil. 9. Which of my books is in you strance.

room? 10. Your Gellert's Fables are there. RÉSUMÉ OP EXAMPLES.

little boys is your nephew? 12. They are both my cousins. 13. Are nffurt am Main A large popular assembly took friends are at the council-honse ? 16. Mr. C. and Mr. L. 17. When

15. Which of your American Bolfe-versammlung place at Frankfort-on-the- book have you ? 18. I have that of your cousin. Maine.

Mr. Zimmermann have my letter ? 20. He had it the day before

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11. Which of these two

19. When did yesterday, and his friend, the painter, had it yesterday, and I have it

EXERCISE 33 (Vol. I., page 197). to-day. 21. Has the teacher praised the baker's son, or that of the

1. Is this young man ill ? 2. No, but he was ill yesterday. 3. Who tailor? 22. He has praised neither that of the baker nor that of the

has been in your father's garden ? 4. Nobody has been in the garden, tailor, but that of the mason. 23. Have you the merchant's pens, or 24. I have neither those of the merchant sant still remain in the town?

but somebody has been in his house. those of the book-keeper ?

5. How long does the old pea

6. I am not acquninted with the old Dor those of the book-keeper, but I have those of the toll-gatherer. peasant, and don't know how long he remains. 7. Is your old friend, 5. Who praises the old captain ? 26. The captain praises him. 27.

the merchant, gone to Vienna? 8. I believe he is gone to Berlin to He praises the whole nation. 28. The Frenchman's wagon is large, his brother. 9. From whom have you heard this news to-day? 10. and that of the Englishman beautiful.

I have spoken to one of my friends, who has come from Dresden, and EXERCISE 28 (Vol. I., page 164).

has brought a letter to me from my father. 11. I reside with my 1. Welchen Regenschirm haben Sie? 2. Ich habe ten meines Bruders, uncle, and go with him to the little village. 12. My beantiful bird has tei Biltbauers. 3. Wann fauften Sie dieses rosenfarbene Kleid? 4. Ich down out of the cage, and my little horse has run to the forest. 13. fruste es gestern von meinem Vetter , dem Tuchhäntler. 5. Wollen Sie long letter. 15. When were you at the market ?

14. He has written (to) me a

16. I was there the ricjci Budy diesem oter jenem Manne geben? 6. Ich will es feinem geben. day before yesterday in the evening, and bought some beef. 17. We EXERCISE 29 (Vol. I., page 179).

have had beautiful weather this afternoon. 18. These scholars have

been lazy, and those diligent. 19. The snow was very deep the day 1. Has the captain his own or the general's sword ? 2. He has his

before yesterday. 20. I have never been ill. 4. No, I have my own. OWD. 3. Have you my scissors ?

5. Who

21, Frederick the Great hus my stick? 6. Mr. S. has it. 7. Has my sister your umbrella ?

was (a) King of Prussia. 8. No, she has her own. 9. Has the locksmith my key? 10. No, he has his own. 11. Has the washerwoman my brother's and my friends'

OUR HOLIDA Y. shirts ? 12. She has his as well as theirs. 13. All people have their errors and peculiarities; I have mine, you have yours; and he has his.

SWIMMING.-II. 14. God is almighty; man's destinies are in his hand, also mine and thine. 15. The ocean is between me and my family. 16. Has Mr. A. We will suppose our readers now to have become familiar with your paper or mine? 17. He has his own. 18. My brother has my the practice as well as the principles of plain swimming, and will book, and I have his. 19. Has he your wafers and stamps, or his own? pass on to the necessary instructions in other departments of 23. He has mine. 21. Whose wagon has your good friend Mr. G. ? this useful art, a knowledge of which is essential to every one, 2. He has that of his uncle. 23. And whose horses has he ? 24. He

but more especially necessary to those who are fond of yachting has mine. 25, Whose coachman has he ? 26. He has his own. 27. Whose sheep are those in the meadow? 28. They are ours. 29. Have

and rowing, to say nothing of sailors by profession, who have these Germans their horses and their wagons, or ours ? 30. They have far more need of being able to swim well than landsmen. cars. 31. Whose books have these scholars ? 32. They have their own. In the first place, as to the manner of entering the water. 33. Do you always take your property ? 34. Yes, everybody takes his When the learner has become somewhat familiar with the own. 35. When did you see your family? 36. I saw them the day element and its buoyant power, and has learnt the proper use before yesterday. 37. Did you see me and my family yesterday even- of his limbs in it according to the instructions previously given, ing at the concert ? 38. Yes, I saw you and your family. 39. The he will look with some degree of contempt upon walking into commander praised his soldiers.

the water. He will not be satisfied until he is able to dive; EXERCISE 30 (Vol. I., page 180).

and in learning to do so he must practise with as much 1. Der Kutscher tes Grafen B. hat meine Brille, und nicht die Ihrige. care as he displayed in his first lessons. He must use oqual 2. Die Töchter bes franfen Generals sind stolzer, als die meinigen. 3. Ich judgment in the selection of a suitable spot for his first babe meinen Vridstempel verloren, aber hier ist der Ihrige und der seinige. attempts, for the water should not be too deep, even although 4. Wem gehéren diese schönen Wiejen, sind sie die Zhrigen? 5. Nein, sie he may have learnt the rudiments of swimming; and it is of fint nicht die meinigen ; sie sind das Eigenthum meine Freundes, des more importance still that it should not be too shallow. Kutjócrs. 6. Haben Sie seinen Schlüssel, oter ten meinigen? 7. Ich * Taking a header" in water only a few feet in depth is a habe weer ten seinigen, nech ten meinigen, sondern denjenigen meiner dangerous thing. It has sometimes been attempted, even by orau. 8. Sie enitecten den Dieb an tem Hemte, welches er trug, und experienced swimmers, with fatal results. If the head comes welches nicht das seinige war. 9. Wann sahen Sie Ihre Freunde ? 10. first in contact with the water, the liquid has sufficient resisting Id habe sie seit jūngstem Sommer nicht gesehen. 11. Er liebt zu sehr power to render the concussion certainly injurious, and to peril tad Ceinige. 12. Haben Sie mich und die Meinigen, Heinrich und tie the safety of the inexperienced diver to a very great degree. Seinigen gestern Abend zwischen sieben und acht Uhr in der Alice gesehen? The hands must be placed together as when they are pushed EXERCISE 31 (Vol. I., page 180).

forward in swimming prior to the stroke; and, when thus 1. Which child does the uncle love ? 2. He loves that which he placed, they must be extended in front of the head, to cleave a praises. 3. Whose child loves the uncle ? 4. The one that he loves, passage for it before it reaches the water. lores hím. 5. Which hat have you ? 6. I have that which your

Supposing the water to be moderately deep-say ten feet or brother has had. 7. Which boy does the father love ? 8. He loves

more-the position in which the diver should leave the bank is the one that the mother praises. 9. Which boy loves the mother ? shown in our first illustration (Fig. 4). With the body thus 10. The one that the father praises. 11. Which horse has your bent, the diver enters the water with a plunge and a spring from brother bought ? 12. He has bought that which you had yesterday. the toes. After the spring he straightens his legs, and at the 13. Which man do you praise ? 14. I praise that man whose son you moment of total immersion he swoops, as it were, in an upward lore. 15. Which books have you bought? 16. I have bought those direction, when the buoyancy of the water assists the body in which my brother has had in his hands. 17. Whose books have you? regaining the surface immediately. In completing the dive in 18. I have the books of those boys whose hats you have. who are vicious have no tranquillity of soul. 20. The one who has the deep water, the body assumes the position shown in the second ecar on the forehead is the old magistrate. 21. That is good which is figure (Fig. 5). useful. 22. These men are the same whose barns, stables, and dwel. When diving in shallow water, the relative position of the lings you saw yesterday. 23. The labourers in the vineyard of him limbs is as shown in Fig. 4, but the body is not nearly so much who gives the least reward are few. 24. The hermit of yonder chapel bent, the whole plunge being taken, in fact, in a slanting direcis a friend of those who are helpless and forsaken. 25. He is wise tion, and the body itself being but little curved. The head dips who is virtuous.

but little below the surface, the back is but just covered, and EXERCISE 32 (Vol. I., page 181).

the whole figure slants upwards again immediately. 1. Der Freund, welchen ich habe, ist treu. 2. Wessen Schlüssel haben Floating is a most useful branch of the swimmer's art, and its Sie? 3. Ich habe den der Frau, teren Tochter Sie kennen. 4. Ich werde practice must be made one of his earliest studies. It is attended tisses Buch demjenigen geben, welcher zuerst hier sein wird. 5. Haben Sie with no difficulty beyond the knack of getting readily into the mein Buch gesehen? 6. Nein, ich habe nicht dasjenige gesehen, welches Sie proper position, and this is easily acquired. It is of utility as a etwähnen. 7. Die Freude, die ich haben werte. 8. Ich fam, weil ich es relief from the active exertions required in swimming, enabling ihm versprochen hatte. 9. Wo wohnen Sie? 10. Id wohne in remselben the swimmer to take a rest without leaving the water; and it Oause

, in welchem ich wohnte, als Sie mich besuchten. 11. Welche dieser may be of the greatest service in a time of danger, whether Damen ist Ihre Frau? 12. Diejenige, welche mit dem alten Herrn spricht. arising from cramp, from over-fatigue, or from sudden immer. 13. Der Freund, welchen ich verloren habe, war mir sehr theuer. 14. Ich sion. All that it is necessary to do in order to float, ist sabe ten Roc gekauft, welchen Sie in dem Fenster meines Schneiders fahen. lean back in the water, throwing the face well upward 15. Empfehlen Sie mich dem Herrn, welcher so sehr höflich ist.

extending the arms as far as they will reach behind th

The legs then come to the surface, and you may afterwards think it necessary to notice here. We believe the instruction bring the arms round to the side, and float in the position ' now given will be found sufficient for all purposes of general shown in Fig. 6. But in floating you must remember to let the utility, and that practice in the modes described will suffice to chest play its proper part, as a bladder inflated to the fullest make not only a good but a dexterous swimmer. Variations possible extent; and in order to this you must inhale as much' upon them will come easy when the groundwork has been well air as you can into the lungs, and when

laid, and there is perfect familiarity with you expel the air in respiration, you must

the water. draw a deep breath again immediately.

We must say a few words respecting Having assumed the position shown in

cramp, and on this point we cannot do Fig. 6, you are ready for swimming on

better than repeat Walker's instructions the back, which is usually performed in

on the subject:-“Those chiefly are the following manner :-Placing the

liable to it who plunge into the water hands on the hips, you draw up the knees,

when they are heated, who remain in it but at the same time depress the toes,

till they are benumbed with cold, or so as to raise the knees out of the water.

who exhaust themselves with violent You then strike out the legs, as in ordi.

exercise. Persons subject to this afnary swimming, and you find yourself

fection must be careful with regard progressing with the head foremost.

to the selection of the place where But it is possible to swim on the back

they bathe, if they are not sufficiently without using the legs, and in the case

skilful in swimming to vary their atti. of fatigue or cramp it may become neces.

tudes, and dispense instantly with the sary to do so. You then bring the hands

use of the limb attacked by cramp. towards the chest, and press back the

Even when this does occur, the skil. water in the direction of the feet with a

ful swimmer knows how to reach sweeping motion. By reversing this

the shore by the aid of the limbs movement of the hands, and sweeping the

Fig. 4.-THE DIVE.

which are unaffected, while the aninwater gently towards the chest instead

structed one is liable to be drowned. of away from it, you are enabled to progress in the opposite | If attacked in this way in the leg, the swimmer must strike direction—i.e., feet foremost. The elbows in these movements out the limb with all his strength, thrusting the heel downward, should be kept near to the sides, only the fore-arm being used and drawing the toes upward, notwithstanding the momentary to give the hands their necessary action.

pain it may occasion; or he may immediately turn lat on his Swimming on the side is sometimes practised as a change back, and jerk out the affected limb

from the ordinary mode of progression. in the air, taking care not to elevate
Turning on either side, you throw out it so high as greatly to disturb the
the undermost arm along the water, balance of the body. If this does not
and, with the palm of your hand hol. succeed, he must paddle ashore with
lowed out for the purpose, you scoop his hands, or keep himself afloat by
or drag the water towards you. The their aid until assistance reach him.
action of the legs is much the same Should he even be unable to float on
as in ordinary swimming, and the upper his back, he must put himself in the
most hand is used at the same time as upright position, and keep his head
the legs in pressing back the water. The above the surface by merely striking
stroke of the legs must exactly alternate the water downward with his hands at
with that of the foremost arm.

the hips, without any assistance from
The hand-over-hand style of swimming the legs." But besides this, it must
consists in swinging the hands, one after be remarked that, although cramp is a
the other, forward out of the water to as dangerous thing, it is not so dangerous
great a reach as possible, then dragging as the fear by which it is occasionally
the water backward to the hips, each leg accompanied, and which sometimes
striking out alternately, as soon as the leads to entire loss of self-possession,
arm on the same side has completed its with the worst results. If attacked
movement. The whole movement of the by cramp, therefore, act with calmness,
arm describes an oval figure, of which the recall to mind the foregoing instruc-
lower part is in and the other out of tions, and, by adopting that method

Fig. 7.-TREADING TEB Fig. 5.-THE HEADER. the water, while the shoulder forms the which is best suited to the nature of

WATER. centre. After being thrown forward, the the seizure, you may maintain yourself hand, as it reaches the surface of the water, is turned edgewise, safely in the water until the pain has gone, or assistance can so that it encounters little resistance on entering the water, but reach you. it is immediately afterwards turned with the knuckles upward One more word of advice, as to attempting to save a drownand the palm hollowed out, as in side-swimming.

ing person. Never approach him from the front, but take him Treading the water is accomplished by allowing the feet from behind by the hair; and never allow him to grasp ang to fall from the floating or swimming

part of your body if you can possibly position, and performing with the legs

prevent it. But if you should find the same motion that is made in going

yourself so seized, sink at once to the up a flight of stairs. The feat is more

bottom, when the hold upon you wil easily achieved when the arms are em.

probably be relaxed, and you will be ployed to assist the legs by press

released from your perilous position, ing the water with a downward mo.

It is only a good swimmer who should tion, as shown in the illustration

make such an attempt in deep water, (Fig. 7).

as for a novice to try to rescue a drownMuch the same position as this is

Fig. 6.-FLOATING.

ing man by his own unaided efforts, is maintained when standing in the water

greatly to imperil a second life with-or, as it is termed by some, perpendicular floating-only that out reasonable chance of saving the first. Better hasten to the head is thrown back, with the nostrils elevated in the air, secure a rope or pole, which, thrown quickly to the person in while the arms are either folded across the chest, which is arched danger, may assist him in regaining shallow water or the well forward, or kept down close by the hips.

shore. Young swimmers should never go out bathing together There are other styles of fancy swimming, such as the “ dog. without having such a means of assistance at hand in case of like style," swimming under the water, etc., which we do not emergency.

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GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.-II. is perpendicularly over the plan e a. It will be observed that

e a cuts the base of the picture, pl pl, in c, from which a perIn this course upon Geometrical Perspective we propose to pendicular is drawn to meet the line Ea in B, therefore B is place before our pupils several methods of construction, and the perspective projection on the picture-plane of the point or show where they are applicable to special cases. The ground. object, A. We give a similar representation of two points plan method is the most simple and general. The lineal method, (Fig. 6), which are the extremities of the line A B. A is on although it is equally usefal, involves the necessity, in some the ground, B is above the ground; consequently the line instances, of a greater number of lines ; but as this system A B is inclined to the horizon. We need not enter into an dispenses with the use of a ground-plan, it may to some extent explanation of this after that of Fig. 5, as it will be seen curtail the amount of labour. Some of the problems will be by the working lines that cd is the perspective representation worked by both systems; and with regard to the ground-plan of A B.

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method, we shall introduce some modifications which we hope ! We shall have to consider objects under various positions. will enable our pupils to understand it thoroughly.

Case 1. When they are parallel with the picture-plane, and The station-point is sometimes determined by placing it at a also with the ground. given distance from the picture-plane, sometimes from the object Case 2. When they are perpendicular to the picture-plane, represented by its ground-plan, the picture-plane intervening and parallel with the ground. In either case we must bear in mind that the visual rays from the Case 3. When they are perpendicular to the ground, and two extremities of the object must not form an angle greater than parallel with the picture-plane. GO®, meaning that the whole of the object must be included in Case 4. When they form an angle with the picture.plane, that angle, because the full extent of vision each way, right and and parallel with the ground. left, without moving the head, is not greater than 60°. But Case 5. When they form an angle with the ground, and even if we include the object within 60° only, we should be too parallel with the picture-plane. near it to make a satisfactory and effective drawing; therefore Case 6. When they form an angle both with the picture&n angle of about 25°

plane and the ground. or 30° at the ontside

To illustrate the first is sufficiently large,

position, place a rectas in Fig. 4, where the

angular table before eye at E embraces the

VP

you, so that both ends line AB within an

may be equally disangle of 60°, while at

tant from the eye: the same line is in.

the front edge of the cluded within an angle

Fig. 7.

table will be parallel of 25°. The latter

with the picture-plane, point, F, is a better

and the top will be padistance for viewing

rallel with the ground; the object, A B.

and at the same time explanation of the

the retiring edges of practical operations

the ends will be per. of perspective and

pendicular to the rictheir results may be

ture-plane and parallel limited to that which BP

with the ground. This relates to a point, or

POR
BASE OF PICTURE, OR PLANE OF PICTURE, BROUGHT DOWN.

answers to the second in the same way to

case. The front of the a series of points ;

table, from the top to for as points are the extremities of straight lines, no matter the ground, will explain the third case, because it is perpendicular their positions, it must be evident that if we can determine the to the ground, and parallel with the picture-plane. Now push position of one point upon the plane of projection, which we cal! one end of the table away from you, so as to cause the distance the picture-plane, we can do so of more, and thus determine between the two ends from the eye to be different, then the the extremities of lines. Let A (Fig. 5) be a point in space front edge will be at an angle with the picture-plane, but the top that is, somewhere in the air above the ground, and away from will remain parallel with the ground. This illustrates the the picture-plane, PP, pl pl. The horizontal projection of this fourth case. Bring the table back to its first position, and let point-in other words, its plan-will be a. Let E be the posi- one end be raised, then the top will form an angle with the tion of the eye, e will be the horizontal projection of the eye-ground, and the front edge will be parallel with the picture-plane. that is, over where the eye is placed, otherwise called the This answers to the fifth case. The sixth case will be explained station-point, SP. Now if e and a are joined by a straight line, if you push the raised end of the table away from you, as was the line ea will be the horizontal projection or plan of the done in Case 4, then the front edge will be at an angle with 4.2 visual ray from the object, a, to the eye, E; because a Q and picture-plane, and the top will be at an angle with the gre E e are perpendicular lines, therefore every part of the line EA These positions might have been illustrated by a line of

41

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SP

VOL. II.

probably they will be better understood from the table, as the

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXI. positions of the several parts will be easily recognised. We recommend our pupils to go through this experiment with a

WORDS THAT ARE BOTH PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES. table, it will help them better to understand the positions of Some of the words which we treated of in the last Lesson as objects in the problems that will be given in the course of these uncombined suffixes, may also be regarded as uncombined prelessons.

fixes. The same word stands before and after its stem. You In ground-plan perspective the rule for finding the vanishing. may take, as an instance, to cast-down, and down-cast. In this point is :

instance the meaning varies, but does not greatly vary ; to Draw a line from the station-point, SP, parallel with the cast-down is used physically, and down-cast signifies dejected, ground-plan, as far as the plane of the picture, PP, from which sorrowful. Besides this difference, there is a difference also as draw a perpendicular line to the horizontal line, ul; this will to the function of the two words, for the former is a verb, the give the vanishing point, vp.

latter is an adjective. Rarely, perhaps, does the import remain In order to assist the pupil in comprehending this, we request the same, if the position of the adverb is altered. Make a prefix him to turn to Fig. 7 in the preceding page, and he will a postfix (or suffix), and in general you produce a greater or less notice first the ground-plan, of a line only, A B, at an angle with modification of meaning. Indeed, some of the most delicate the PP. It must be remembered that this line, PP, is the plan shades and hues of thought expressed in the English language or projection of the whole surface of the picture, supposed to be are connected with, if not dependent on, the varied use of these in an upright position, and as we cannot draw upon a piece of movable particles. It may, therefore, be proper to go into paper so placed, it is necessary to rabat it—that is, turn it down some little detail on the point. and lay it flat upon the table. This is done by bringing down It is not all the prefixes and suffixes that usage permits to the picture-plane, and all the points of intersection of visual rays take their stand before or after their principal word. Out enjoys and points of contact (anywhere, so that there may be sufficient the privilege, and makes free use thereof. Look at these Fpace to make the drawing), towards the station-point, SP- examples :we have marked it BP, “ base of picture, or plane of picture, cast-out, out-cast.

cry-out, out-cry. brought down.” From this line we arrange the height of the bid-out, out-bid.

laugh-out, out-laugh. eye, or horizontal line. Now to find the vanishing point for grow-out, out-grow.

look-out, out-look. the line represented by its ground-plan :-Draw a line from SP do-out, out-do.

right-out, out-right. to vp, parallel to A B, and draw a perpendicular line from VP

live-out, out-live, to vpl, VP' will be the vanishing point for the given line An out-cast is one who undergoes the result and consequences represented by the plan A B. This must be learnt at once, as it of being cast-out. Corresponding with out-cast, is out-law. But will be wanted in almost every case of ground-plan perspective. though we may say to out-law, we cannot say to law-out. Out It does not signify whether the given line is inclined or parallel post is again different from out-cast, for out-post does not make to the horizon; it is the plan only of the line we use for the idea of action so prominent as does out-cast. In this respect finding the vp, as will be seen when we come to problems out-cast is not unlike out-lay. Out-lay may be reversed ; thus, relating to inclined lines and planes.

lay-out. But while the verb is lay-out, the noun is out-lay. To We advise the pupil to work the problems that we shall bid-out, is to bid with a clear, loud voice; but to out-bid, is to bring under his notice in the course of these lessons to a bid more than another. To grow-out is very different from to scale of half an inch to the foot-that is, if we say he is to out-grow. A young brother, by becoming taller, out-grows an draw a line five feet long, he will make it five half inches ; elder brother; and the elder brother, who is thus surpassed, and, to save a great deal of repetition, we will settle at once may be grown-out at the shoulders so as to be hump-backed. that the height of the eye, hl, from the ground is five feet, To do a person out of anything, is to cheat him ; but to out-do a and ten feet from the picture-plane. This scale may be competitor is to excel him. If my children live out the century, employed until we propose another, when we come to other they will out-live me. By crying-out lustily, boys make a great problems.

out-cry. That shameless man, by laughing-out so loud and so PROBLEM I. (Fig. 7).—Draw the perspective view of a given long, out-langhed all the company. If you look-out at the line, A B, five feet long, lying on the ground, forming an angle window, you will have a pleasant out-look. with the picture-plane of 35°, and touching the picture-plane; the

“We have taken all the out-lying parts of the Spanish monarchy."eye to be opposite the centre of the given line.

Temple. Draw a line, PP, to represent the picture-plane; from any

“But for public dormitories, how many a poor creature would have point, A, draw a line, A B, at an angle of 35° with PP (see Les- been obliged to lie-out of doors in the nights of the last severe winter." sons in Geometry, Problem XX., Vol. I., page 256), and make it, -Anon. according to the given scale, five feet long; find the centre of

“Oh, my lord, A B in c, and from c draw a line perpendicularly to the picture

You said that idle weeds are fast in growth; plane to any length; mark the point d on PP. Anywhere

The prince, my brother, hath out-grown me far." - Shakespeare. below, draw the base of the picture, BP, parallel to PP, and

“ Albert has grown-out of his clothes.”—Anon. draw the line il parallel to BP or Pp. From d make d sp

" But breathe his faults so quaintly equal to ten feet. Now find the vanishing-point, vpl, as we

That they may seem the taints of liberty ; have already explained. Because the end of the given line A B

The firsh and out-break of a fiery mind." --Shakespeare. touches the pp at a, therefore A is the point of contact of the

"A fire breaking-out in the cellar, consumed the whole house." line A B; mark it PC. Bring it down perpendicularly to the Anom. line BP to PC?. Draw a line from PC to vp', and somewhere

Nor they which use

To out-drink the sea."-Donne. upon this line will be the perspective view of the given line, A B, to be found thus:--As the line A B touches or is in contact with

“ You have drunk-out the cask. Children cannot well drink out me

goblets."-Anon. the PP, therefore the perspective view will commence at Pc!;

“He looked and saw what numbers numberless the other end B, away from PP, is found by drawing a visual

The city gates out-poured."-Milton. ray, V R, from B towards the sp, stopping at the picture-plane, from which it is taken perpendicularly until it cuts the line

“Pour-out a glass of wine for the famished woman." - Anon.

The workmen, in standing-out for the wages, have out-stood the Pol and vpl in b; a b is then the perspective representation

appointed time."- Anon. of the given line A B. Make the space between a and b somo

"Sense and appetite out-rote reason."-South. what darker than the rest of the line.

“A large majority of the constituency voted the old member out."We advise the pupil to repeat this problem until he knows Anon. the method of working by heart, then to turn the line or plan

" Better at home lie bed-rid, idle, way; and, again, increase or diminish the angle of

Inglorious, unemployed, with age out-worn." -Milion. ith the picture-plane. Also change the height

* This reverent leecher, quite worn out rizontal line, and the distance of the eye from

With rheumatisms, and crippled with his goat." —Dryden. B; these various positions of the object will " By Shakespeare's, Johnson's, Fletcher's lines, assist the pupil in understanding the method of

Our stage's lustre Rome's out-shines."-Denham. iblem.

"Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined."—Psalm 1.2

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