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they might fall on the Macdonalds unawares, and slay them all, selves till the mass of evidence became enormous, and there was men, women, and children. The season was winter, and the a cry all over Scotland for an inquiry into the circumstances Master of Stair reckoned on its help to finish his work, if per- attendant on the slaughter of the Macdonalds of Glencoe. Tho adventure any of his prey should escape to the wood or the Scottish Parliament took the matter in hand, and King William thicket. The plot was laid with devilish cunning.

was at length obliged, for the honour of his Government, to Lieatenant-Colonel Hamilton, second in command to Colonel order an inquiry by a commission. Hill, of Fort William, was selected as the military executioner. The result of the inquiry was to fix the entire guilt of the Hill was reckoned too humane, too squeamish, to undertake massacre upon the Master of Stair, whose letters and papers of such a business, and he was simply ordered to place a strong instructions were produced. The subordinates, Hamilton, Glendetachment under his junior's command. “Better not meddle lyon, Lindsay, and some more, were voted by the Parliament to with them than meddle to no purpose. When the thing is be murderers, and they fled for their lives before the request of resolved, let it be secret and sudden.” These were the secre- the Estates that they might be prosecuted for their crimes. For tary's instructions to Hamilton, whose brain readily thought of the Master of Stair, the Estates left him to the judgment of the a method for strictly obeying them.

king, his master, whom they voted to have had no knowA hundred and twenty men were chosen from a regiment ledge of what the Master intended, and whose letter to the lately raised by the Earl of Argyll, and therefore for clan commander of the troops they declared was not capable of the reasons deadly opposed to the Macdonalds; they were put interpretation put upon it by the secretary. The king simply under the command of a Captain Campbell, commonly called dismissed the Master of Stair from his posts, and refused to Glenlyon, whose niece was married to the second son of Mac prosecute him for the murder; and finding that so many persons Ian, and were marched on the 1st of February, 1692, to Glencoe. were implicated in the affair, and that it would be inconvenient The fears of the clansmen were allayed by the king's officers, to prosecute them all, while he could not punish a few only who assured them they came but as friends, and that all they where all were guilty, proclaimed soon afterwards a general wanted were food and quarters. These were accorded cheer- amnesty. For the actual participators in the massacre of fully, the men were distributed through the community, the Glencoe, the only punishment that was inflicted upon them was officers were lodged with the chief's kinsman; Highland hospi. that described by Macaulay, the punishment "which made Cain tality was largely extended to men who came as travellers and cry out that it was greater than he could bear; to be vagabonds friends, and Mac lan little thought the advent of his guests on the face of the earth, and to carry wherever they went a was in any way connected with his tardy journey to Inverary. mark from which even bad men should turn away sick with Indeed, he supposed, and reasonably, that his fault was con. horror.” doned, and if he speculated at all upon the object of the soldiers’ march through his territory, he certainly did not think that he was the aim and object of it.

OUR HOLIDAY. All went happily for nearly a fortnight, Glenlyon and Lindsay

CROQUET.-I. were treated like members of Mac Ian's own family, and there The game of Croquet is a very recent introduction into the was no hint in the conduct of the officers of the danger that list of our popular pastimes; but the number of persons of was threatening their hosts. Yet all the while Glenlyon was both sexes with whom it is a favourite amusement is now so secretly informing Hamilton of what he saw, and receiving his large, and so rapidly increasing, that we give it a prominent instructions in return. Those instructions, the final instructions, place in this series of papers. It is true it is not every one were to begin operations at 8 a.m. on the 13th of February, and who has access at all times to a private croquet ground; but to kill every Macdonald in Glencoe under the age of seventy. many of our public places of recreation are now provided with Hamilton intended to come with 400 men for the purpose accommodation for the game, and, as it becomes more widely of cutting off fugitives, but in any case Glenlyon was to fall on known, additional facilities will no doubt spring up for its at the time and date agreed.

practice. There was not any suspicion of guests who were eating and Before describing it, we will give a short account of the hisdrinking at the clansmen's tables, sleeping in their huts, and tory of the game. Although new in its modern features, it is interchanging the offices of friendship with them, until á few little more than an old game revived, after it had been almost hours before the massacre began, and then the suspicions of forgotten. Most of our readers either know or have heard of John Macdonald, son of Mac Ian, were allayed as soon as the neighbourhood of Pall Mall, in St. James's Park, and are aroused by the assurances of Lindsay, that they were only about perhaps aware that the long avenue in front of Buckingham to march against the Glengarry men, who had been giving some Palace is called “The Mall.” These names are derived from a trouble. Sharp at five o'clock, Glenlyon began the work by pastime which was frequently played here after the Restoration, shooting his host and family, and then the fiendish slaughter went and, there seems reason to believe, was introduced from France on all through Glencoe. Mac Ian was shot through the head, his when King Charles II. returned from his exile in that country. wife was so maltreated that she died next day, and the chief's It is certain that the same game had long been known in France, $ons had a hairbreadth escape, having only time to fly ere the where it was termed the jeu de mail, and the following account human bloodhounds could come upon them. The rattle of of it is given in a modern book of French sports and pastimes :musketry mingled grimly with the groans of the dying and “This game, which is said to have been played by the Gauls, the shrieks of the wounded, and the red glare of the burning our ancestors, was so generally played in former years, that houses-for the soldiers set fire to the dwellings which had the greater portion of the promenades adjoining many of our sheltered them—lighted the way to the destruction which was towns consisted of a long avenue, termed the mail, because it meant to be universal. But Hamilton was delayed on the was set apart for the jeu de mail. To this day it is still as much road, and did not appear in time ; Glenlyon's men bungled at in vogue as ever in some of the towns in the centre of France, their bloody work, and the result was that at least half of the and in Montpellier it has never ceased to be a favourite amusepeople escaped. When Hamilton came he found the work un. ment with all classes and all ages. The instrument termed the huished, and though he committed a few more cold blooded mail consists of a club of strong wood, made in the form of a murders by way of Freaking vengeance, he was unable to follow cylinder, furnished at the two extremities with a tip or ferule the balk of the fugitives into the fastnesses which were known of iron, and in the middle of which is firmly fixed a handle, only to them. When he had gone the ruined remnant of the about a yard long, not too stiff nor too pliant, but proportioned Macdonalds came back, only to find their houses a heap of to the weight of the cylinder. The ball, which is struck with ashes, the bodies of their murdered kindred unburied, and all the club, is made of Boxwood, very dry and firm.” the flocks of the clan driven away as plunder.

Here we have a description of the same implements as those It was a long time before the truth leaked out. The perpe- that were used in the English game of Pall-mall, as appears trators of the massacre kept the thing quiet

, and the surviving from the recent discovery of a set, concerning which the following sufferers by it were not in a position to make themselves heard. account is given in Mr. Timbs's " Curiosities of London." Ramour, then revelations by men in their cups, then the com- “In 1854 were found in the house No. 68, Pall Mall, a box plaint of Mac Ian's sons, gradually brought the affair at Glencoe containing four pairs of the matles, or mallets, and m- l, into prominence. The story was disbelieved at first, as being such as were formerly used

for playing the game simply impossible ; but fresh facts continued to present them in the Mall of St. James's Park. Each maile is




and is made of lancewood; the head is slightly curved, and half inches in diameter, perfectly round, and each painted of a measures outwardly five and a half inches, the inner curve different colour, so that each player may know his own. being four and a half inches. The diameter of the maile-ends The mallets for striking the balls should bear a proper prois two and a half inches, each shod with a thin iron hoop: the portion to the size and weight of the latter. They are usually handle, which is very elastic, is

made in one or other of the forms bound with white leather to the

shown in the annexed engraving, breadth of two hands, and ter

although more fanciful ones have minated with a collar of jagged

been devised, and are occasionally leather. The ball is of boxwood,

seen in use. The handles should two and a half inches in dia

be made of ash wood, about two meter. A pair of mailes and a

feet nine inches long, and thinner ball have been presented to the

in the centre than at the two British Museum."

ends, which allows & spring in These mallets are almost the

the stroke. In the thickest part, same in construction as those

which is grasped by the hand, used in the game of Croquet,


they should be about an inch in while the ball also is similar,

diameter, and taper to five-eighths although smaller in size. The English game of Pall - mall, of an inch in the middle. The heads of the mallets should be although no detailed description of it is extant, no doubt so far of box-wood, their greatest diameter two and a half inches, and resembled that of Croquet, that the object of it was to propel their length about four and a half inches. the ball along the ground from one fixed point to another. But The pegs for a single set of implements are two in number, whereas in Croquet the ball is

one being driven in at each end struck through a series of iron

of the ground. They are about hoops, there is no evidence that


two feet in length, an inch and & such appliances were used in the

quarter in diameter at the top, game played by King Charles and

and bronght to a point at the his court, nor, it will be seen by

bottom, so as to be readily driven the foregoing extract, was any

into the earth. They are usually hoop found with the other instru

painted with rings of colour, ments of the game. So far there

which show the order of players would appear to be a difference

-blue first, then pink, black, yel. in the two games; but, on the

low, brown, orange, green, and red. other hand, it is a well-known

The hoops are either eight or fact that in some districts of

ten in number, according to the France the jeu de mail has long

arrangement adopted in laying been played through a series of

out the ground. They are made hoops, and it is quite possible

of round iron-wire, arched in form, that they were also used occa


and each leg about fifteen inches sionally when the game was

long from the crown of the arch. brought to England. If so, the

Being driven about two inches identity of the game of Pall-mall

into the ground, they shonld stand with that of Croquet is no unrea50


thirteen inches high when fixed, sonable assumption. At any rate,

the span of the arch being about the occasional use of hoops in the

nine inches. Flat-topped hoops jeu de mail in France is sufficient

are occasionally employed, but are to prove that Croquet has no title

not recommended. If the hoops whatever to be considered a modern invention.


are painted white, they are more

easily distinguished. We have gone into this matter,

The arrangement of the hoops as questions are frequently asked

in laying out the croquet ground concerning it, and surprise has

is varied according to the size of sometimes been expressed that so 3

the ground, or the preference of attractive a pastime was not de


those who may use it; but the plan vised until within the last few

shown in Fig. 2 is that most comyears.

monly adopted, and it forms the The great charm and attraction

basis for all other arrangements. of Croquet, and the great secret

The relative distances here given of its popularity, lie in the fact

are suited to a ground where that it stands alone as a game in

space is limited which persons of both sexes can

The arrow lines show the direcjoin in the open air, and find both health and recreation to

tion in which the balls are played IL14

and the figures indicate the order gether. Occupying this position,

in which the hoops are taken in it is likely that the popularity of

playing the game.

Thus, comCroquet will increase rather than diminish. We see no reason why

mencing at a short distance on

either side of the starting peg, a croquet ground should not be

each player aims to drive the ball formed on many a village green,

with his mallet through hoop No. or why the game should not have,

1, and so on through each in order like cricket, its allotted space in

until he passes No. 7. Then he our public parks. In this way it

has to hit the turning peg with might soon be found taking the place of more objectionable | his ball, and to return through hoop No. 7 (which thus practically amusementa and add another source of health and happiness to becomes No. 8 also), and along the other side of the ground,

taking all the other hoops in downward succession, until he - to a description of the game, and the appa- repasses No. 1; he has then to strike the starting peg witk his

playing it. The implements required are ball, and this completes the game. is, and pegs.

A more detailed description of the game, with a code of rules .d be of box or beech-wood, about three and a to be observed in playing it, we must reserve for another paper.











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2 +1 = 2.


To give another example: carbonic oxide burns with oxygen

to form carbonic acid gas, thus : LOWER OXIDES OF NITROGEN AND COMPOUNDS OF THIS

CO +0=C0g. GAS WITH HYDROGEN. The protoxide of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, or laughing gas (atomic The figures represent the volumes, that is, two volumes of co weight=44; density, because it is a compound gas, 22), is best (carbonic oxide) and one volume of oxygen combine to form two prepared by heating in a flask ammonium nitrate; the salt first volumes of CO, (carbonic acid). We shall find that ammonia is melts

, and by slightly raising and continuing the heat it becomes separated into its component gases, nitrogen and hydrogen, decomposed, resolving itself into nitrous oxide and water, which under certain circumstances, or as thus expressed :comes away as steam. This is expressed thus :

NH, BN + 3H.
NH.NO, =N,O + 2H,0.


or two volumes of ammonia when decomposed become one The gas cannot be collected over cold water unless with much loss, for 100 cubic inches of water at 13o Cent. absorb 77 of the volume of nitrogen and three of hydrogen, or four volumes of

the constituent gases, in combining to form ammonia, condense gas. However, if the water be hot, a very small quantity is re

into two volumes. We shall tained, hence the gas must be collected over hot water or mer.

often meet with illustracury, upon which metal it has no action. Properties. —The gas is colourless and without smell, but tions of this simple rule.

There is a more delicate possesses a sweetish taste.

method of demonstrating When subjected to a pressure of about 30 atmospheres at the temperature of 0° Cent., by a process which will be described in the composition of nitrous

oxide. The bent tube in a succeeding lesson, the gas becomes a clear liquid. The

Fig. 35. same phenomenon is exhibited if the gas be cooled down to Fig. 35 is filled with mer-88° Cent., that is to say, liquid nitrous oxide boils at -889, or sium having been introduced into the bent part by an iron wire; the vapour of that liquid (that, is nitrous oxide gas) has a tension the tube is inverted into a capsule of mercury, and nitrous oxide equal to one atmosphere at the temperature of -88° Cent.; and as it requires a pressure of 30 atmospheres at 0°. Cent. to liquefy end of the tube beneath the mercury being covered by the finger

gas passed into it. Heat is then applied to the potassium, the it , we say that at 0° Cent. the gas has a tension of 30 atmo to prevent the escape of the gas when combustion takes place. spheres. When liquid nitrous oxide is mixed with bisulphide of The potassium takes the oxygen from the gas, forming potash, earbon, and cansed rapidly to evaporate under the exhausted and the nitrogen is left. After the combustion is perfected, the receiver of an air-pump, the greatest known degree of cold is finger may be removed, and it will be found that the mercury reached, - 140° Cent. When a body in a state of ignition is plunged into this gas, the stands at the same point in the tabe, thus proving that although

the oxygen has been abstracted from the gas, yet it retains its gas is decomposed into nitrogen and oxygen, this latter causing the body to burn with the same brilliance as if it were in pure

original volume.

The most remarkable property of nitrous oxide, and from pxygen. With sulphur the process is somewhat peculiar: if the which it takes the name of "laughing gas,” remains to be sulphur be only ignited feebly, the flame will be extinguished, mentioned. It may be inhaled from an india-rubber

bag. Plaee showing that there is some effort required to determine the the tube from the bag in the mouth, close the nostrils, and decomposition of the gas'; therefore the sulphur must be in a breathe the gas in the bag. After about 2 minutes a pleasurstate of thorough ignition.

able sensation will be experienced, which expresses itself in unThe resulting compounds are exactly those in the cases alluded to in the chapter on oxygen.

controlled fits of laughter, or it may be exhibited in muscular If the experiment of burning phosphorus in this gas be There is little or no danger in this experiment to the great

exertion, which, if the subject be strong, amounts to "dangerous.” arranged as in Fig. 34—that is, a jar of the gas over water, majority of persons; but where the heart is diseased, or in perthe stopper of the jar being rapidly removed, and in its place a

sons of full habit, it had better not be attempted. cork fitted, through which is passed a “deflagrating spoon,” in which is a piece of ignited phosphorus—it will be observed as the termination ic will indicate, this gas contains more

Nitric oxide (N,0,=NO; combining weight, 30; density, 15).that the water in the jar will have oxygen than nitrous oxide. It is easily obtained by acting on no tendency to rise; whereas if the gas had been oxygen instead water. The action is thus expressed :

copper with nitric acid diluted with 24 times its volume of of nitrous oxide, as the phosphorus consumed the oxygen, of course

3Cu + 8HNO, 3(Cu2NO,) + 4H,0 + N,0,. the water would rise to fill the The flask will be found full of red fumes, for nitric oxide complace of the gas. The explanation bines at once with oxygen to form nitric tetroxide, which is a deepof this fact is, that in nitrous oxide coloured gas. This action is an infallible test for the presence there is as large a volume of nitro- of nitric oxide. gen as of the compound gas, that The gas may be collected in the usual way over water, and it is, in two volumes of the gas there will be found to be colourless. It is less ready to support com

are two volumes of nitrogen and bustion than nitrous oxide, seeing that it requires a greater heat Fig. 34.

one volume of oxygen, these three to decompose it, so that its oxygen may take part in the com.

volumes being condensed into bustion. two. The combination of gases by volume offers no difficulty Phosphorus, when immersed in this gas, must be very. if the student remember that simple gases are reckoned as thoroughly ignited, or it will be extinguished. one and compound gases as two volumes. To illustrate this Pelouze suggests the following manner for procuring this gas statement

perfectly pure : 51,0 + 2P=P,0, + 10N

Digest hydrochloric acid with iron filings till it will dissolve no represents the process which takes place when phosphorus is more; decant--that is, pour off-the

clear liquid, and add to it burnt in nitrous oxide. The P,0, (phosphoric acid), which is its own bulk of hydrochloric acid. Place the liquid in a retort, formed, being a solid, does not enter into our calculations of the and add potassium nitrate (saltpetre), and the nitric oxide begins volumes of the gases; but it will be observed that there are five to come off in large quantities.

The composition of the gas may be determined as in the case stoms of a compound gas (N2O), and on the other side of the equation ten atoms of the simple gas N: hence, according to the of nitric oxide. If the formula be N, O, it will be evident that

we must have as much nitrogen left after the combustion as above statement, if we reckon the compound gas as two volumes, we shall have ten volumes of N, O, and after the combustion has there was nitric oxide before. Thus :taken place we shall still have an equal quantity (ten volumes)

N,0, = 2N + 20. of gae left-namely, ten volumes of the simple gas N, which is Verified by the experiment.

The oxygen, being in a solid state in the potash, is not tal



= 2 + 2.


account: benee two volumes of N,0,=two volumes of nitrogen; The gas must either be collected over mercury or by displacehit sins is found not to be the case, for upon removing the ment, as in the case of hydrogen (Fig. 23), as it is one-half as fnger, the mercury rises in the bent tube exactly one-half the light as air. Its specific gravity is 0.59, and it possesses the minne occapied by the gas. Therefore the formula for nitric well-known pungent odour of "smelling salts." este must be NO, and not 1,0, :

When breathed it has a violent irritating power on the pulNO= N + 0.

monary passages. It is a powerful base, neutralises the 2 = 1 +-;

strongest acids, and returns the colour to litmus paper reddened that is, the volume of nitrogen is one-half that of the nitrie by an acid., which agrees with the result of the experiment.

It is very soluble in water. That liquid at 0° Cent. and 760 This gas has not yet been liquified.

mm. pressure is capable of absorbing 1149 times its volume. If a Nitric trioxide, or nitrous acid (N,02; combining weight, 76; jar of the gas be held with its month downwards to the surface density, 38). - This gas is noted for its deep-red colour. The of water, the water will rush into the jar as into a vacuum, and most realy method of preparing it is by heating in a capacious unless the glass be strong the jar will probably break. retort 1 part of starch with 8 of nitric acid. The gas liberated

When water containing ammonia is heated, the gas is given is almost puro N,Og.

off, so that at 20° Cent. only half the quantity of gas is reIt forms compounds called nitrites. A very minute trace of tained which the water possessed at 0° Cent. any nitrito may be detected by mixing a dilute solution of potas

When submitted to a pressure of 7 atmospheres at the ordinary sium iodido with starch and a little dilute hydrochloric acid. temperature of the air, the gas becomes a liquid, which boils at Render the liquid to be tested also acid with hydrochloric acid ; - 38.5° Cent., and freezes into a transparent solid at - 175° then mix the two liquids; if any nitrite be present, the liquid

Cent. will become blue. These salts may frequently be detected in

This fact has been advantageously applied by M. Carré to the well-water of towns.

freeze water. A saturated solution of ammonia is placed in a When this gas is reduced to a temperature of - 18° Cent., the strong iron vessel, which is connected by a pipe with a rod fames become a dark-blue liquid. When added to water, it

"receiver,” which is a cavity in the thick wall of a cylindrical is at once decomposed into nitric oxide and nitric acid, thus :

vessel. When heat is applied to the liquor ammonia, the gas 3N,0, + 1,0 =2HNO, + 4NO.

is given off in large quantities; but not being able to escape, it Nitric tetroxide, or nitric peroxide (NO,; combining weight, liquid in the receiver. The interior of the cylindrical vessel is

finds itself under great pressure, and begins to condense into a 46; density, 23). —The reddish brown fames which appear when filled with water, the heat is now removed from the other vessel, nitric oxide meets with oxygen are chiefly of this substance. It is best prepared by heating lead nitrate in a small glass pouring cold water over it. But this renders the water it contains

and the temperature of the water it contains is reduced by returt. The fumes which are given off are a mixture of peroxide of nitrogen and free oxygen ; if they are conducted through a bent capable of absorbing the gas again, and therefore the liquefied tabe which is surrounded by ice and salt, the peroxide becomes it cannot do, without absorbing a large quantity of latent heat,

gas in the "receiver” begins to evaporate rapidly; this, however, eemdensed into a liquid. The reaction is thus expressed :

and hence the water which the “receiver” surrounds freezes. 2(Pb2NO3) = 2 PbO + 4N0, +0,.

Ammonium (symbol NH.).—Place a globule of mercury in The red fumes are very suffocating, but will support the com- a cavity in a piece of sal-ammoniac, and moisten it with liquor trastion of a taper immersed in them. This compound may be ammoniæ; then if the positive wire of a battery be attached to distinguished from the former, nitrous acid, by its power of the salt, and the mercury be touched with the negative, the imparting to a neutral solution of potassium sulpho-cyanide, a globule will gwell and assume all the appearance of an amalgam. ud tint; an excess of the peroxide, however, renders the liquid When the current is suspended, the mercury returns to its again colourless.

ordinary state, giving off ammonia and hydrogen. The compounds of nitrogen and hydrogen are


There is only one way of accounting for this, namely, that

sal-ammoniac is a chloride of a metal (NH,CI), and that in the Arzidogen Ammonia


ordinary way electrolysis took place--the metal combining with Ammoniam


the mercury formed an amalgam. But this compound only Amidogen (NH,) is not known to exist in a separate state, but having permanence under the influence of the current, decomwhich chiefly belong to organic chemistry, and are termed amides. Saturate the solution supposed to contain ammonia with potash, it is believed to exist as a constituent of numerous compounds poses when the current is interrupted.

Nessler's test discovers the most minute quantity of ammonia. Ammonia (NH,; combining weight, 17; density, 8-5) - This then add potassic iodide saturated with mercurio iodide. If any compound receives its name from the fact that it was first pre- ammonia be present, a “ brick-dust” precipitate will appear. pared from the dung of the camels which the Arabs collected at the temple of Jupiter Ammon, the halting-place before the through a red-hot porcelain tube, or by passing a series of electric

The composition of ammonia is discovered by leading the gas journey of the desert of Libya was undertaken.

Nitrogen and hydrogen do not combine directly with each sparks. Either of these methods resolves the compo and into its other, but it seems whenever they are liberated together by the components, which are found to occupy double the volume of the decomposition of any compound containing them, they unite to gas, as might be expected from this equation, which has been form ammonia, and it appears frequently to be found when previously alluded to :hydrogen, in its nascent state--that is, just liberated from its


=1+ 3; combination--meets with nitrogen of the air. Thus, if iron filings bo moistened and exposed to the air they become oxidised, partly that is, two volumes of NH, become, when decomposed, foar tut the expense of the oxygen of the water; and the hydrogen as volumes of the mixed gases. it is liberated forms, with the nitrogen, ammonia, which is found in the compound. This is also exhibited when tin, zinc, iron, and some other

LESSONS IN GREEK.-X. metals are acted on by diluto nitric acid, thus :

THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued). 9HNO, + 4Zn (Zn2NO,) + 3H,0 + NH3.

THERE is yet another class in the subdivision of nouns whose which contain nitrogen when distilled in nominatives append s to the stem (see page 258), of which the * ammonia. Formerly this method was stem ends in v or vt. As examples, take ý pus, pur-os, the nose;

tion from horn clippings, hence its name dendus, Denpiv-os, a dolphin; o yoyas, yıyart-os, a giant; .
It is now got from the refuse products dous, odovt-os, a tooth (Latin, dens, English, dentist).
tl in the manufaeture of gas—the ammo-

Nom. pis. δελφις. . yoyas.

οδους. . ry it may be prepared by gently heating Gen. siv-os. δελφίν-ος.


edovt-os. quick-lime (oxide of calcium), made into a paste Dat. piv-. δελφίν-ι.

γιγαντ-ι. .

обот-. . i sal-ammoniae, which is ammonium chloride.

piv-a. δελφίν-α.

γιγαντ-α, οδοντ-α. CaO + 2NH,Cl = CaCl, + H,0 + 2NH,

piv. δελφις (ιν). yiyav.

οδους. .


-os; and




EXERCISE 32.-ENGLISH-GREEK. Nom. piv-es. δελφίν-ες. γιγαντ·ες. οδοντ-Ες.

1. We have ivory. 2. Ivory is produced (γιγνομαι) in distriots Gen. ρίν-ων. δελφίν-ων. γιγαντ-ων. οδοντ-ων. of Africa. 3. The rays of the sun delight the shepherds. 4. Dat. . δί-σι. δελφι-σι. γιγά-σι. οδου-σι. The brothers and the sisters are delighted by the rays of the Acc. piv-as. δελφίν-ας. γιγαντ-ας. οδοντ-ας.

sun. 5. The sister is lovely. 6. We admire fine ivory. 7. Dual.

Many elephants are in Africa. 8. The business of the teeth is Ν.Α.Τ. δίν-. δελφίν-€. γιγαντ-€.


to masticate the food. 9. It is the duty of every man to worship G.D. ρίν-οιν. δελφίν-οιν. γιγαντ-οιν.


the divinity. 10. To the gods there once was (in idiomatic

English, the gods once carried on) a war against (προς) the To this class belong the following adjectives :

giants. 1. In -ας, -αινα, -αν, as μελας, μελαινα, μελαν (gen. μελανος,

According to odous are formed words compounded with odovs, μελαινης, μελανος), black; and ταλας, ταλαινα, ταλαν, αnhappy.

as o, η μονοδoυς (gen. μονοδοντος), having one tooth; according 2. Πας, πασα, παν (gen. παντος, πασης, παντος), all, every και το γιγας, adjectives in -ας, (gen. -αντος), 13 ο, ή ακαμας, unsuband its compound απας, άπασα, απαν.

dued, unwearied. 3. Έκων, εκουσα, εκον (gen. έκοντος, εκουσης, έκοντος), willing; and arwy, akOvOQ, akov, unwilling (å privative making ékwv into 2. NOUNS WHICH IN THE GENITIVE HAVE A VOWEL BEFORE ακων).

THE TERMINATION -os. 4. The adjectives in -εις, «εσσα, -εν. For example, χαριεις, I pass on to this second great division of nouns (for the first Xeplerra, xapier, lovely, which have in the dative plural of the great division the learner must refer to page 195); and here, first, masculine and neuter gender -eol instead of -ELOT, as it is in I must take up substantives which end in -evs, -avs, and -ous. λειφθεις, left behind; for the participles in -εις, -εισα, -εν, form | The stem of these ends in υ. The v remains at the end of the the case regularly in -elot.

word and before consonants, but disappears in the middle Singular.

between vowels. Nouns in -eus have in the accusative singular Nom. και χαριείς,

η χαριεσσα,
το χαριεν.

-Q, and in the accusative plural -as ; take in the genitive sinGen.

χαριεντος, χαριεσσης, χαριεντος. gular what is called the Attic form in -ws, instead Dat. χαριεντι, χαρίεσση,

χαριεντι. in the dative singular, as well as in the nominative plural, Ace. χαριεντα, χαριεσσαν, χαρίεν.

admit contraetion, which, however, is commonly not found χαρίεν, χαρίεσσα, χαρίεν.

in the accusative plural. If a vowel precedes -eus, the whole Plural.

singular and plural is contracted, as in Xoeus. Nouns in -aüs Nom.

and -oūs take the contraction only in the accusative plural. χαριεντες, χαρίεσσαι, χαριεντα.

The words about to be declined are ο βασιλευς, a king; και χορευς, Gen.

χαριεντων, χαρίεσσων, χαριεντων. Det.

a measure of liquid (about a gallon); d, Ý Bous, a bull or cow, χαριεσι,

χαρίεσσαις, χαριεσι. Acc.

an ox (Latin, bos, bovis); and ń ypaws, an old woman.
χαριεντας, χαρίεσσας, χαριεντα.
Voc. .
χαριεντες, χαριεσσαι, χαριεντα.

Dual. .

Nom. βασιλευς. χοευς. βους. γραύς.

Gen. βασιλε-ως. χο(εω)ώς.* βο-ος. γρα-05. χαριέντε,

χαρίεσσα, χαριεντε. G.D.

Dat. . βασιλεί.


χαριεντoιν, χαρίεσσαιν, χαριεντοιν.

Acc. βασιλε-α. χο(εα)α. βούν. γραύν.

Voc. βασιλεύ.


γραύ. Nom. και λειφθεις, η λειφθεισα, το λειφθεν.

Plural. Gen. λειφθεντος, λειφθεισης, λειφθεντος.

Nom. βασιλείς. χοείς. . Bo-es. γρά-ες. Dat. λειφθεντι, λειφθειση, λειφθεντι.

Gen. βασιλε-ων. χο(εω)ών, βο-ών. γρα-ων. Acc. λειφθεντα, λειφθεισαν, λειφθεν.

Dat. βασιλεύσι. χoεύσι. βoυσι. γραυσι. Voc. λειφθεις, λειφθεισα, λειφθεν.

Acc. βασιλε-ας. χο(εα)ας. (βο-ας) βούς. (γρά-ας) γραύς.

βασιλείς. χοείς.

βο-ες. γρά-ες. Nom. λειφθεντες, λειφθεισαι, λειφθεντα.

Dual. Gen.

λειφθεντων, λειφθεισων, λειφθεντων. Ν.Α.V. βασιλε-€. χοε·ε. βο-. Dat. λειφθεισι, λειφθεισαις, λειφθεισι.

G.D. βασιλε-οιν. χοέ-οιν. βο-οιν. γρα-οϊν. Acc.

λειφθεντας, λειφθεισας, λειφθεντα. Voc.

λειφθεντες, λειφθεισαι, λειφθεντα.

Αρχω(gen.),Igovern. Εκτωρ, -ορος, o, Hec- Όμηρος,-ου,δ,Ηomer.
Ατιμαζω,I honour tor.

Οφθαλμος, -ου, o, an Ν.Α.Υ. λειφθεντε, λειφθεισα, λειφθεντε.

not, dishonour, Επιμελεια,

-ας, ή,

eye. G.D. λειφθεντoιν, λειφθεισαιν, λειφθεντοιν.


attention to, care. | Πατροκλος, -ου, ο, VOCABULARY. Αχαριστος, -ον, αη- Θυω, I sacrifce.

Patroclus. thankful.

Ιερευς,-εως,δ,a priest Πολυλογος, -ον, talkΑκτις, -ίνος, η, ο Ευπoρoς, -ον (with Μαχη, -ης, ή, ight, Αχιλλεας, -εως, o, Κυρος, -ου, δ, Cyrus. ative. gen.),easily passed, ! battle. . the hero Achilles. Anpos, -ov, ó, idle Te (onclitic)

- και, Αυτος, he himself abounding. Οσφραινομαι (gen.), Βουλομαι, I wish,

talk, chatter.

and-also, both. (Latin, ipse); ο Ηλιος, -ου, o, the sun. I smell something will.

Νομευς, -εως, o, a Τηλεμαχος, -ου, ό, αυτος, the same Κωτίλος, -η, -ον, 1ο- Ποτε, once (an en- Γονευς, -εως, o, a shepherd.

Telemachus. (Latin, idem). quacious. clitic).

parent. .

Νομη, ης, ή, a pasture Φονεύω,I put to το, Λεαινω, I make Φιλανθρωπος, Iman- | Εικαζω (dat.), I liken Οδυσσεύς, -εως,

ό, death, kill, mursmooth, polish, , loving, philanto, compare with. Ulysses. .

der. .
και, masticate.

elephant, Λιβυη, ης, ή, Lybia, Χωρα, -ας, ή, country,

Africa. .

1. Οι βασιλείς επιμελειαν εχουσι των πολιτών. 2. Η αγελη

τη νομεί έπεται. 3. Έκτωρ υπ' Αχιλλεως φονευεται. 4. Οι EXERCISE 31.—GREEK-ENGLISH.

ιερεις τους θεούς βούς θυουσιν. 5. Κυρος παίς ην αγαθων γονεων. 1. Ου πασιν ανθρωπους αυτος νούς εστιν. 2. Τοις oδoυσι τα 6. Οι αχαριστοι τους γονεας ατιμαζουσιν. 7. Πειθου, ω παι, τοις βρωματα λεαινομεν. 3. Οι δελφίνες φιλανθρωποι εισιν. 4. Eστιν* | γονεύσιν. 8. Τηλεμαχος ην Οδυσσεως υιος. 9. Bουλου τους ανδρος αγαθου παντα κακα ανδρειως φερειν. 5. Πολλαι Λιβυης γονεας προ παντος εν τιμαις εχειν. 10. Οι των γραών ληροι τα χαραι ευποροι εισιν ελεφαντος.

6. Παντες κωτιλον ανθρωπον ωτα τειρoυσιν. 11. Καλως αρχεις, ο βασιλεύ. 12. Αι γραες εχθαιρoυσιν. 7. Τοις γιγάσι ποτε ην μαχη προς τους θεους. 8. πολυλογοι εισιν. 13. Οι νομείς την βοών αγελην εις νομης αγoυσι. Ταις του ήλιου ακτίσι χαιρομεν. 9. Ρινων εργον εστιν οσφραινεσθαι. 14. Ομηρος τους Ηρας οφθαλμους τους των βοών εικαζει. 15.

• The verb cote with a genitive, as here, signifies "it is the duty * That is, xoews is contracted into xows, xoca into xoa, of," "it is becoming in."

xowv, and xoeas into xoas.



beam, ray.

Βρωμα, -ατος,

food. Ελεφας, -αντος,

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