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heights are indicated only in the elevations. Sometimes when the angle it forms with the ground; therefore man will be equal subject is a simple one-for instance, a plain wall—its course to oan; this was the reason the angle man in Fig. 15 was and thickness will be shown in the plan, and its height marked made 50°. By comparing Figs. 15 and 16, the same letters by indices in brackets at the end, as (10-5 feet), meaning that it being used in both, the corresponding lines will be seen, and it is to be built 10 feet 6 inches high. Fig. 9 is the plan and front will be understood why cd in Fig. 15 is made equal to mn, elevation of a cottage. It will be seen that if the plan be drawn because, as in Fig. 16, m n is equal to no, the distance of the first, perpendicularly dotted lines must be drawn parallel with upper end of the rod from the ground, and no is equal to cd, each other from every angle, and from the terminations and therefore m n is equal to cd. projections of each line, which will determine the extent of the PROBLEM VI. (Fig. 17).—The frustrum of a right square elevation and of its several parts, but not its height. If the pyramid rests with its base on a horizontal plane, the lengths of elevation be drawn first, the perpendicularly dotted lines are the edges of the top and base being respectively 1:3 and 24 projected downwards to produce the plan. In orthographic pro- inches, and the height 2.8 inches; draw its plan and elevation.—If jection we usually draw a line to represent the meeting or axis a pyramid be divided into two parts by a plane parallel to its of the two planes of projection, the horizonal and the vertical, base, the part next the base is called a frustrum of a pyramid, or which, as in Fig. 10, we have marked ay; therefore it must be sometimes a truncated pyramid. Draw the square abdc, the plan remembered that all above that line is understood to be the of the base 2:4 inches side (see Lessons in Geometry, Problem vertical plane of projection upon which the elevations are drawn, XVIII., Vol. I., page 255), and within it the square efh g, the plan and all below it the horizontal plane upon which the plans are of the top 1.3 inch side. In order to place the plan of the top so drawn. The plan of a circle when parallel with the ground is a that the edges shall be equidistant from the edges of the plan circle of the same size indicated by the scale. The elevation is of the base, proceed as follows:-Draw the diagonals cb and a straight line only, equal to the diameter (Fig. 10). If the circle a d, make an equal to 1.3 inch, and draw nh parallel to is standing on its edge perpendicularly to the ground, then its cgfb; draw gh parallel to cd; the rest will be evident, as plan is a straight line only, and the elevation is a circle (Fig. 11). the angles are in the diagonals, and the sides are parallel to ab To illustrate the positions (Fig. 10), let the pupil hold & penny. and ac respectively. Having drawn the plans, then draw xy, piece horizontally before, and level with, his eyes; he will see the ground line, parallel to one side of the square; draw am and the edge, the elevation; then let him place it upon the ground, bl; draw the lines ei and f k, continuing them above a y equal and look down upon it; he will see the whole circumference, to the height of the frustrum 2-8 inches ; join im, kl, and i k; the plan. Reverse the position of the penny, and do the same mikl will be the elevation. The pupil will observe that other for Fig. 11. We trust there will be no difficulty now in under elevations can be drawn from the same plan, opposite any standing the position of the eye with respoct to both planes of other side, when required for working purposes a common projection. As we intend to devote the present Lesson to the practice in drawing extra elevations for building construction ; consideration of this subject, preparatory to more important in these cases all that is necessary is to arrange the ground line questions in perspective, we will give our pupils a few simple or axis of the planes opposite the side of which the elevation is problems for practice, reserving others of a more complicated required. Fig. 18 is the same subject as Fig. 17: xy is placed nature till they are required in future Lessons.

parallel to one of the diagonals of the plan, consequently two faces PROBLEM Ü. (Fig. 12).-A rod, 4 feet long, is parallel with, of the frustrum are seen, a' and b', shown in the plan as a and b. and 2 feet from, both planes ; draw its plan and elevation. Scale inch to the foot.-First draw ay, the axis of the planes, and

LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXXVI. draw ab, 4 feet long, parallel with and 2 feet from xy; then from the extremities a and b draw perpendicular lines to c and

SECTION LXIX.-THE IMPERATIVE. d; mark c and d 2 feet above xy, and join them; e will be the 1. CONJUGATION OF THE IMPERATIVE OF THE REGULAR elevation, and f the plan.

VERBS. PROBLEM III. (Fig. 13).—When the same rod is at an angle Chant


rec -ois rend of 40° with the vertical plane and parallel with the horizontal sing


render. plane.- Draw a line eg at an angle of 40° with xy, make es Qu'il par!

chér -isse

-oive vend

let him speak let him cherish let him perceive equal to 2 feet, and draw fa parallel to xy: a will be the plan

let him sell. Donn

fourn issons perc of one end of the rod 2 feet from the vertical plane ; upon eg


let us give let us furnish lut us gather let us tend. and from a make ab, the plan, equal to 4 feet: draw the per


entend -ez. pendicnlar lines ac and b d, and draw cd, the elevation, seck


hear. parallel with and 2 feet above ay.

Qu'ils port


-oivent perd -ent. PROBLEM IV. (Fig. 14).-When a rod is at an angle of 40°

let them carry.

let them seize. let them owe. let them lose. with the ground and parallel with the vertical plane. —Draw eg 2. The first person singular, and the first and second perat an angle of 40° with my, and draw the perpendicular ef sons plural of the imperative, are the same as the first person 2 feet from my, also fc parallel with xy; cut off cd, equal to singular, and the first and second persons plural of the present 4 feet, the whole extent of the rod : from c and d draw per- of the indicative. The pronouns are dropped :pendiculars cutting xy to a and b; join ab, for the plan, Je parle, parle ; Je fluis, finis. I speak, speak ; I finish, finish. When the object is at an angle with both planes, the angle of imperative, aie, ayons, ayez ; ètre, to be, sois, soyons, soyez ;

3. Exceptions.—Avoir, to have, make in those persons of the inclination with the horizon is made on the horizontal plane. PROBLEM V. (Fig. 15). Let the rod have one end on the ground, savoir

, to know, sache, sachons, sachez ; and aller, va, and vas and let it rise at an inclination of 50°, and let its plan be at an

before y not followed by an infinitive. angle of 40° with the vertical plane.-Draw the lino eag at the

4. Vouloir has only the second person plural, veuillez, hare given angle 40° with the vertical plane; upon this line the plan

the goodness to.... will be represented. Draw a h at an angle of 50° with a g, and tive by most of the French grammarians. These parts, however,

5. A third person singular and plural is given in the imperamake a m equal to the length of the rod; from m draw mn per- belong properly to the subjunctive, as they express rather a inclined to the horizon at 50°. Draw ncd and a b at right strong wish than a command. The English expressions, let him angles with a y, and make c d equal to mn; join 6 d; the line speak, that he may speak, are rendered in French by qu'il parle. bd will be the vertical elevation. That this may be more clearly

6. A droite, à gauche, correspond in signification to the understood, we will draw the eidograph of the problem, Fig. 16, English to the right, to the left.

Go to the right, to the left. that is, the figure or appearance it would present when placed in allez à droite, à gauche, conjunction with the two planes of projection (Fig. 8 is also an

7. For the place of the pronouns in connection with the sidagroph). In Fig. 16 a o is the given rod, and a n is its plan. imperative, see Sect. XXVI., i, 4; Sect. XXVII. 1, 2, 3, 4. Now in order to get the inclination of a o, the rod, which is raised

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. from the paper at an inclination of 50°, must be rabatted, that Prenons la première rue à droite. Let us take the first street to tke right. ix, thrown down opon the horizontal plane; the course of the Ne cherchez plus à le tromper. Soek no longer to deceive him. dotted arc o m will show this. We must

construct the angle of Sachons nous contenter du néces. Let us know how to content ourselves the inclination of the rod upon the horizontal plane, that is, the







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habisan a su vous pays attention to this you say prendre un parti, to take a determination ; prendre du café, du

Salaiete., to take cujee, tee, etc.

darges dernier le tapissier. Send for the upholsterer.
- seminer votre parapluie. Go and fetch your u nbrella.
are mor votre pire.

Bus and see your father.
as moin de nous blesser. Let w take care not to hurt ourselves.
Puna jario de dechirer vos habits. Take care not to tear your dothes.
Forex-vous pas pris le deuil ? Hare you not put on mourning?
Tesa la peine de vous asseoir. Take the trouble to sit down.
Ita du thé ou du café.

Take tea or coffee.
who parti avez-vous pris! What relation have you taken ?

Attend-re, 4, to expect, Git-er, 1, to spoil. Robe, L., dress.
to wait for.

Gouverneur, m.,
na walele. Chocolat, m.,

go- Soin, m., care. chocolate.

Tomb-er, I, to fall. Jyvä pas Courrier, m.,

Lorsque, when. Tacher, 1, to stain, to VI del i Seot. Croi-re, 4, ir., to believe. Port-er, 1, to wear. spot.

(silent 5. Déchir-er, 1, to tear. Quelquefois, sometimes. Se tai-re, 4, ir., to le olisi promis à it, lites.le-lui

EXERCISE 135. 9. Parlez- 1. Allez voir mon frère, il a quelque chose à vous communi

10. Ayez quer. 2. Courez leur dire que je les attends. 3. Mon frère a and will do povedad de venir. 11. bien pris garde de déchirer ses habits. 4. Votre cousine a-the buis toujours, donnez- elle pris garde de tacher sa robe ? 5. Elle a pris garde de

burjak ionné plus des tomber, car en tombant elle l'aurait gâtée. 6. Ces petites filles sables de tout serrurier ? 15. ont-elles pris le deuil ? 7. Elles viennent de le prendre. 8. temu, webs-lib-lui sans faute cette Pour qui prenez-vous le deuil ? 9. Je porte le deuil de ma

i Homoure M, G. 18. mère. 10. Prenez-vous du thé ou du café le matin ? 11. Nous i scheure dans la deuxièmo prenons du thé et du eafé. 12. Ne prenez-vous pas quelque www.spiles, dépêchons-nous. fois du chocolat ? 13. Nous n'en prenons que lorsque nous

31. Ne me les rapportez sommes malades. 14. Quel parti le gouverneur a-t-il pris ?

33. Portons-les-y. 24. 15. Il a pris le parti de se taire. 16. Prendrez-vous mon parti en doorlin, mais ne les lui donnez (my part) ou celui de votre fils ? 17. Je prendrai le vôtre, si

je crois que vous avez raison. 18. Pourquoi ne prenez-vous

pas la peine de lire sa lettre? 19. Parce qu'elle n'en vaut pas 2. I have already given la peine. 20. Votre courrier a-t-il pris les devants ? 21. II

3. Lend it to him, if you n'a pu prendre les devants. 22. N'avez-vous pas tort de fi l will not loud it to him. 5. Make prendre son parti ? 23. Je n'ai pas tort de le prendre. 24. w wodook

4. Have the goodness to Avez-vous pris le thé (your tea) ? 25. Nous n'avons pas pris
ingens down ono to your brother. 8. Obey (our) le thé, nous avons pris le café ?
w ustur.
9. Will you not send

Toote wind for it.

11. Send for it as soon
torp i due 1/4), but write to my cousin. 13. has taken care not to spoil it, he has only one.
1. Has your brother taken care not to spoil his hat? 2. He

3. Go and pienda), luwas your lesson. 14, Give him speak to your sister, she calls you (appelle). 4. Will you net Howard tume como [$ 100 (6)]. 15. Do not take a cup (tasse) of tea ? 5. I have just taken my tea. 6.

10. Havo patience, my child, What have you said to your little girl 7. I have told her to

17. Send it to him, if you take care not to tear her dress. 8. Let us take care not to 1. Writu to him this afternoon without tear that book. 9. My son has just brought it. 10. Has he did not die huis if I had timo. 20. Let us take taken his tea? 91. Tako the second street to the 12. At what hour do you take tea at your house ?

11. He has not yet taken tea, it is too early.

13. We And those that there to what your brother says. 23. Lot take tea at six o'clock. 14. Do you take tea or coffee for

Halabua road that book today. 25. Pay breakfast (à votre déjeuner) ? 15. We take coffee. 16. Is your 14018 ht pussailles

26, Lot us obey our instructor. courier gone on before? 17. He has not been able to go on 34. Bring me back the books which

before. 18. What resolution have you taken? 19. I have 40. bu not bring them back to me, read taken the resolution to study my lesson. 20. Have you taken li to barato uistionoo, wo shall soon have money.

care not to tear your books ? 21. I have taken care not to stain htha bote these they are at my father's. . 32. Tell them. 22. What has your brother determined? 23. He has W than tyle wed to write mos them tomorrow morning. 33. determined to remain silent. 24. Have you taken my part? to his while alarabirinde mum back my letters: 25. I have taken my brother's part,

26. Are you right to men till 140 bbc thuru, but bring them to mo as soon as

take his part ? 27. I am right to take his part, because he is

right. 28. Are you not afraid to take his part ? 29. I am not WA64 148 14* MTOMATIYFS AND THE INFINITIVE afraid to take his part. 30. Will you take your sister's part , or mine ? 31. I will take my sister's part. 32. Go and read

33. I know my Unt de fedeste another vorb in the imperative, is put your book, you do not know your lesson.

Iris fording to general rulo, Sect. xx. 2). The lesson, and I know also that you are my friend. 34. Let es
Which on somon botwoon the two verbs in go to our father, he wants us.

Go and speak to the musician.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. to and do your work. llun and seo those yentlemen.

EXERCISE 42 (Vol. I., page 207). 4-6 eura, do take heed, when followed by 1. Où votre ami va-t-il? 2. Il va chez vous ou cbez votre frère. inaunu to take care not to.

3. N'a-t-il pas l'intention d'aller chez votre associé ? 4. Il a l'intention Take care not to fall,

d'y aller, mais il n'a pas le temps aujourd'hui. 5. De quoi aves-vous

besoin aujourd'hui ? 6. J'ai besoin de mon gilet qui est chez la i to je auto mourning; prondre la tailleur. 7 Vos habits sont-ils chez le peintre ? 8. Ils n'y sont pas, und in durant 4, los yo on before ; | ils sont chez le tailleur. 9. ©u demeurez-vous, mon ami? 10. Je

demeure chez votre belle-spur. 11. Monsieur votre père est-il à est-il ? 14. Il est chez Monsieur votre père ou chez M. votre frère. la maison ? 12. Non, Monsieur, il n'y est pas. 13, Où votre domes- 15. Avez-vous l'intention d'envoyer chercher le médecin ? 16. J'ai tique porte-t-il le bois ? 14. Il le porte chez le capitaine russe. 15. l'intention de l'envoyer chercher. 17. Ai-je raison d'envoyer chercher Le monsieur qui est avec Monsieur votre père, demeure-t-il chez l'Ecossais ? 18. Vous avez tort de l'envoyer chercher. 19. Allez-vous lui?

16. Non, Monsieur, il demeure chez moi. 17. A-t-il tort de trouver M. votre père l'après-midi ? 20. Je vais le trouver le matin. demeurer chez vous ? 18. Non, Monsieur, il a raison de demeurer chez 21. Votre frère va-t-il chez votre oncle tous les lundis. 22. Il y va moi. 19. D'où le charpentier vient-il ? 20. Il vient de chez son tous les dimanches. 23. Allez-vous apprendre la musique ? 24. Ma associé. 21. A-t-il deux associés ? 22. Non, Monsieur, il n'en a nièce va l'apprendre, si elle a le temps. 25. Est-ce que je vais lire ou qu'un, qui demeure ici, 23. Avez-vous le temps d'aller chez nous ce écrire ? 26. Vous allez lire demain. 27. Va-t-il chez vous tous les matin ? 24. Nous avons le temps d'y aller. 25. Nous avons l'inten- jours ? 28. Il vient vous trouver tous les mercredis. 29. À quelle tion d'y aller et de parler à Maden oiselle votre seur. 26. Est-elle heure ? 30. À neuf heures moins un quart. 31. Vient-il de bonne chez vous ? 27. Elle est chez elle. 28. Avez-vous du pain, du beurre heure ou tard ? 32. Il vient à neuf heures et quart. 33. Qu'allez-vous et du fromage à la maison ? 29. Nous y avons du paiu et du beurre. chercher ? 31. Nous allons chercher des légumes, de la viande et du 30. Nous n'y avons pas de fromage, nous n'aimons pas le fromage. 31. sucre. 35. Nous avons besoiu de sucre tous les matins. Votre montre est-elle chez l'horloger? 32. Elle y est. 33. Avez-vous deux montres d'or? 34. Je n'ai qu'une montre d'or. 35. Qui a

EXERCISE 47 (Vol. I., page 251). l'intention d'aller chez mon père ce matin? 36. Personne n'a l'inten- 1. Are you going to write to him ? 2. I am going to write to him tion d'y aller.

and communicate to him this news. 3. Are you going to speak to EXERCISE 43 (Vol. I., page 215).

him of me? 4. I am going to speak to him of you and of your com1. Where am I going? 2. You are going to the hatter's. 3. Am I panion. 5. Do you send them fine trees ? 6. I send them applegoing to the bank ? 4. You are going to the bank and to the concert.

trees, pear-trees, and cherry-trees. 7. Do you not send me cherry5. Do I cut your wood ? 6. You cut neither my wood nor my coat.

trees ? 8. I do not, you have some already. 9. Are you right to 7. Do I wear a green hat? 8. You do not wear a green hat, you wear speak to them of this affair ? 10. I am not wrong to speak to them a black one. 9. Is your scholar going anywhere? 10. He is going to

of this affair. 11. Come to us to-morrow morning. 12. Come to us church, to school, and to market. 11. Is he not going to the hair.

this afternoon. 13. Do you go to them every day? 14. I go to them dresser's ? 12. He is going nowhere. 13. Do you not wear red

every evening. 15. Do you give them good advice ? 16. I give them leather boots ? 14. I wear black leather ones. 15. Do you not go to the good advice and good examples. 17. Do you speak to us about your banker's ? 16. I do not go to his house, he is absent since yesterday.

sisters ? 18. I speak to you of them. 19. Do you not speak to us

about our brothers ? 17. Is he coming to the bank this morning? 18. He intends to come

20. I speak to you of them. 21. Do you not if he has time. 19. Has he a wish to go to the concert ? 20. He has

love them? 22. We love and respect them. 23. Do you think of a great wish to go, but he has no ticket. 21. Do you live in this

inio ivuk ur uv you uvc? 24. We ting of it, and we speak of it. village ? 22 Yes, Sir, I do. 23. Do you send this note to the post

25. We do not think of it. office ? 24. I send it to its address.

EXERCISE 48 (Vol. I., page 251).
EXERCISE 44 (Vol. I., page 215).

1. Quand allez-vous écrire à M. votre frère ? 2. Je vais lui écrire 1. Est-ce que je porte mon grand chapeau noir? 2. Vous portez demain matin. 3. Avez-vous l'intention de lui écrire tous les lundis ? en besu chapeau vert. 3. Le banquier va-t-il chez le perruquier ce

4. J'ai l'intention de lui écrire tous les mardis. 5. Avez-vous envie matin ? 4. Il y va ce matin. 5. A-t-il l'intention d'aller à la banque de lui parler aujourd'hui ? 6. J'ai envie de lui parler, mais il n'est ce matin? 6. n n'a pas l'intention d'y aller, il n'a pas le temps. 7.

pas ici. 7. Où est-il ? 8. Il est chez lui. 9. Leur parlez-vous ? 10. Envoyez-vous vos lettres à la poste? 8. Je ne les y envoie pas, elles Oui, Monsieur, je leur parle de cette affaire. 11. Vous donnent-ils ne sont pas encore écrites. 9. Est-ce que je vous envoie un billet ?

de bons avis ? 12. Ils me donnent de bons avis et de bons exemples. 10. Vous m'envoyez un billet, mais je n'ai pas envie d'aller au concert. 13. Allez-vous trouver Mademoiselle votre soeur tous les jours ? 14. 11. Monsieur votre frère va-t-il à l'école demain ? 12. Il y va au

Je vais la trouver tous les matins à neuf heures moins un quart. 15. jourd'hui et il reste demain à la maison, 13. Est-ce que j'y vais? 14.

Aime-t-elle à vous voir ? 16. Elle aime à me voir, et elle me reçoit Vons D'allez mulle part. 15. Où allez-vous ? 16. Je vais chez M.

bien. 17. Pensez-vous à cette affaire ? 18. J'y pense toute la journée. Fotre frère ; est-il à la maison ? 17. Il n'est pas à la maison, il est

19. En parlez-vous avec M. votre frère ? 20. Nous en parlons souvent. absent depuis hier. 18. Monsieur votre frère demeure-t-il dans ce

21. Envoyez-vous votre compagnon chez moi ? 22. Je l'envoie tous village? 19. Il n'y demeure pas, il demeure chez mon neveu. 20.

les jours. 23. Etes-vous chez vous tous les jours ? 24. J'y suis tous Avez-vous tort d'aller à l'école ? 21. Non, Monsieur, j'ai raison d'aller les matins à dix heures. 25. Aimez-vous à aller à l'église ? 26. J'aime à å l'église et à l'école. 22. Avez-vous envie de venir chez moi? 23.

y aller tous les dimanches avec un compagnon. 27. Parlez-vous de vos J'aime à aller chez vous et chez M. votre frère. 24. Quand venez

maisons ? 28. J'en parle. 29. M. votre frère parle-t-il de ses amis ? vous chez nous ? 25. Demain, si j'ai le temps. 26. Le banquier

30. Oui, Monsieur, il parle d'eux. 31. Penge-t-il à eux ? 32. Oui, sime-t-il à venir ici? 27. Il aime à venir chez vous. 28. Le


Monsieur, il pense à eux. 33. Pense-t-il à cette nouvelle ? 34. Oui, quier rient-il? 29. Il ne vient pas encore. 30. Qu'envoyez-vous à Monsieur, il y pense. 35. Je les aime et je les honore. l'écolier ? 31. Je lui envoie des livres, du papier et des habits. 32.

EXERCISE 49 (Vol. I., page 252). Où est-il ? 33. Il est à l'école. 34. L'école est-elle dans le village ? 35. Elle y est,

1. Will you give this book to my brother? 2. I can lend it to him,

but I cannot give it to him. 3. Will you send them to us? 4. The EXERCISE 45 (Vol. I., page 236).

milliner can send them to you. 5. Do you show them to her ? 6. I 1. What are you going to do? 2. I am going to learn my lessons.

see them and show them to her. 7. Are you afraid to lend them to 3. Are you not going to write to your acquaintances? 4. I am going us ? 8. I am not afraid to lend them to you. 9. Can you not send to write to nobody. 5. Who has just spoken to you? 6. The Irish

us some fish ? 10. I cannot send you any, I have but little. 11. Will man has just spoken to us. 7. When is the Scotch lady going to

you speak to them of it? 12. I will speak to them of it, if I do not teach you music? 8. She is going to teach me next year.

9. Is she forget it.

13. Do you often come to see them ? 14. I come to see going to commence on Tuesday or on Wednesday? 10. She is going them every morning and every evening. 15. Do you not speak to to commence neither on Tuesday nor on Wednesday; she intends to

them of your journey to Poland ? 16. I speak to them of it, but they Commence on Thursday, if she has tine. 11. Does your companion will not believe me. 17. Do I see my acquaintances on Mondays? go to church every Sunday? 12. She goes every Sunday and every

18. You see them every day of the week. 19. Do they send you more Wednesday, 13. To whom do you go? 14. I do not go to any one.

money than our merchant's clerk ? 20. They send me more than he. 15. Do you not intend to come to me to-morrow? 16. I intend to go

21. Do you send any to the bookseller? 22. I send him some when I to your dyer. 17. Do you send for the physician? 18. When I am owe him. 23. Are you not wrong to send him some ? 24. I cannot 1 I send for him. 19. Does he remain with you the whole day? | be wrong to pay my debts. 3). He remains with me only a few minutes. 21. Do you go to school in the morning? 22. I go in the morning and in the afternoon. 23.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXIII. Do you go every day? 24. I go every day, except Monday and Sunday. 35. Saturday I remain at home, and Sunday I go to

EUROPE (continued). church. EXERCISE 46 (Vol. I., page 236).

The maps that accompany our present lesson in Geography

present accurate delineations of the principal features of France 1. L'Irlandais que va-t-il faire ? 2. Il va enseigner la musique. 3. and the great Scandinavian and Iberian peninsulas. We shall Vient-il de commencer son travail ? 4. Il vient de le commencer. supplement these in our next with a map of the countries of 5. Qui vient de vous écrire ? 6. Le teinturier vient de m'écrire. Votre petit garçon va-t-il à l'église tous les

jours ? 8. Non, Monsieur; Central and Southern Europe on nearly the same scale as the il va à l'église le dimanche, et il va à l'école tous les jours. 9. Allez: map of France in this lesson. vous chercher le inédecin? 10. Je l'envoie chercher parceque ma

We now proceed with an enumeration of the islands which seur est malade. 11. Allez-vous trouver mon médecin ou le votre belong to Europe. of these, by far the most important, both 12. Je vais trouver le mien, le vôtre n'est pas à la maison, 13. Où in political and commercial importance, are the Britir'

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Under this head are included Great Britain, anciently called Minorca, Ivica, and Formentera, E. of Spain; Sicily, S.W. of Albion or Britannia, and divided into the three countries of Naples, and separated from it by the Strait of Messina ; England, Wales, and Scotland ; and Ireland, anciently called Malta, S. of Sicily, and belonging to Great Britain; the Ionian Hibernia, with various islands of much smaller dimensions lying Islands-viz., Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Theaki around or near the coast. The principal of these are the Isle of or Ithaca, Cerigo, and Paxo, situated W. of Greece, and S.W. Man, in the Irish Sea, situated at nearly an equal distance from of Turkey, in the Ionian Sea, and now belonging to Greece; England, Scotland, and Ireland; the Isle of Anglesea, which Candia or Crete, S.E. of Greece; many of the islands of the is separated from the mainland of Wales by the Menai Straits ; Archipelago-namely, the Negropont (anciently Eubea), Andros, the Scilly Isles, anciently called Cassiterides, or the Islands of Syra, Naxia, Paros, Antiparos, Hydra, Spezzia, Egina, etc., Tin, adjacent to Cornwall, the real tin region; the Isle of lying E. and S. E. of Greece; and Lemnos er Stalimene, Imbros, Wight, south of, and forming part of, Hampshire; the Hebrides, Samothraki, and Thaso, lying S. of Turkey, and belonging to or Western Islands, lying west of Scotland; the Orkney and that power. The chief islands in the Mediterranean reckoned Shetland Islands, north of Scotland; and the Channel Islands, as belonging to Asia are Lesbos or Mitylene, Seio or Chios, Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, and Sark, which lie to the north-Samos, Patmos, Rhodes, and many others, lying to the E. of west of France.

Turkey in Asia,
Next to the

Lon.W. Lon. E. from Greenwich 15 North Cape
British Islands,

or rather Asis

Minor; and the most import- NORWAY, SWEDEN ant in the north

Cyprus, situRingrade

ated in the Leof Europe are DENMARK. Don Boyer

vant, which bethose which

longs to Turkey, belong to and

and whose form part of ( Α Τ Ι Α Ν Τ Ι CRίας

chief town is the kingdom of

Nicosia. Denmark, and


The principal lie in the channel or passage


capes (Latin, cato the Baltic,

put, a head) in

Europe are the called the Cat

following:- The tegat - viz.,

North Cape, on Zealand, which

the island of contains CopenTasjo

Magerőe, in lat.

Pasele hagen, the capi

71° 10',and long.

Umea tal of that

26° 1' E., is comkingdom, with Fünen, Laaland,

monly reckoned Vasa

the most northFalster, Moen, Langeland, Born

ern point of Exholm, and


according to various others. In other parts

some authors, is Ber Stambozel

Tablo of the Baltic

Nordkyn, in Gefte

Finmark, in lat. are the islands -Upsala

71° 6' N.; the of Rugen, Oland,

north point of Gottland, Aland,

Nova Zembla is Oesel, and Dago.

in lat. 77° 4' N., The islands

and long. 77° 5
called the
The Naz

E.; the Naze
Western Ig-
lands, which are


Vindau Riga

the most north-
sidered to belong



risinnsta a
to Europe, and of
which Terceira
and St. Michael

Skaw, or most

northern point are the princi


of Jutland, in pal, are situated about 800 miles

Denmark; Cape R . S

L& Hogue, in W. of Portugal, to which they belong. The island of Iceland, which belongs to Ortegal and Finisterre, in Spain, of which the latter, as the

France; Capes Denmark, and is celebrated for its hot springs and its volcanoes, name indicates (Latin, finis, the end; terræ, of the earth), was is situated on the edge of the arctic circle, and having its deemed by the ancients the end or attermost extremity of the northern point within the Arctic Ocean; the Faroe Isles,

which world; Cape Roca, near Lisbon, and Cape St. Vincent, in belong to the same kingdom, and are situated N.W. of the Portugal; Cape Trafalgar and Tarifa Point, lat. 36° 1' N., long, Shetland Isles. Ferro, one the Canary Isles, once formed the 5° 36' W.; Cape Spartivento and Cape di Lenca, in Italy, and site of the first meridian, to which all nations referred the Cape Matapan, in Greece (the Morea), the last-named cape longitude, and it is to be regretted that this did not retain its being in lat. 36° 22' N., and long. 22° 28' E.; Cape Passaro, in position as the universal meridian for the world at large, and Sicily; and others of less importance. In the British Islands, for the simplification of the mode of reckoning the longitude in Dunnet Head, and not Cape Wrath, is the most northerly point different countries. The islands which lie in the most northern of Great Britain; also Lizard Point, and not Land's End, regions of Europe are the Lofoden Isles, W. of Norway; Spitz- is the most southerly point. The most northerly point of bergen, and Nova Zembla, in the Arctic Ocean.

Ireland is Mullin or Malin Head, and the most southerly point
The islands of the greatest importance in the south of Mizen Head, and not Cape Clear, which is on an island called
Europe, and which lie in the Mediterranean Sea, are the Clare Island.
following :-Corsica, which belongs to France, lying in the
Tuccan Sea ; Sardinia, s. of Corsica, and separated from it the Scandinavian system chain of mountains, extending from

The northern highlands of Europe are those which contain i wnuh lie i oil".Strait of Bonifacio; the Balearic Isles-viz., Majorca, the Naze to the North Cape, and consisting of the Langefield, Corsica, whicoidw son ; Sardinia, s.a inibis it of Bonifaciiostino 1

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the Dovrefield, and the Kiolen ranges, of which the highest point which flows from the Carpathian Mountains, and, after a is Skageslöestinden, in the southern range, about 8,670 feet course of 500 miles, falls into the same sea at Akerman ; the above the level of the sea; and the Uralian or Qaralian chain, Danube, which has its source in the Black Forest (Schwarzextending from the shores of the Arctic Ocean to beyond the I wald), flows through Bavaria, Austria, and Turkey, and, after a source of the Ural river,

course of nearly 1,800 which falls into the Cas.



miles, falls into the Black pian Sea, and forms, with Portsmouth

,,Brussels Palais BELICTUM Liege

Sea at Ismail; the Rhine both, the boundary be


and the Rhone, which both tween Europe and Asia.

spring from the Swiss The south-eastern high


Alps, take opposite

Amiens lands of Europe are the

courses, the former run.

Caucasian chain of moun-


ning through the Lake of "Guernsey tains, between theCaspian


Constance, after a northSea and the Black Sea, of


ern course of about 600 which the highest peak



miles through Germany, is Mount Elburz, about


Strasburg France, and the Nether. 18,500 feet above the level


lands, falls into the Gerof the sea, and the high


man Ocean, after losing est mountain in Europe.


itself in the Waal, the The southern highlands of


Maese or Meuse, the Leck,
Europe consist of the Bal.

Berne ::

and the Old Rhine, and kan (anciently Hæmus)


R A NICE forming the great delta of Mountains in Turkey, the

Holland between Rotter. highest points being about

La Rochelle


dam and Amsterdam; the 10,000 feet above the


latter running through sea level; the Eastern


L Bano

the Lake of Geneva, after Alps (German, Angouleme

a southern course of about tains), stretching from


645 miles through France, the Balkan range to the Bordeaus

falls into the Mediterra. commencement of the

nean Sea at the Gulf of Western Alps, north of


Lions, where it also forms the Adriatic, of which the

& delta; the Arno and highest summits are Mont


the Tiber, on the west Blanc and Mont Rosa,

The Pyrenees

Shadrarseilles of Italy, fall into the each more than 15,000 $

Tuscan Sea; and the Po

Narbonne feet above the level of the

and the Adige, on the east ses, and which border

of Italy, fall into the

81 Switzerland on the south, 73 Lon East from Wastington


Adriatic; the Xucar and and Italy on the north;

the Ebro, of Spain, fall the Carpathian Mountains in the north of Hungary and Tran. | into the Mediterranean; the Douro and the Tagus, of Portugal, sylvania; the Hercynian Mountains, in Germany; the Cevennes with the Guadalquivir of Spain, fall into the Atlantic ; the and the Vosges, in France; the Pyrenees, between France and Dwina and the Onega, of Russia, fall into the White Sea ; the Spain, of which the highest points or peaks are Mont Perdu Vistula and the Oder, of Germany, fall into the Black Sea ; and Maladetta, each

and the Elbe, of the more than 11,000 feet 8 Lon.West from Greenwich

O Lon.East. 2

same country, into the high; the Cerro Mulha- 44

41 German Ocean, at Hamven, the highest point of Cortegic

burg. the Sierra Nevada, in Ferrol

The chief lakes of Spain, 11,633 feet above (Oviedo

Europe are the followthe level of the sea;

ing :- In the north, Laand Etna, the Sicilian



doga and Onega, in Rusvolcano, which is nearly

sia, the largest in Europe,

Burgos of the same elevation


the former being 130

"Valladolid 29 the Pyrenean peaks,


miles long and 70 miles being 10,874 feet in

broad, the latter smaller ; Oporu height. Salamanca

Peipus and Ilmen, in the

Tortosa The principal rivers in

same country, very conEurope are the follow


siderably less (the lastCuimheaks ing:--The Volga, which


named is connected with rises in the Valdai Hills,


Tagus 2

Lake Ladoga and the in Russia, runs a course

river Volga by means of through that country of Lisbon

A Hinchilla

canals, and thus a line of aboat 2,400 miles, and

communication is formed

Alicant falls into the Caspian Sea

between the Baltic and at Astrakhan, where its


33/ the Caspian Seas); the

Fordura delta (or land enclosed by

Lakes Wener, Wetter, its mouths in the shape


and Mälar, in Sweden,

Tirina gena of the Greek letter A, or Lagos

with the river Gotha, delta) is about fourteen


which form a line of

Milaga miles wide. The Ural,

Lille Gatt

communication between which rises in the

the middle of the Baltic Gibraltar

36 Ural Mountains, runs &


Sea and its entrance. In Jur; of Gibraltar course of about 1,800

the south of Europe the AFRICA miles, and falls into

lakes of Constance, Luthe Caspian Sea; the Don, which, after a course of nearly cerne, and Geneva, in Switzerland; and of Maggiore, Lugano, 1,000 miles, falls into the Sea of Azof, at the town of Azof; and Como, in Italy, are all remarkable for the beauty of their the Dnieper, which, after a course of a little more than 1,200 scenery. The following table contains some useful part miles, falls into the Black Sea at Kherson; the Dniester, relating to the lakes of Europe.

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