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Spain-breakers. She married a second time, and Walter Raleigh And these people have been busy with this disgrace of Raleigh. was the son of her second marriage. To her teaching there is He had been guilty of the high indiscretion of falling in love reason to think Raleigh owed that habit of God-fearing and with Miss Throgmorton, one of the queen's maids of honour. God-loving which he never forgot, whether in the battles of The queen hated lovers and love matches, and it was a serious Flanders, in the moments of his greatest discoveries, in the offence in her eyes for one so near to her as Raleigh to run glorious success of his public career, or in the hour of death. counter to her wishes in this matter. She was furions, and was She instilled into him that love of truth and that hatred of determined to punish Raleigh. He had at the time a grand lying, which afterwards bore fruit abundantly, to the great project in hand for intercepting the Spanish gold fleet on its terror of knaves. She informed him, doubtless, without much return from the river Plate. He took time by the forelock, and argument or showing cause, that to fear God and to honour the hurried off to sea ; but fearful lest his doing so should be mis. queen, to love true men and to knock liars overboard, was about understood by the lady whom it most concerned, he wrote a the whole duty of man. She bade him recognise that England note to Cecil, Secretary of State, explaining his conductwas the home of truth and of the purest form of religion, and note which has been variously interpreted, as indicating an that in the Pope and the Spanish king were to be found the intention to forsake Miss Throgmorton, and as avowing an implacable foes of freedom and goodness, the arch assertors of intention not to marry any one else. Which of the interpretaarbitrary power, She instilled into him that spirit which after- tions was right, we may judge by the event, for after his return wards made Spaniards tremble when they saw his ship, and fight Raleigh honourably married the lady. à l'outrance as against a foe that would not be beaten.

Raleigh continued at sea till recalled by Elizabeth, captured At the age of seventeen, after a short stay at Oxford, Walter the richest prize hitherto bronght into an English port, and Raleigh joined his kinsman, Henry Champernoun, who went found on his return the favour of the queen withdrawn, and an with a hundred volunteers to help the French Huguenots order for himself to be sent to the Tower. In the Tower he against the tyranny of the League ; and after serving with languished for several months, writing piteous, even fulsome distinction in this business, he went as a gentleman volunteer letters, in the hope of regaining his freedom, which was granted to strike for freedom in Flanders, where the power of Spain was in the autumn of the same year. Elizabeth, so long as he did arrayed against the Lowlanders, who were fighting for existence. not bring his wife to court, renewed the favour which had been For ten years he was more or less engaged in soldiering, and withdrawn. Raleigh resumed his place in Parliament, and then sailed with his half-brother, Humphrey Gilbert, on an strongly advocated the war with Spain. The queen gave him, expedition of discovery to the far west. The prosecution of about this time, the manor of Sherborne, and this he made it the voyage was stopped by an engagement with some Spanish his task to cultivate. There, in the happy society of his " dear ships, which somewhat crippled the English; and Raleigh re- Bessie,” for so he always called her, he lived a quiet life, turning home, took service with Lord Gray, who was at the time enjoying rest and ease, and forethinking those projects of enterdoing his best to govern Ireland in an equitable fashion. Two prise and adventure which were yet to link his name with years' service in Ireland, and then he came to court, whither fame. his fame had preceded him, even before he took off his cloak His restless spirit could not brook retirement for long to allow of the queen passing over the muddy ground.

together. It drove him forth to prosecute that which had conQueen Elizabeth speedily took him into favour, made him stantly occupied his mind—the search after El Dorado, and the captain of her body-guard, warden of the tin mines of Cornwall, upsetting of the Spanish power. gave him an estate in Ireland close to that of his friend and A strong sense of duty was in him to make him go forth and admirer, Edmund Spenser, the poet, and procured him to be do this, and he went forth. The cruelties of the Spaniards returned as a member to Parliament. It is at his court time practised upon the poor natives, their great insatiable atarice that we hear of his extravagance in dress, of his appearing and manifold crimes, roused a terrible indignation in Raleigh's on ordinary days in a white satin pinked vest, close sleeved breast. He would put a stop to this sort of thing, and perhaps to the wrist; over the body a brown doublet, finely flowered, discover El Dorado at the same time. He left his wife and his and embroidered with pearl.' In the feather of his hat a large noble boy, he gave up the sweets of leisure and of home, and off ruby and pearl drop at the bottom of the sprig, in place of a he went upon the ocean again. The quantities of gold found button; his trunk hose, with his stockings and riband garters by the Spaniards in Peru and Mexico gave rise to the belief fringed at the end, all white, and buff shoes with white riband that somewhere there existed a sort of fountain-head of wealth, After his acquisition of wealth by captures at sea, we hear of his where gold was to be had for the taking. This inexhanstible shoes, on grand days, being worth more than £6,000 by reason well-spring of riches was supposed by Raleigh to be situated in of the jewels on them; of his snit of armour of solid silver, and the country now called Venezuela, but then styled Guiana, and of his sword and sword-belt studded all over with diamonds, subsequent discoveries have proved that he was right to some rubies, and pearls. But Raleigh knew well enough how to extent in his supposition. (See Vol. I., page 141.) Raleigh went dress in different style, and when occasion demanded, he could to Guiana, made friends with the Indians, and won their affection show, in all the simplicity of steel cuirass and shirt sleeves, his and attachment. He told them of the queen across the set easy fighting trim. Besides, he was not given wholly to vanity whose servant he was, and how she had sent him to deliver them while at court. He studied, he wrote, he experimented in from the cruelty of the Spaniards. In earnest of this he destroyed chemistry, he planned expeditions for discovering new places at Trinidad the town of San José, took the Spanish governor across the Atlantic, and he busied himself with his Parliamentary prisoner, and released five caciques, or chiefs, whom that wretch duties. For several years he remained about the queen, but kept fast to one chain, and had their bodies " basted with burning took part, nevertheless, in every attack that was made upon the bacon,” in order to make them discover their gold. After Spanish power. An expedition fitted out at his cost discovered many months of absence he returned to England, poorer than and attempted to colonise Virginia. The Spanish authority when he left it, because he would not enrich himself by pillage, was defied and injured even in its strongest hold, and received, as it was the fashion of the time to do. In spite of cold looks through the exertions of Raleigh and his friends, a check which from those office, he persevered in his plans against the all the cowardice and folly of James I. could not counteract. Spaniards, and sent out Captain Keymis to succour the Indians In 1588 the Spanish Armada appeared off Devon and Cornwall, of the Orinoco. and Raleigh joined with Drake in having a fling at the hated There was work cut out for him nearer home. The English foe. He quitted the soft ease of the court, his scholarly pursuits, council had resolved to burn the

Spanish fleet in the harbour of his chemical studies, his official duties, in order that he might Cadiz, and Lord Essex and Raleigh were sent to do it. with his own hand make a bloody mark upon the invaders, Terrible work there was, for Cadiz was a fortified place, and and help the wind and the waves which fought against them. seemingly calculated by Nature to resist attacks. The Spanish

Increased in worldly wealth, rich in knowledge, and in the feet, well armed and manned, was lying under the protection of favour of the queen,

Raleigh fell suddenly into a disgrace, of the forts, and on land there was a large body of the best which the most has been made by his detractors

. There are, trained troops in the world, ready to oppose any attempt st and there always have been,

those whom Tom Hood well callg— storming. Raleigh was second in command; but he appears to “Quacks, not physicians, in the cure of souls,

have planned the attack, and to have undertaken the worst part Who go about to sniff out moral taints, and call the devil over his of the execution of it. "An awful fight ensued. " If any man, own coals."

says Raleigh, “ had a desire to see hell itself, it was there most lively figured." Amid blood, and smoke, and yells, and hurrahs, , a collision took place which resulted in the destruction of and the din of combat between deadly enemies, fifty-seven St. Thomas and the loss of a number of lives. Raleigh's own Spanish ships were burned and sunk, hundreds of men went to son was killed, his faithful friend Captain Keymis committed their account, and Cadiz was stormed and sacked. Raleigh got suicide, and the instructions, which were so particular against a wound in the leg which lamed him for life, and returned to interference with the Spaniards, were violated. Raleigh himself England covered with glory.

and many of his men were ill with fever, some of the company The enmity of Spain did not allow of much repose; a second began to murmur, and what for Raleigh was worse than all

, expedition, this time to the Azores, was entrusted to Essex, gold could not be found. After another effort to discover El Raleigh being ond. Some disagreement arose in consequence Dorado, Raleigh gave the order to return home, weary in spirit of Raleigh having, when Essex was not forthcoming with his at his want of success and at the loss of his son George, sick in squadron, seized the island of Fayal and carried it, of his own body, and his mind presaging something of the storm that was anassisted self. The men had not been friends, and this about to break upon him. widened the breach between them. The general result of the When he arrived at Plymouth he found a justification for his expedition was a failure, and Essex tried to put the blame on fears, for his wife who met him there told him how the Spanish Raleigh. But his honour was untouched, and for some years ambassador had demanded satisfaction from the king, and how he lived a life of magnificence and comparative idleness in that James was exceedingly angry. Orders awaited Raleigh to London.

repair immediately to London, and a few miles from Plymouth With the death of Elizabeth, a great change took place in the he was met by Sir Lewis Stucley, who was really commissioned public policy of England ; but before that policy could be to take him prisoner. Arrived in London, he was sent to the announced, much less carried out, Raleigh cast about how he Tower, from which, in conjunction with some of his old commight avert it altogether. In concert with a few others, there is panions, he tried to escape ; but being betrayed was brought reason to think that he engaged in a conspiracy to place on the back, and once more lodged in the gloomy fortress. throne Lady Arabella Stuart, who was, according to the law James had written to the King of Spain---so anxious was he regulating succession to private property, the rightful heir, not to forfeit that prince's friendship-offering to put to death instead of James I. The plot was never perhaps seriously the great enemy of Spain, or, if Philip preferred it, he would entertained by the plotters themselves, and they certainly never send him to Spain to be dealt with there. The letter must have took any overt steps towards executing it; but it was neverthe. made Elizabeth turn in her grave; but the Spaniard wrote back less discovered, and those privy to it, including Lady Arabella, to say "that it would be more agreeable to him that the punishwere thrown into prison. Raleigh was tried and condemned ment of Raleigh should take place in England ; and as the upon the most inconclusive evidence, the prosecution being con. offence was notorious, that its chastisement should be exemplary ducted with a vigour, not to say acrimony, most revolting. and immediate."

The sentence of death was not ordered to be carried out; Sir Walter was accordingly brought to the bar of the Queen's but was held in terrorem over the prisoner's head for eleven Bench, not to be tried for what he had now done, but to years, during which he was incarcerated in that dungeon which receive notice that execution was granted under the sentence all are shown who visit the Tower of London. “No king but passed on him fifteen years before. His life, as being "God's my father,” said Prince Henry, the heir-apparent, “would keep high gift,” he tried his utmost to guard from scathe and wrong; such a bird in a cage.” In that cage Raleigh wrote his "History he used much eloquence to avert the sentence, for his wife and of the World,” pursued his chemical researches, wrote letters of remaining child's sake; but his fate was already determined, counsel for Prince Henry, and pondered over projects of future and he was ordered to suffer on the morrow. discovery. There too he had the mortification to see the The last night of his life was spent by the prisoner in a Elizabethan policy towards Spain turned completely backward. manner according with his antecedents. He wrote a letter to The feeble monarch who sat on the English throne was com- the king, and one to his wife, the latter full of the most tender pletely under the Spanish influence, even to desiring, above all solicitude for the poor lady's welfare, giving her directions what things, a matrimonial alliance between Prince Charles and the to do after his death. He wrote, also, some verses on his Spanish Infanta ; everything was conceded to Spanish demands, coming death, and then lay down to rest. Next morning the the old English spirit was dead, or seemed to be so, and the glory Dean of Westminster attended him, and found him smoking which had surrounded the brows of Elizabeth was departed. his favourite tobacco, and partaking of a cup of sack. His

Vain were the applications for release made by Raleigh and demeanour was so calm and regular, that the dean chided him his friends, till the royal cupidity was excited by a golden for levity, but afterwards confessed that he had not met a man dream, which the prisoner caused to appear before it. Raleigh so well prepared to die. He was quite cheerful in conversation, succeeded in convincing the court that he had reason to know and seemed to think no more of his execution than if he had the whereabouts of El Dorado. His former want of success was been going a journey. His dress was carefully attended to; not considered any bar, for many others had failed to find he would not appear slovenly for the last time. He wore a the place ; besides, it was shown that on his former voyage “handsomely wrought cap, a ruff band, a black wrought velvet circumstances had conspired to prevent his reaching the spot night-gown over a hare-coloured satin doublet, and a black he specially sought. The king was induced to grant him liberty wrought waistcoat, black cut taffety breeches, and ash-coloured to take the command of a new searching expedition; but the silk stockings.” sentence of death under which Raleigh lay was not taken From the scaffold he made a speech, in which he quietly away by a pardon. The Spanish ambassador was reassured, explained his conduct, professed his forgiveness of those who when he heard of the intended expedition, by the assurance had injured him, and asserted his loyalty to the king. He of the king that no harm was meant to the Spanish possessions then called for the axe, and the headsman not bringing it at beyond sea, and instructions were no doubt given to Sir Walter once, said, “I pray thee let me see it. Dost thou think I am Raleigh to avoid collision with the Spaniards.

afraid of it?” He tried the edge with his thumb, and said to Of course such instructions were as the muzzle to the ox that the sheriff, “ It is a sharp medicine, but a sound cure for all is treading out the corn; as well forbid the old hunter to prick diseases." 'A witness of the scene said, " In all the time he his ears and get excited at the music of the hounds, as forbid was upon the scaffold, and before, there was not the least the old Spaniard chaser to interfere when a Spanish prey was alteration in him, either in his voice or countenance, but he in sight. However, there is no warrant for supposing that seemed as free from all manner of apprehension as if he had Raleigh meant to do anything but obey his orders. His come thither rather to be a spectator than a sufferer.” squadron sailed, and after meeting with some disasters in the The headsman, when Raleigh had laid his head upon the channel, proceeded on its way, and arrived after a long voyage block, asked kim to lay his face towards the east. “It is no at Guiana and the Orinoco.

great matter which way the head stands so the heart lies right,” By the Indians he was received with acclamations. They was the answer; and after a few moments of silent prayer, the remembered his former kindness to them, and how he had signal was given for the stroke. The executioner failed to obey shielded them during his sojourn from the oppressivo tyranny immediately, and the

signal being again given, the dying man of their Spanish conquerors. By the Spaniards, however, he called out,“ Why dost thon not strike ? Strike, man ?” was received with jealousy and dislike, and when some of his Well might the people say,

* We had not such another head people went to St. Thomas, a Spanish settlement on the river, to cut off.”

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIV. out from the seed when it germinated in the ground dying away

as soon as the stem has commenced to throw out rootlets. SECTION XLV.-CONVOLVULACEÆ. Characteristics : Calyx free, corolla hypogynous, monopetalous,

SECTION XLVI.–POLEMONIACEÆ, OR PHLOXWORTS. regular; æstivation contorted; stamens inserted into the tube Characteristics : Corolla hypogynons, monopetalous, regalar; of the corolla, their number equal to that of the lobes; ovary stamens inserted upon the tube of the corolla, in number equal two to four celled ; ovules solitary or twin, erect; fruit capsular | to its lobes, and alternate with them; ovary three to five celled; or bacciform; seed dicotyledonous, curved, im.

placentæ parietal; fruit capsular ; seeds erect bedded in mucilaginous albumen ; radicle in

or ascending dicotyledonous; straight in a ferior.

fleshy albumen. The Convolvulaceæ derive their name from

The student cannot look at a member of the property which most, although not all of

this natural family without being cognisant of them, have of climbing up other plants. They

a general similarity between this natural order abound in the torrid zone, in low marshy situa

and Convolvulaceae. Not only is the general tions, especially near the sea. In proportion

aspect of the flower similar, but there is also as the distance from the equator diminishes,

a certain similarity of anatomical structure. so do the Convolvulaceve become more rare.

In both the ovary is tripartite, the flower quinIn temperate climates only few species exist;

quepartite; but the Polemoniacea differ in






GINICUM, Q, COROLLA OF VIRGINIAN HYDROPHYL and in the frigid zone they are altogether ab

several points from the Convolvulacere, as will sent. The predominant medical quality of the

be seen from an inspection of Fig. 188, which Convolvulacece is that of purgative. Jalap

is a representation of the leaf, bud, and blosand scammony are both derived from this na

som of the Polemonium album. tural order. Even the roots and tubers of our own native species are purgative, though, in

SECTION XLVII.-HYDROPHYLACEE. consequence of the low price of jalap, they are

Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypoat present never employed for this purpose.

gynous, monopetalous, regular; stamens inIt is scarcely necessary to append an engraving for the pur- serted upon the tube of the corolla, in number equal to the divipose of giving the reader a general idea of the external character. sions of the latter, and alternate with them; ovary unilocular istics presented by this natural order. Nevertheless, we do this or perfectly bilocular ; placentæ parietal; ovules solitary op that we may introduce three beautiful species, the Ipomea tyrian- numerous on each side of the placentæ; fruit capsular or almost thina (Fig. 185), or purple ipomwa, a stove evergreen climber, fleshy ; seeds few in number; seed dicotyledonous; embryo indigenous to Mexico, and Convolvulus tricolor (Fig. 186); and straight, imbedded in an abundant cartilaginous albumen. the Cuscuta, or dodder (Fig. 187). It should be said that Members of this natural family, to which the genus Hydroalthough the dodders are generally referred to the order Convol- phyllum lends its appellation, are herbs either annual or perenvulacec, by some botanists they are grouped into a small distinct nial, possessing an aqueous jnice; an angular stem considerably, order termed Cuscutacece. Like the Convolvulaces they are ramified ; leaves alternate, especially towards the upper part of climbing plants, but they differ from them in being leafless and the vegetable, usually deprived of stipules; flowers complete, itic, often causing great injury to crops of leguminous plants regular, disposed in corymbs or unilateral spikes, scorpioidal, or

to the stalks of which the stem of t.e dodder attaches scorpion-like, simple, or dichotomous, rarely solitary; celya

mall rootlets, the original root which had been sent deeply fissured in five divisions, imbricated in æstivation, and

persistent; corolla inserted externally to a ring surrounding the receptacle or upon a Aleshy annalas between the calyx and base of the ovary, campanulate or imperfectly rotate, occa- ovary ; stamens inserted upon the tube of the corolla, didysionally funnel-shaped, its tube ordinarily furnished with tongue- namic, composed of four, oocasionally five, the fifth being like scales alternating with the stamens; limb five-partite, sterile, occasionally only two; ovary unilocular; placente imbricated in æstivation; stamens to the number of five having parietal; fruit superior or inferior; seed dicotyledonous, their filaments bent inwards (introrsal) during æstivation; an- containing little or no albumen. thers introrsal; ovary composed of two carpels (Fig. 189). The Gesneraceæ are herbaceous plants, rarely ligneous, usually

The Hydrophylacere are allied to the Polemoniacece, differing possessing a tetragonal ramified stem; leaves generally opposite or from the plants of this order in the

verticillate; devoid of stipules, simplacental conformation. They are

ple and almost always irregular in farther removed from the Boragina

the length of their sides. The cece, although originally confounded

flowers are complete; infloration a with this natural order in conse

cyme, corymb, or spike; calyx perquence of a certain general resem

sistent; corolla tubular, or funnelblance of inflorescence.

shaped, campanulate, or labiate ; This family is exclusively Ameri

imbricated in æstivation; stamens can, where abundant species are

with two anthers usually coherent, found mingled with Polemoniacere

one or two celled; ovary consists in the temperate regions on this

of two carpels, but is unilocular ; 191





MITRARIA (MITRARIA COCCINEA). side of the Tropic of Cancer, more

placentæ parietal, opposed, one being especially towards the western coast.

on the right, the other on the left of Between the tropics they are rare,

the axis of the flower. Ovules reand also beyond the Tropic of Capri

flexed; style simple. Fruit a berry corn. The pretty annuals known

or a capsule. Seeds pendent or as nemophilas, the chief of which

horizontal (Fig. 190). are the blue nemophila (Nemophila

The Gesneraceæ are, for the most insignis) and the speckled nemo

part, inhabitants of the new conti. phila (Nemophila maculata), belong


nent, especially towards the equato this natural order.

tor. Some are parasites attaching One species, the Canadian hydro

themselves to the trunks of trees. phyl (Hydrophyllum Canadense), a

A few of this natural order are hardy herbaceous perennial, is em

found in tropical India, especially ployed in North America as a remedy for the bites of snakes, in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, and on the southern also for erysipelas caused by the contact of a poisonous North slopes of the Himalaya Mountains. American plant, the sumach (Rhus pumila). Hydrophyllum

These two families, although considerable in the number of Virginicum,

a species now frequent in botanical gardens, has their species, offer but little of importance in respect of useful pennisecate leaves, and white or blue corella.

properties. Columnea scandens, a little shrub of India, bearing

pretty blue flowers, is cultivated in our hot-houses. Many other SECTION XLVIII.-GESNERACEÆ, OR GESNERWORTS.

species of Gesneraceæ are in favour amongst cultivators; for Characteristics : Calyx free, more or less adherent to the example, the Æschinanthus miniatus, or vermilion wschinanthus orary; corolla monopetalous, irregular, inserted upon the (Fig. 191), and the Chirita Moonii, or Moon's chirita, from Ceylon,

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