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No loud laugh broke upon the silent air,
From the phantoms of the night,
Dreaming horror, pale affright,
Thoughts which rack the slumbering breast,
Fears which haunt the realm of rest,
And the wounded mind's remorse,
And the tempter's secret fórce,
Hide us 'neath Thy mercy's shade.
From the stars of heaven, and the flowers of earth ;
From the pageant of power, and the voice of mirth;
From the mist of the morn on the mountain's brow;
From childhood's song, and affection's vow; What is human life, but a waking dream,-a long reverie-in which
From all save that o'er which soul * bears sway, we walk as “in a vain show, and disquiet ourselves for naught?"
There breathes but one record, -"passing away!" In childhood we are surrounded by a dim, unconscious present, in which all palpable realities seem for ever to elude our grasp ; in youth,
When the summer exhibits the whole force of active nature, and we are but gazing into the far future of that life for which we are
shines in full beauty and splendour ; when the succeeding season offers consciously preparing; in manhood, we are lost in ceaseless activity its “purple stores and golden grain," or displays its blended and and enterprise, and already looking forward to a season of quiet and softened tints; when the winter puts on its sullen aspect, and brings repose, in which we are to find ourselves, and listen to a voice withín; stillness and repose, affording a respite from the labours which have and in old age, we are dwelling on the shadows of the past,* and gilding
occupied the preceding months, inviting us to reflection, and compen. them with the evanescent glow which emanates from the setting sun
sating for the want of attractions abroad, by fireside delights and of life.
home-felt joys; in all this interchange and variety, we find reason to
acknowledge the wise and benevolent care of the God of seasons. Rule 4 and Note 1.—“Simple commencing series."
In that solemn hour, when exhausted nature can no longer sustain The old and the young are alike exposed to the shafts of Death. itself; when the light of the eye is waxing dim; when the pulse of life The healthy, the temperate, and the virtuous, enjoy the true relish is becoming low and faint; when the breath labours, and the tongue of pleasure.
falters; when the shadow of death is falling on all outward things, and Birth, ránk, wealth, léarning, are advantages of slight value, if un- darkness is beginning to gather over the faces of the loved ones who accompanied by personal worth.
are weeping by his bédside, a ray of immortal hope is beaming from
his features : it is a Christian who is expiring. Gentleneks, patience, kindness, caridour, and courtesy, form the elements of every truly amiable character.
Note 2.-"Repeated and heightening rising inflection.” Sympathy, disinterestedness, magnanimity, generosity, liberality, and I ask, will you in silence permit this invasion of your rights, at sell-forgetfulness, are qualities which universally secure the esteem and once wánton, mischievous, uncalled for, and unnecessary ? admiration of mankind.
patiently tolerate the annibilation of all freedom,—the appointment of
a supreme dictátor, who may, at his will, suspend all your rights, liberCompound Commencing Series.”
ties, and privileges ? Will you, without a murmur of dissent, submit In a rich soil, and under a soft climate, the weeds of luxury will to a tyranny which nearly equals that of the Russian autocrat, and is spring up amid the flowers of art.
second to that of Bónaparte ? * All the wise instructions of the lawgiver, all the doctrines of the “ Repeated and increasing falling inflection.”+ sage, all the ennobling strains of the poet, had perished in the ear, like Was it the winter's stórm, beating upon the houseless heads of women a dream related, if letters had not preserved them.
and children ; was it hard labour and spare mèals; was it disease; The dimensions and distances of the planets, the causes of their was it the tomahawk; was it the deep malady of a blighted hòpe, a revolutions, the path of comets, and the ebbing and flowing of tídes, ruined enterprise, and a broken hèart ;-was it sóme, or all of these are now understood and explained.
united, that hurried this forsaken company to their melancholy fate ? The mighty pyramid, half buried in the sands of Africa, has nothing dence of God,-after he has taught me that the prospect of an here
Yes, after he has destroyed my belief in the superintending provito bring down and report to us, but the power of kings, and the servitude of the people. Ii asked for its moral object, its admonition,t after is but the baseless fabric of a vision,-after he has bred and
nourished in me a contempt for that sacred volume which alone throws its sentiment, its instruction to mankind, or any high énd in its erec- light over this benighted world, after having argued me out of my tion, it is silent;-silent as the millions which lie in the dust at its
faith by his sophistries, or laughed me out of it by his ridicule,-after base, and in the catacombs which surround it.
having thus wrung from my soul every drop of consolation, and dried Yes,-let me be free ; I let me go and come at my own will; let up my very spirit within me;- yes, after having accomplished this in me do business, and make journeys, without a vexatious police or the season of my health and my prosperity, the sceptic would come insolent soldiery to watch my steps ; let me think, and do, and speak to me while I mourn, and treat me like a drivelling idiot, whom he what I please, subject to no limit but that which is set by the common may sport with, because he has ruined me, and to whom, in the Heal; subject to no law but that which conscience binds upon me; plenitude of his compassion-too late and too unavailing-he may talk and I will bless my country, and love its most rugged rocks, and its of truths in which he himself does not believe, and which he has most barren soil.
long exhorted me, and bas at last persuaded me, to cast away as
the dreams and delusions of human folly. Exception 3.4" Poetic and pathetic series.”
Wheresoe'er thy lot command,
The gymnastic exercises to which we have hitherto directed
our attention have been chiefly those in which poles, bars, and Alps to heaven sharing,
similar wooden contrivances have formed the apparatus. We Bow, to let the wishes pass Of a soul imploring.
now come to another series, in which the use of ropes forms a principal feature; and these will be found to be as greatly diver
sified as the class before described, ranging from the simplest * Falling slide of contrast to the preceding clause.
exercises on the hanging rope to those on the trapeze, etc. † All the emphatic series, even in suppositive and conditional Cipression, being, like enumeration, cumulative in effect, and corresponding, therefore, to climax in style, are properly read with a pre
By the hanging rope is meant one suspended either from the Talling downward slide iu the "suspensive" or slight form, which ceiling of an apartment, or from a cross-beam between two belongs to incomplete but energetic expression, and avoids, accordingly, the low inflection of cadence at a period.
* The inflection of any clause always lies on the emphatic word; Emphasis, and length of clause, may substitute the "moderate" and, if that word is a polysyllable, on the accented syllable chiefly, falling slide for the slight “suspensive" one. But the tone, in such although not always exclusively. cases, will still be perfectly free from the descent of a cadence, which † This inflection both begins higher, and ends lower, every time it belongs only to the period.
TIIE HANGING ROPE.
upright supports, without any other appendage. This con. nastic training and amusement. To those who are not fami. trivance, simple as it is, will afford an amusing as well liar with it, its nature will be made clear by our illustration as highly beneficial help to the young gymnast, if he be (Fig. 24). An upright post, some twenty feet in height, is firmly rightly instructed in its use. The first thing to be attended to fixed in the ground, and usually supported by solid wooden is, that the rope--a good stout one, capable of being easily buttresses at the foot. That part of the post which is buried grasped in the hands-should be very firmly fixed in its position. in the earth should be charred, by which means rotting is in It will not do to risk the chance of a heavy fall to the ground, great measure prevented. To the top of the post is affixed a at a time when, to the strain caused by the
revolving iron diso, which works round freely weight of the body, may be added that de
upon a pivot; and to this disc four or five rived from rapid motion. If the learner be
ropes are attached, as shown in the engraving. practising in private, and is not an adept in
At the end of each rope is a ring, or in some such matters, it is well to consult an expe
cases a small bar of wood, which the gymnast rienced carpenter, in the first place, as to the
grasps with both hands. strength of the beam to which the rope is to
The exercises with the ropes attached to be attached, and next as to the best manner
this apparatus partake of the nature of the of securing it. A strong iron hook will some
swing and the leap, described in the earlier times suffice, but it is better to have the
portion of this paper. They may mostly be rope affixed to a swivel, by which abrasion
performed either forwards, sidewards, or of the rope, and its consequent insecurity, aro
backwards; that is, with the face to the prevented.
upright pole, or with the shoulder towards Several exercises may be performed on the Fig. 23.-THE HANGING ROPE. it, or with the back turned to it, as in hanging rope. The gymnast may begin by
the illustration. They are practised, as will practising (1) the swing, grasping the rope two or three feet be seen, with the rope at the fullest angle to which it is from ita extromity, and swinging backwards and forwards with capable of being extended; and how to keep the rope at this greater or loss velocity; at first with the legs almost perpen- angle is the first difficulty to the learner. If he allow the ropo dicalar, next bent by raising the knees upward, and lastly to return too much towards the perpendicular, he will find wtretched forward in the horizontal position, as depicted in our himself scraping the ground, in a manner which will quicken, Illustration (Fig. 23). This is a capital exercise for the develop- although it may not improve, his sensations. To avoid this he ment of the muscles of the body, without subjecting it to any should keep the weight of the body as far as possible in the undas #train.
same line as the direction of the rope, bearing away, with as 2. The learner may now attempt the leap, which is performed much force as he can spare, from the upright post in the centre. sarily enough in open ground, but is unsuited to an apartment, Stretching the rope out to the angle, and with his shoulder at tanless it be a very spacious one. Take
first towards the post, he commences by the rope as far back from the perpendi
taking a forward swing which describes an eular as its length will allow, keeping
arc of about one-fourth of the circumfer. your face towards it, and holding it with
ence of the circle, touching the ground with arms extended above your head; then
his feet when this distance is completed, throw yourself forward with a spring,
and then continuing the movement as be and, as you reach the full limit to which
fore until the circle is completed; or he the length of the rope will carry you,
may go completely round in two such relinquish your grasp, and alight easily
evolutions. This leap, or stride, is the upon your feet. Or, instead of simply
movement from which the apparatus coming to the ground in this manner,
takes its name.
When he has become you may have a bench or stand placed
accustomed to the use of the rope in near the spot at which you would so
this manner, and has acquired the descend, and clear this mark by the
knack of keeping the rope extended, he forward impulse the body has acquired
may describe the circle in one continuous at the moment in which the rope leaves
movement; and he may afterwards peryour hands. Turning a summersault
form the flying leap by going round and from the rope is sometimes practised,
round the pole as many times successively but this feat is dangerous, and we do not
as his powers and skill will allow. He think it necessary to enlarge upon it.
may then perform the same movements 3. Climbing the rope is not so easy as
by starting with his face towards the it might appear to the uninitiated. Com
pole; or he may swing round it with his mence by making a firm grasp, with the
body bearing in the opposite direction, as left hand a foot or so higher than the
shown in Fig. 24. right; then make a spring up the rope,
The apparatus of the Giant's Stride while you change the position of the
will allow two or more persons to prachands, bringing the right now in the as.
tise the foregoing movements at the same cendant. Cross the heels over the rope,
time; but it is necessary in this case that and hold it as tightly as you can by this
they should possess some acquaintance means, to assist the purchase which the
with the proper use of the ropes, in order hands have acquired. Inflate the lungs
that they may avoid coming into collision before making each successive effort, by
with each other. which means you will rise with greater
Instead of touching the ground with facility.
Fig. 21.—THE GIANT'S STRIDE. both feet in the series of strides or leaps We have now said enough of the hang
which we have just described, the gF1ing rope, and will pass on to a contrivance which is very nast may sometimes vary the exercise by performing the similar in character, although more complicated in construc- hopping movement. He then starts from one leg-either the tion. This is by some called the Round Swing, but is more right or the left, but practising from each alternately—and generally known under the title of
comes to the ground on the same foot as he progresses round
the circle. THE GIANT'S STRIDE.
Another variation of these gymnastic exercises is to take This favonrito apparatus may be seen in every public gym. a rope in each hand, and walk or run round the circle, Dom nasium, and -- probably familiar to most of our readers, who and then leaving the ground altogether, and performing the it, even if they have not practised upon it
, swinging stride as before. The gymnast may either face the or in any public park where a space is pole during these movements, or perform them with his back ays be the case-to the purpose of gym. I towards it.
will you please give in order to become directiono
that in future the lange Competitions
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXVII. him thus far on his way, the rest remains entirely with himself;
the best and only thing indeed that we can do to aid him in the OFFICIAL HANDWRITING.-I.
acquirement of a distinctive and characteristic form of handIn onr early lessons in Penmanship-after giving the necessary writing being to place before him models, consisting of various preliminary instructions for regulating the position of the hand, styles of writing, that have been approved by persons who are arm, and body when engaged in writing, and the proper modo competent judges of what is desirable in handwriting calcuof holding the pen—we furnished the learner with ample details kated for the government office, the solicitor's desk, or the mer. respecting the formation of the small letters of the writing chant's counting-house. alphabet, and brought him forward on his way, step by step, As many of our readers are doubtless desirous of entering the antil he was able to write words and sentences involving the in. Civil Service, and are anxious to know what style of writing troduction of capital letters and figures. The copy-slips set will be deemed satisfactory by the examiners appointed to test before him, as examples for practice and illustrations of all that the qualifications of candidates, we bring under their notice, in was advanced in
the present lesson, our lessons, were
two specimens of such a nature
of official hand. that he was per.
writing which force compelled to
have met with the copy them slowly
approval of Her and deliberately,
Service Commisacquainted with
sioners, and of the forms of the
which have letters and their
their kind perrelative propor
mission to give tions, and to give tu
the accompanying each up-stroke and
fac-similes. We down - stroke its
append an extract proper thickness,
from the report inclination, and in
itself, from which, curvature, which
aided by a careful he could not have
study of the acdone had he at8PECIMEN OF HANDWRITING APPROVED BY HER MAJESTY'S CIVIL SERVICE
companying speCOMMISSIONERS.-NO. 1. tempted to exe
cimens of hand. cute his task with
writing, the rapidity with which writing of an ordinary kind is written. readers will be able to form a clear idea of what is required of
In order to write legibly, the first and most essential step is candidates for the Civil Service, as far as writing is concerned. to acquire the habit of forming the letters of the writing alpha- “ In our former reports,” say the Commissioners,
we have bet correctly; copying each letter, whether singly or in combi-observed upon the importance which we attach to good hand. nation with others, with the utmost care, and writing it slowly writing, as one of the most useful accomplishments which a clerk so as to gain sufficient time to note the shape of every part of it can possess, and one which any young man has it in his power and its direction before imitating it with the pen or pencil. This to acquire. We believe that the effect of our examinations has degree of proficiency in writing, the only safe and sure basis and been, upon the whole, to improve the general style of writing for foundation of a clear and legible hand, we may fairly suppose official purposes. There is, however, room for much further all to have attained, who have been endeavouring to teach them. I improvement. In consequence, probably, of the insufficient selves how to
attention paid write by means
to the subject of the instruc
in schools, the tions given in
quantity of bad ou previous
handwriting lessons. Hav.
which ing got thus
before us is far, it will now
very be necessary
great; and we for them to
therefore endeavour to
unable,without write rapidly as
causing inconwell as clearly,
venience to the taking care,
public departhowever, that
ments,by delay they do not th
in supplying sacrifice legibi.
vacancies, to lity and plain: 25
enforce so high ness in causing SPECIMEN OF HANDWRITING APPROVED BY HER MAJESTY'S CIVIL SERVICE
a standard in the pen to COMMISSIONERS.—NO. 2.
this respect as move over the
we should depaper with too
sire. It is great a degree of quickness. And here it is necessary for us to almost superfluous to state that we do not demand or desire that say, that although we have done as much as is possible to give the writing should be of any particular style, provided that it each learner the clearest instructions for making the letters of possesses the main characteristic of legibility. What we require, the writing alphabet, the ultimate formation of his handwriting, as candidates are invariably informed, is the clear formation of or, in other words, the adoption and acquirement of certain dis- the letters of the alphabet.' tinctive peculiarities that will eventually give a special charac- Speaking of the accompanying specimens of official writing, ter to his writing as he gradually becomes less and less of a which are fac-similes of documents written in one of the publio mere copyist, imitating in every detail the set shape, inclination, offices, the Commissioners further say, “Representing, as they and curvature of the letters set before him, must rest entirely do, the ordinary current work of the writers, they are not given with himself. His handwriting must be based, it is true, on the as free from faults; but we think that they will show that instructions we have given, and the more closely he adheres to essential quality of distinctness may be obtained withor them, the more legible his writing will be. But having helped sacrifice of other desirable elements of a good official har VOL. II.
am directed by the Cwil Service Commissioners to acknowledge
of 25th instant
LESSONS IN GREEK.-II.
ponent parts—that is, by the inversion of crasis or by dissolu. VOWELS, CONSONANTS, PUNCTUATION, ETC.
tion-you obtain the two words entire ; 80 TOUTOS becomes to
επος ; also ταγαθα becomes τα αγαθα. THE Greek alphabet, consisting of four-and-twenty letters, is The Greeks paid great attention to euphony, or pleasing made up of seven vowels and seventeen consonants. The vowels sound. Consequently they studied to prevent two vowels from are a, € (n), -, o (w), v. According to their quantity, long or coming into immediate succession, so as to cause an hiatus or short, they may be divided thus :
stoppage of the flow of the sound-such
stoppage as would take place, if instead of saying an hiatus (Latin, a gaping), we VOWELS.
were to say a hiatus. To avoid this unpleasant suspension
the breath, we, in English, convert a into an. In the same ě, o.
5, 5, .
way, and for the same purpose, the Greeks employed an y at By "doubtful" is meant, that the vowels so termed are some- the endtimes short and sometimes long : which they are, in any case, is 1. Of the dative plural in on, and adverbs of place ending in learnt by usage, particularly by the usage of the poets.
σι: as, πασιν ελεξα και η Πλαταιασιν ηγεμονια. By a union of vowels we produce
2. Of the third person singular and plural ending in ol, as THE DIPHTHONGS.
τυπτουσιν εμε ; τιθησιν εν τη τραπεζη; also with εστι, 48
εστιν εμοι. αι, αυ. ει, ευ. ol, nu.
3. Of the third person singular in e, as eTUATEY ELE. Besides these there are the improper diphthongs, formed by 4. Of the numerals, as eikos IV avāpes; but not always; therea, n, or w, and the iota subscriptum, or written under, as q, ?, 4. fore we find also εικοσι ανδρες. .
Both the proper and the improper diphthongs are long, or, in other words, receive the stress of the voice in pronunciation.
Regard to euphony also led the Greeks to drop the o in the When two vowels commonly pronounced as one sound (a adverb outws before a word beginning with a consonant : thus, is produced, which is denoted by two dots set over the second before a vowel, as et cipnms. diphthong) are pronounced separately, a diærēsis (soparation) OUTWS et Omgev; but outw TOLEW.
Thus the preposition er, as in ek ms elpauns, becomes € vowel; as, ei, oi, ai. The consonants are divided, first according to the organs
The same practice obtains in the negative ouk (not, no), as chiefly employed in pronouncing them. Thus, in uttering some,
ουκ αισχρος, ου καλος ; also, ουχ ηδυς. In the last example the we use the palate or upper part of the throat; these are termed aspirate in hdvs requires the aspirated form of k, that is y, immegutturals (Latin, guttur, a throat). Others are designated
diately before it, for in Greek only letters of the same kind go labials, being such as come mostly from the lips (Latin, labium, together, that is, a soft sound with a soft sound, a hard with a a lip). Others, again, bear the name of linguals, from Latin, hard, and an aspirated sound with an aspirated sound. But of lingua, a tongue.
this matter I shall have more to say by-and-by.
The points employed in punctuating Greek are few; by the
original writers points were not at all used. The comma, the Gutturals. Labials.
period, and the note of exclamation are employed as in English. K, 7, X
A, B, O, u. T, 8, 8, 1, v, p. o. What with us is called the semicolon is used in Greek as a note Another division arises according to the different manner in of interrogation; and the colon is one dot placed at the top of which the organs of speech act in their formation. Thus we
the word, thusobtain
Colon • Ει ελεξας: The i cani-vowels or liquids, 1, t, v, p; the sibilant or hissing
Period , παντες ως ώμολογησεν. Bounů, ó'; the mutes, T, K, T, B, 7, 8, 9, X, 0.
Interrogation και τις ταυτα εποιησεν; I Lose nine mutes are also divided into three gutturals, three le cias, and three linguals. In this division regard is had to
PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTION IN THE VERB. the organs of speech. If, however, we give attention to the
Before I proceed to treat of nouns I must say a few words predominant sound, then we classify these nine mutes thus :- respecting the verb, inasmuch as without some knowledge of the 1, those of the k sound ; 2, those of the t sound; and, 3, those verb you will be unable to form sentences, as I intend you of the p sound. Once more, they may be considered according should from your earliest acquaintance rates a Greek grammar. to the force or hardness of the utterance, and be separated into Parts of the verb eivau, to be, are inuispe sable. I here put three soft, three hard (or middle), and three aspirated. The down such as you will want, together with the corresponding whole is presented in this tabular view of
English, or what is commonly called “the meaning."
PARTS OF THE VERB ElvaI, TO BE.
Els or et, thou art.
100., be thou. Gutturals K,
€0T1, he, she, or it is. nv, he, she, or it was.
let him be. y
X, K sound.
ELOI, they are.
noav, they were. EOTE, be ye. Labials
Observe that eati and erre become pothy and ciou before a From a union of the mutes with the sibilant o there are pro- word beginning with a vowel. duced these
Observe also that the Greek eori is the Latin est, and the DOUBLE CONSONANTS.
In the Greek language verbs have three voices, whereas in (ps Psi) formed of πσ, βσ, φσ.
Latin and in English verbs have only two. If in English I say Ksi)
yo, Ś (2 Zeta)
I strike, I express myself in what is called “the active voice;' δσ. .
but if I say I am struck, I express myself in what is termed Sometimes a vowel at the end of a word or syllable, standing the passive voice.” These two voices exist in Greek thusbefore another vowel which begins a word or syllable, is elided
Passive. or struck out, when we produce what is termed elision (Latin e, out of, and lædo, I dash). Instead of the elided vowel, an apos.
TUTTW, I strike.
TUTTOMAI, I am struck. trophe ' is put. Elision takes place in all the prepositions ex- Here you observe that the passive is made by adding to the cept nepi and mpo. When prepositions are compounded with root tunt the suffix ouai, instead of the letter w, by which the verbs that begin with a vowel, the apostrophe is not used; thus, first person singular of the active is formed. απ’ οικου is the elided form of απο οικου, and απεφερον is the The Greeks have a third voice. In the present tense this elided form of απο-εφερον.
voice is not distinguished in form from the passive; being the When, however, the two vowels thus coming the one before same word TurTouai. In signification, however, the third voice the other, are melted or blended together, so as to form one differs from the active and the
passive. This third voice, under long syllable or diphthong, what is grammatically called crasis the name of the middle voice, denotes a reflex action, that is, an (Greek, a mixing) takes place. Thus to eros by crasis or krasis action which turns back on the agent or actor, as TurTOUGI, I becomes TOUTOS. By resolving the double vowel into its com- beat myself.
ειμι, I am.
Commit thoroughly to memory this table of βουλευω, I 20. Καλως εχει ανδρειως μαχεσθαι. 21. Ει διωκη, μη φευγε. 22. advise, which contains such parts of the verb as you are likely Avdpelws Maxov. 23. Ει βλακενoυσι, ψεγονται. 24. Ει αληθευεις, to want in learning to form the nouns, the adjectives, etc. πιστευγη. .
25. Αει αριστευετε, .
26. Μετριως εσθιε και πινε και
παιζε. . INDICATIVE Moon.
EXERCISE 2. Present Active.
1. I am true. 2. Thou art true. 3. He is true. 4. We are 8. 1. Bovaev-w, I advise. βουλευ-ομαι, I am advised.
true. 5. You are true. 6. They are true. 7. If I speak the 2. Boulev-els, thou advisest. Bovdeu-n, or et, thou art advised. truth, I am believed. 8. Do not fight. 9. They fight. 10. 3. Boulev-el, he advises. βουλευ-εται, he is advised.
11. Thou followest. 12. Ye follow. 13. He plays. P. 1. βουλευ-ομεν, we advise. βουλευ-ομεθα, we are advised.
14. They fly. 15. If they flee, they are pursued. 16. I am ad2. βουλευ-ετε, you advise. βουλευ-εσθε, you are advised.
mired. 17. They are admired. 18. If they are idle, they are 3. βουλευ-ουσι (ν), they ad- βουλευ-ονται, they are advised.
not admired. 19. It is well to fight bravely. 20. Eat and vise.
drink moderately. 21. They do not hasten. 22. If thou flatIMPERATIVE Mood.
terest, thou art not admired. 23. He writes well. 24. They 1. Boulev-e, advise thon.
Bovdev-ov, be thou advised. write badly. 25. It is well to be always the best. 26. You live 2. βουλευ-ετε, advise ye. βουλευ-εσθε, be yo advised. moderately. 27. They eat too much.
I will now give you some directions as to these exercises. INFINITIVE MOOD.
First, then, you must repeat each word in the vocabulary until Boulev-Ely, to advise.
βουλευ-εσθαι, to be advised. you have impressed it indelibly upon your memory. Then proThe middle signification is sometimes best rendered by into English, and put the English words into their corresponding
ceed, with the aid thus gained, to translate the Greek sentences another word; thus, instead of saying, I advise myself, we may Greek words, paying due regard to the model or pattern given say, I consult, or I take advice.
you here and in other cases. In translating from the one lanObserve how these several changes in the terminations are produced. The stem, or permanent form of the word, is Bovaev. Greek and the English as given in the exercises ; that is, if you
guage into the other, you may derive aid from consulting the To Boulev, the endings, w, els, el, quev, ete, ovos, are added, are translating from Greek into English, consult the exercise according to the person and number you may wish to form. given in English, finding the example most like the one you Thus, to form the infinitive active, corresponding with our
have to translate ; and if you are translating from English into English to advise, you add eu to Boulev, and so produce Greek, then in the same way consult the exercise given in βουλευ-ειν. If you wish to put into Greek our advise thou, you Greek. Be not in haste to advance, but be very careful to do add e to Bovlev, and so produce Boulev-e, the second person everything thoroughly; make every first step sure before you singular of the imperative mood. You proceed in the saine way attempt to take a second step. Bear in mind the Latin prowith any other verb. In order to make the matter clear, I put verb “ festina lenté,” hasten slowly; in English, “slow and the endings here apart from any verb :
steady wins the race.' Do not be content with writing an exerPERSON . ENDINGS.
cise once, write it again and again ; and when you think you INDICATIVE MOOD.
have made it quite correct, then commit it to memory. Present Active. English Sign. Present Passive.
The Greek is a language in which compounds are readily and
copiously formed. The Greek may, in consequence, be acquired Sing. 1. w
with comparative ease, provided the student is trained in the
formation of the compounds. The necessary instructions I shall 3. et he
endeavour to impart. With this view I shall supply lists of Plur. 1. ομεν
words etymologically connected with those which are given in you εσθε. .
the vocabulary. A knowledge of one word will thus become to 3. ουσι they
the learner a knowledge of several. Let us take, as an instance, IMPERATIVE MOOD.
the verb Boulevw, the present tense of which stands above. Sing. thou
Βουλευω, I advise, comes from βουλη, αdυce or counsel ; βουλη Plur.
leads to Bouleia, the dignity or office of a counsellor ; thence we
derive Bovdelov, a council-house; Bovdevua, a determination ; INFINITIVE MOOD.
Boveutns, a counsellor ; Boulevyopew, to speak in a council; be. to εσθαι. .
sides other terms. These words are again modified in meaning, VOCABULARY.
as well as multiplied by means of prepositions; e.g., in combi
nation with our, with, Bovan forms another set of terms, as Ayar, too much.
Eod., I eat, consumo, Mn (with imperative, uubovdevua, a resolution ; ovulovlevous, the communication of Aet, always (English Exw, I have; exel, Latin ne), not, do α resolution και συμβουλευτης, α joint counsellor και συμβουλευω, I aye). with an adverb, it not.
give counsel ; ovulovios, a senator. It would be easy to extend Aandevu, I am true, is ; as eu exet, it Odupoua., I complain, this list. But without going further, here are eleven words conI speak the truth. is well.
nected in origin, form, and meaning with one word. When, Ar pescs, bravely. 'Hdews, sweetly,plea- Ou(before consonants, then, you know that one, you have a key to all the rest. With Αριστευω,I am the santly.
our or ovx before a few roots, you thus see, you would soon become master of a best, I excel. avuacw, I admire. vowels), not, no. copious vocabulary ; and as the roots of the language are not BLOtevw, I live. Kai, and.
Taidevw, I educate. numerous, the acquisition of it, when rightly studied, is by no Blakeuw, I am idle, Kakws, badly, ill. Hausw, I play. means a very difficult task. luxurions. Kalws, well, beauti- livw, I drink.
N.B.—The roots will be printed in capitals. Let the EtymoIpaou, I write. fully.
Miotevw, I believe. logical Vocabulary, no less than the above Vocabulary for the Διωκα, ,
I pursue, Kolakeuw, I flatter. EnevOW, I hasten, Exercises, be thoroughly committed to memory. etrive. Maxouar(with dative) strive after.
I fight (middle bevyw, I flee (Latin
Αριστοκρατεια, , (middle voice). Metplws,moderately. Veyw, I blame. Αληθευω, I am true. | Αριστευω, I am best vernment of the
best, aristocracy. EXERCISE 1.
Aanbevors, truthful. Apiotopuns, of the BIOZ, life. 1. Αει αληθευε. 2. Χαιρετε. 3. Επου. 4. Μη οδυρεσθε. 5.
best nature. Βιοτεύω, , I live. Ηδεως βιοτευω. 6. Καλως παιδευομαι. 7. Καλως γραφεις. 8. | Αληθινολογια, truth- Αριστομαντις, the Blooooos, life-saving. Ει κακως γραφεις, ψεγη. 9. Σπεύδει. 10. Ανδρειως μαχεται. .
Βιοτεια, the art of 11. Ει κολακευετε, ουκ αληθευετε. 12. Ει κολακεύεις, ου πιστευη. | Αληθινος, true, ge- Αριστοπονος, an ex. life. 13. Φευγομεν. 14. Ει φευγομεν, διωκομεθα. 15. Κακως φευγετε. nuine.
cellent labourer. Bloplopia, a destruc. 16. Ει βλακευτε, ψεγεσθε. 17. Ει ανδρειως μαχεσθε, θαυμαζεσθε. Αληθομαντις, a true Αριστοτεχνης, an ex- tion of life. 18. Ει κολακευουσιν, ουκ αληθευουσιν. 19. Ου καλως εχει φευγειν. Boothsayer.
cellent artist. Blow, I am alive.