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THE WHITWORTH SCHOLARSHIPS.

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THE WHITWORTH SCHOLARSHIPS.

ledge in factories and works devoted to the production of

machinery. In such a work as the POPULAR EDUCATOR—whose chief end That example is better than precept—that it is always better and aim are to put into the possession of the uneducated the to show, practically, how an end may be attained instead of means of teaching themselves, and to give those who have been contenting oneself by simply saying that such a thing should but partially or imperfectly educated the power

and ought to be done-Mr. Whitworth seems of improving themselves in those branches of

also to have learnt to some purpose, from his knowledge in which they have already received

long connection with practical men; and in the a limited amount of instruction, and entering

present year, on March 18th, Mr. Whitworth new fields of learning—it is manifestly requisite

shaped his scheme for the promotion of science that we should, from time to time, introduce

and art among artisans into a tangible form in papers on the various institutions and endow

a letter to Mr. Disraeli, in which he offered to ments by which the self-teacher, by dint of per

found thirty scholarships of the annual value of severance and earnest work, is enabled to obtain

£100 each, to be applied to the further instruca substantial reward for his labours in the shape

tion of young men, natives of the United Kingof a sum of money which will assist him in pur

dom, selected by open competition for their suing his studies in the profession or calling

intelligence and proficiency in the theory and that he has adopted, or to procure an endorse

practice of mechanics and its cognate sciences, ment of his ability and brain-power in the form

with a view to the promotion of engineering and of a degree or diploma granted by one of our

mechanical industry in this country; and exuniversities, royal schools, or colleges of science

pressed a hope that means might be found for -an honourable testimonial which also has a

bringing science and industry into closer relamonetary value to its possessor, inasmuch as it

tion with each other than at present obtains will enable him to procure situations and obtain

here, although the United Kingdom is the

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positions in life which would be closed

greatest manufacturing country in to him if he sought to gain them un

the world, and therefore of all others stamped, as it were, by the seal of

the country in which an intimate and official approval.

enduring relation between science . First and foremost among the en

and industry should be established dowments that have been made for the

and sedulously maintained. Mr. immediate pecuniary benefit of the

Whitworth further proposed that the deserving student are the Whitworth

scholarships which he offered to Scholarships, founded by Mr. Joseph

found in aid of advanced scientific Whitworth, the inventor of the rifle

instruction should be tenable on conand rifled cannon which bear his

ditions to be defined by a deed of

trust regulating the administration Mr. Whitworth's long connection

of the endowment fund during his with men whose employment was of

life, and that thereafter the managea nature that demanded, in addition

ment of this fund, subject to the conto the manual skill of the artisan, a

ditions specified therein, should rest close acquaintance with the scientific

in the Lord President of the Council principles of the manufacture in

Fig. 2

or other minister of public instrucwhich they were engaged, saw with

tion for the time being. regret that while there were scholarships and endowments at In reply to a letter from the Lords of the Committee of Her the universities and elsewhere for the assistance of students of Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council on Education, acceptdivinity, law, and physic, there was no fund set apart for the ing Mr. Whitworth's munificent offer, and seeking further sug. encouragement of science and art especially among artisans—a gestions with respect to the conditions on which the contemplated fund, in fact, that would enable the hand-worker to spend two scholarships for mechanical science were to be thrown open to of three years in studying theory, or give the theorist in competitors, Mr. Whitworth wrote again, submitting for the mechanical science an opportunity of gaining a practical know.consideration of their lordships : hether honours in the nature VOL. II.

50

of degrees might not be conferred by some competent authority VI. Special arrangements will be made for examination in on successful students each year, thus creating a faculty of in. practical work embracing the following handicrafts :dustry analogous to the existing faculties of divinity, law, and

1. Smiths' Work. medicine, as he was of opinion that such honours would be &

2. Turning. great incentive to exertion, and would tend greatly to promote

3. Filing and Fitting. the object in view. To this end he hoped that the Government

4. Pattern Making and Moulding. would provide the necessary funds for endowing a sufficient number of professors of mechanics throughout the United King.

VII. No candidate can obtain a scholarship who has not dom. With regard to the scholarships, he proposed that the shown a satisfactory knowledge of all the following theoretical following should be the general arrangements in the first in- subjects :stance, which might be modified after the first competition has

1. Elementary Mathematics; taken place in May, 1869 :

2. Elementary Mechanics; I. That the thirty scholarships of £100 each should be open

3. Practical Plane and Solid Geometry; to all of Her Majesty's subjects, whether of the United King

4. Free-hand Drawing; dom, India, or the Colonies, who do not exceed the age of with power to use one or more of the following classes of tools:twenty-six years, and be held either for two or three years, as

a. The Axe.

d. The File. experience may prove to be desirable.

b. The Saw and Plane. II. That ten scholarships should be competed for and awarded

e. The Forge.

c. The Hammer and Chisel. in May, 1869, at the general examinations of the Science and Art Department, provided that a sufficient number of candidates It should be said that the object of Mr. Whitworth in devising prove themselves to be competent; that the successful candi- the foregoing scheme has been, while requiring acquaintance dates should be required to spend the period of holding the with a few simple tools as a sine qua non, to render the comscholarships in the further satisfactory prosecution of the studies petition accessible on fairly equal terms to the stndent who and practice of mechanical engineering, and pursue the studies combines some practice with his theory, and to the artisan who according to the spirit of the endowment, making periodical re- combines some theoretical knowledge with perfection of workports of them; that the stadent should state where he proposes manship. to pursue his studies, the Lord President of the Council deciding All communications respecting the Whitworth Scholarships if the proposal can be allowed, also if the student's progress be should be addressed to the Secretary of the Science and Art satisfactory, and the manner in which it shall be tested from Department, South Kensington Museum, London, W. Oar year to year. In deciding if the place of study proposed by the readers should carefully bear this in mind, as we are unable to student be satisfactory, as much latitude as possible may be give any information on the subject beyond that which is em. allowed. If the student wish to complete his general education bodied in this paper. instead of continuing his special scientific study, he may be per- Competitors for the Whitworth Scholarships will be required mitted to do so. He may go to the universities or colleges to produce a certificate of having passed in the ability to draw affording scientific or technical instruction, or he may travel outlines such as those in the preceding page, either enlarged or abroad. The successful artisan should be encouraged to study reduced in size, from a copy. The examinations will be held at theory, and the successful competitor in theory aided in getting any school of art or night-class in the United Kingdom, during admission to machine shops and other practical establishments. the month of May, 1869, or, if specially required, at a science All further details would be hereafter prepared and issued by school. the Science and Art Department.

The outlines which we have set before our readers in Figs. III. The candidates must be of sound bodily constitution. 1, 2, 3, 4, are reproduced in fac-simile from woodcuts issued by

IV. The examinations in the following subjects will be held the Science and Art Department for the guidance of competiby Local Committees simultaneously on certain evenings in May tors for the Whitworth Scholarships. They are specimens in a in about 350 places in the United Kingdom--wherever localities reduced size of second-grade free-hand drawing exercises. form committees for conducting them according to the pre- That our readers may fully understand what is meant by scribed rules.

calling these exercises examples of second-grade free-band These rules may be found in Sections x., xi., xii., etc., of drawing, we give the different kinds of instruction comprised the Science Directory, issued by the Science and Art Depart- within each grade as laid down by the Science and Art Department; and also in pages 21, 22, and 23 of the Art Directory. ment.

V. The competition will be in the following theoretical sub- The first grade consists of drawing in outline from flas jects :

examples, drawing from regular solids or objects of simple form, 1. Mathematics (Elementary and Higher).

and of easy problems in practical geometry. 2. Mechanics (Theoretical and Applied).

The second grade is an examination of a higher standard than 3. Practical Plane and Solid Geometry.

that of the first grade, but in the same subjects, with the additiou 4. Machine Construction and Drawing.

of perspective and mechanical drawing. 5. Free-hand Drawing.

The third grade is represented by works embracing the whole 6. Acoustics, Light, and Heat.

course of instruction in night-classes or schools of art, such as 7. Magnetism and Electricity.

drawing from examples, from casts or models, from nature, the 8. Inorganic Chemistry,

antique, or the life; paintings, flowers, landscape, or from life; 9. Metallurgy, or the Art of Separating Metals from designing or drawing for decorative purposes. their Ores.

It must be remembered that the Whitworth Scholarships,

instead of being possessed of a mere ephemeral interest-in The nature of these examinations is shown in the Syllabus which case they could hardly demand even a passing notice of the Subjects in which examinations in Science are held by the here-are endowments in perpetuity for the benefit of the Science and Art Department. This Syllabus is given in the founder's countrymen, and that each successive month of May, Science Directory, or may be obtained separately. The Syllabus or, at all events, each successive year, will bring about examinahas been prepared to afford candidates for these examinations tions for ten or more of these scholarships as long as the United some guide to their reading, but it must be understood that the Kingdom endures, and that the information contained in this questions in the examination need not necessarily be on the spe-' paper will be as useful in years to come as it is now in pointing cial points enumerated. Mention is made in the Syllabus of out to the practical student of mechanical science a road to his text-books, but solely to afford a candidate some assistance in advancement in life. A moment's reflection will serve to show selection, and not at all to confine his reading to those works, or the colossal proportions of Mr. Whitworth's gift to the British to assert that they are the best on the subjects they treat of. nation, and the importance of the service that he has rendered Candidates will also find a valuable clue to the nature of these to scientific and technical education by his princely and wellexaminations in the Examination Papers for Science Schools and timed donation. To secure an annual income of £3,000 for Hysses, May, 1868, which may be obtained for 20., by applica- the maintenance of thirty scholarships of £100 per annum in

the Secretary, Science and Art Department of the Com- perpetuity, a sum must be invested approximating closely to

Mouncil on Education, South Kensington, London, W., £100,000 at a rough calculation. Such a deed for the far

371

or

none.

over.

therance of education has never been done before. As an act Ja, ich werde es jedenfalls thun. 26. Wagt es ja nicht, ohne Begleitung of generosity in a monetary point of view, it has only been sur- in den Wald zu geben. 27. Ich werde mich ia hüten, ihm Geld zu leihen. passed by Mr. George Peabody's gift of £250,000 to the poor 28. Diese Merkwürdigkeit will ich ja sehen. 29. Hast Du die Thüre ja of London.

gut geschlossen? 30. Nehmen Sie sich vor diesen Leuten ja in Acht. 31.

Unterscheiten Sie ja tas Wahre vom Falschen. 32. Ich habe mich långere LESSONS IN GERMAN-XXXV. Zeit in Berlin und leirzig aufgehalten. 33. Er hat mich über eine halbe

SECTION LXVIII.–VARIOUS IDIOMS (continued). Stunde bei meiner Arbeit aufgehalten. 34. Meine Freunde halten viel auf The word eigen (own) is often used with an article, as also mich, weil ich mich über Niemand aufhalte. with a pronoun preceding, as :-&r hat ein eigenes Pferd, he has

EXERCISE 131. (an owr. horse) a horse of his own. Eigen has also the kindred

1. The reflecting man never deviates from the path of virtue. signification, “peculiar, singular ; as :-&r ist ein eigener Mensch, 2. Have you ever travelled over such a beautiful country as he is a “peculiar" man, etc.

Italy or Switzerland ? 3. No, but I shall never forget the 1. Finten (to find) often answers to our verbs " to think ”

beautiful valleys of the Rhine. 4. Do not believe everything " consider,” as :-Ich finde den Wein sehr gut, I (find) think the they tell you. 5. The father is just coming with his son and wine very good. Ich finde es unrecht, daß er das gethan hat, I think or the uncle from their journey. 6. Does the teacher think much consider it wrong that he has done that.

of his scholars ? 7. Yes, he considers them very good. 8. He 2. Halten (to hold), with its proper case, followed by für, has, thinks much of a comfortable life. 9. This man regards his like finden, the sense “ to think” or “consider;"

as :-&r hält abilities too much. mich für seinen Feind, he thinks me (literally, holds me for) his his friend. 11. I have a house of my own, and my brother has

10. John is his enemy, but he thinks he is enemy. Followed by auf, halten also means "to esteem, regard;” as:-Ich halte viel auf ihn, I think much of him. For Auf- consider this a very singular question.

12. Is this your own invention ? 13. Yes, it is; but I

14. This man has a palten, to hinder, see Sect. XXXVII.

peculiar notion. 15. Do you not find your friend a peculiar VOCABULARY.

man? 16. Yes, I do; he finds fault with everybody. 17. Have Abweichen, to deviate, Frage, f. question. Miethen, to hire, you ever been in the museum ? 18. Yes, I have been there diverge. Hüten, to guard, keep rent.

several times. 19. Have you already been in the garden of my Acht, f. care; sich in watch.

Ob, whether,

uncle ? 20. To procure repose to others, he sacrifices his own. Amt nehmen vor, to Interessant', interest. Schließen, to shut, 21. My friends hindered me very much in my employment. beware of. ing.

lock, close. 22. A prince can improve the laws of his forefathers as well as Belom'men, to get, re- Ie, ever, always. Unterschei'den, to dis- his own. ceive, obtain. Ietenfalls, in any case, tinguish, discrimi.

SECTION LXIX.-VARIOUS IDIOMS (continued). Berei'jen, to travel at all events.

nate, discern.

Wer (he who), as a relative, stands at the head of its clause ; Merf'würdigkeit, f. re- Verbesī'ern, to

im

the word which it represents always coming after ; as :-Wer Gben, so eben, even, markableness, cu- prove.

zufrieden ist, der ist glücklich, he who is contented is happy. Genejust.

riosity.
Vergess'en, to forget.

rally, however, the demonstrative is left out in the principal RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

clause, as :- :-Wer auf dem Wege der Tugend wantelt, ist glüdlich, Nichts ist so sehr unser eigen, als Nothing is so much our own, as

he who walks in the path of virtue is happy. Wer sich genau unste Gedan'fen; alles Anótere ist our thoughts; all else is ex

fennt, muß dich verlassen, he who knows thee well must quit thee. außer uns terior to us.

(Byron.) Die meisten Menschen find von Em. Most men are puffed up by a

1. Was is employed like the corresponding English word ; pfindung ihres eignen Werthe feeling of their own worth,

as :-Was schön ist, kann auch schlecht sein, what is beautiful can

also be bad. auf'geblasen, weil sie nicht wissen, because they do not know

Er ist, was ich sein möchte, he is what I would mai ter wahre Werth des Mens what the true worth of man

(wish to) be. schen ist. is.

2. After an antecedent, used in a general and indefinite sense, Wer hat je den herben Trant des Who has ever cheerfully and

was is often employed as a simple relative; as :-Er glaubt alles, Shidsals gern und willig ges voluntarily taken the bitter

was er hört, he believes all that he hears. Ich thue Alles, was ich nommen?

fann, I do all that I can. Er glaubt nur das, was er sieht, he cup of fate ? Der Graf fommt so eben mit seinem The count is just coming, with cedent is particularly specified, welches (not was) is to be em:

believes only that which he sees. When, however, the anteGefolge von der Iago. Salte ja fest an dem Glauben an Hold (Sect. XLIII. 4) fast to ployed; as :—Das Buch, welches Sie mir geliehen Haben, the book Gott, den Lenker deines Schicksals.

which thy (the) faith in God, the

you

have lent me. disposer of thy destiny.

3. Was is, likewise, sometimes used instead of warum; as :Wir beurtheilen die Menschen in We estimate men in many cases

Was lachen Sie? why (warum) do you laugh ?

what are you

or, vielen Fällen nur nach

laughing at? tem

only by the appearance, and Schein, und halten manche für regard many as wise because

4. Gebürtig and geboren correspond commonly to our words flug-weil sie an'maßend, und

“native” and “born;" as :-Er ist ein geborner Deutscher, he is a they are assuming, and others native German. Woher sind Sie gebürtig ? where were you born ? an dere für un'wissend, weil sie as ignorant because they are Ich bin aus Berlin gebürtig

, I was born in Berlin. Er ist ein

geborner beschei’ten sind. modest.

Fürst, he is a prince by birth. Frau N. war eine geborne G., Mrs. EXERCISE 130.

N. was a Miss G. 1. Sagen (Sect. LXXXII. 1) Sie mir, ob das Ihr cigenes Pferd ist?

VOCABULARY. 2. Haben diese Kinder viel eigenes Vermögen? 3. Ihre Eltern waren sehr Amerifa'nerin, f. Ame. Geboʻren, born. Spicgel, m. lookingreich. 4. Ich finde es sehr eigen, daß er nicht seine eigenen Pferte benußt, rican (woman). Ocbür'tig, native. (See glass, mirror. sondern mit andern fährt. 5. Ih habe kein eigenes Haus. 6. Ist dies (See $ 14. 1.) 4.)

Stehlen, to steal. fein eigener Wagen, oder hat er ihn nur gemiethet? 7. Diese Frage finte Audʻzeichnung, f. dis Göttlich, divine. Stemmen, to resist, ih sehr eigen. 8. Es ist bies (Sect. XXXV.3) meine eigene Ueberzeugung, tinction.

Hoch'verrath, m. high Nach ter id hantle. 9. Dieser alte Saufmann ist ein sehr eigener Mensch. Beistand, m. assist

treason.

Streiten, to fight, 10. Ieter Mensch hat seine eignen Fehler. 11. Sind Sie je in diesem

combat. Hause gewesen? 12. Ich bin nie da gewesen. 13. Ich halte es für meine

ance, succour, sup- Klei'nigfcit, f. trifle,
port.

small matter. Um'fommen, to perish. pfiucht, mich nicht über ihn aufzuhalten. 14. Ich werde nie von meinen

anim

Blut'gerüst, n. scaffold. Lustig, merry, sportive In'bedeutend, şetvesen? 16. Ich habe ihn so eben gesehen. 17. Jit Deine Tochter schon Ebenbild, n. image, 15. Sind Sie noch nicht bei meinem Bruder Darin, therein, in it. Musit'lehrer, m. music- portant, insignifi

master. in meinem Garten gewesen? 18. Šie ist noch nicht ausgegangen. 19.

Narr, m. fool. Unflug, imprudently. Saben Sie je ein fo interessantes land bereift? 20. Ich habe ichon vici Gintritt, m. entrance. Nie terlage, f. discom- Untertrū‘ten, to opStones gesehen, aber nie vergesse ich die reizende Schweiz. 21. So eben Grfech'ten, to win in

fiture, defeat.

press. habe ich schon wieder einen Brief bekommen. 22. Sind Sie ru früh ges femmen, taf Sie schon wieder gehen? 23. Gehen Sie ja (Sect. XLII. Erleiden, to suffer.

fight, conquer.

Nordameʼrifa, n, North Verzwei'feln, to despair
America.

Wiese, f. meadow. 1) nicht zu nahe an das Feuer. 24. Kommen Sie ja bald zurücf. 25. Finster, dark. Schlüssel, m. key.

Zweifeln, to doubt,

oppose, stem.

Gruntsagen abweichen.

cant.

can.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

now jumping upon his good horse. 18. The man sits at the table,

and the book lies upon the table. 19. I have no hat on my head. 20. Wer das Gute liebt, ter liebt auch He that loves goodness, also Where is the soldier going ? 21. The soldiers are going to the field;

Gott und verach'tet Alles, was loves God, and contemns all they are already on the field. 22. The frog leaps into the river and ihn nicht zur Vollkom'menheit that does not advance him swims in the river, and the goose swims in the pond. 23. I have read befür'tert.

towards perfection.

these words somewhere. 24. I can find my cap nowhere, although it Was quälen Sie mich mit Ihrer Why do you torment me with must be somewhere in this room. Velehrsamkeit? (ellert.) your erudition ?

EXERCISE 45 (Vol. I., page 245). Der Mensch glaubt leicht, was er Man easily believes what he husst, und sieht leicht, was er sehen hopes, and sees easily what

1. Wo ist die Bildergallerie tiefer Stadt? 2. Bo war dieser Herr will.

he wishes to see.

geboren? 3. Gr war in Böhmen geboren. 4 Wo wohnt Ihr freunt, Das große Haus, welches (not wal) The large house, that you see

der Schauspieler ? 5. Gr wohnt in der Statt. 6. Wo geben diese Aut Sie dort sehen, ift (Sect. LVIII. yonder, belongs to us.

wanterer hin? 7. Woher kommen diese Einwanderer? 8. Sie kommen 1) unser.

von Frantreich. 9. Wo viel gegeben ist, wird viel verlangt. 10. Hier Gi'nige meiner Freunte sind aus Some of my friends are natives dringt nicht rie Rache und der geweßte Dolch eines Verräthers ;-unter den Dredden gebürftig.

of Dresden.

Schatten dieses Baumes fommt fein König. 11, Gr warf das Bud not Dieser Mann ist ein geber'ner Ame- This man is a native Ameri- mir nieder. 12. Wohin gehst tu? 13. Ich gehe zu meinem Schwager. rifa'ner.

14. Werden diese Auswanderer nach Amerika gehen? 15. Nein, sie werden

hier bleiben. 16. Da (or es) ift Wasser im Teiche. 17. Woher kommt sie? EXERCISE 132.

18. Sie kommt von Deutschland. 1. Wer sich das Göttliche will und das Höchste im Leben erfechten,

EXERCISE 46 (Vol. I, page 245). (cheuc nicht Arbeit und Kampf (Körner). 2. Wer gerinnen will, muß wagen 3. Dieses Buch ist mir lieb; wer es stiehlt, der ist ein Dieb. 4.

1. The soldiers are here, and the commander-in-chief is coming

hither also. Wer nichts lieben will, als sein Gbenbild, hat außer sich nichts zu lieben

2. The enemy is already there, and our brave brothers

must proceed thither. 3. When are you going to Spain? 4. I do not 5. Wer zweifelt, verzweifelt. 6. Wer gegen sein Vaterland streitet, ist

mean to go there at all, but my father will travel thither next week. ein Verräther. 7. Wer fich in Gefahr begiebt, fommt darin um. 8. Wer 5. Have you been there already ? 6. No, but one of my acquaintances dein Unterdrücten nicht beisteht, verdient auch feinen Beistand. 9. Wer was there, and will never go there again. 7. We are going upon the fich gegen das Schidsal stemmen will, ist ein Narr. 10. Sind Sie ein mountain; will you go with us? 8. Does the Russian mean to send bis geborner Englanter oder Amerikaner? 11. Ich bin feins von beiden servant to the town ? 9. He has already sent him thither. 10. Will (Sect. XXXII. 2), ich bin ein geborner Deutscher. 12. Wer ist Ihre the troops come hither ? 11. They will not come hither. 12. Where Freundin? 13. Sie ist eine Amerifanerin, gebürtig aus New-York. 14. do these strangers come from? 13. They are immigrants, and come Woher ist Ihr Freund gebürtig? 15. Er ist aus England gebürtig.

16.

from Bohemia. 14. Is this ship from Bremen or Havre ? 15. It is

neithor from Bremen nor from Havre, it is from Venice. 16. Are In welchem Cante wurden Sie geboren ? 17. Ich bin in ten Vereinigten these French immigrants going to Milwaukee ? 17. A part of them Staaten von Nordamerika geboren. 18. Ich mache mi über diesen Mann are going there, the others remain in New York. 18. The immigrants fuftig. 19. Sie sollten sich nicht über ihn lustig machen, 20. Gr macht to America are emigrants from Europe, and from other parts of the fich über Jedermann lustig. 21. Es giebt auch Narren, welche sich über Old World. 19. When do you mean to go into the field ? 20. I have Andere lustig machen 22. Dieser Mensch hält sich über jede Kleinigfeit been already in the field, and cannot go there again; but I must now auf (Sect. XXX.) 23. Es ist unflug, sich über eine unbedeutende Sache soon go into the garden, because my teacher is there and wishes to see aufzuhalten oder lustig zu machen. 24. Wer zu viel anfängt, vollendet me. 21. Why will this Italian not speak English ? 22. He would wenig. 25. Id freue mich über meinen artigen Neffen. 26. Der römische like to speak it, but he does not know it yet; he speaks only Italian Kaiser Augustus war in Verzweiflung über die Nieterlage, welche Varus only two, but I mean to learn others besides.

and Spanish, 23. How many languages can you speak? 24. I speak von ten Deutschen erlitten hatte. 27. Gr þat mít mir aber diesen Gegenstand gesprochen. 28. Wer auf liebe zu Gott der Menschheit Pflichten

EXERCISE 47 (Vol. I., page 245). entsagt-sigt im Finstern, und hält immer den Spiegel vor sichy.

1. Wann lebte er? 2. Er lebte im vierzehnten Jahrhuntert. .

Mein Freund sagte mir, er würde nic wieter vahin geßen. 4. Gehen Sie EXERCISE 133. 1. He who assists the poor will receive divine assistance. 2. hat seine Truppen dahin geschickt

, wo die größte Gefahr war. nach Spanien ? 5. Nein, ich werde nicht dahin gehen. 6. Der fa&TT

7. 3i riesce He who would have entrance everywhere, must have golden Schiff von Spanien oder von Havre? 8. Nein, es ist weder von Sraria, keys. 3. He who fights for his country deserves distinction. noch von Havre ; es fommt von Hamburg. 9. Diese Einwanderer geber 4. He who wishes to learn German, must give himself some nach Milwaufee, und find Auswanterer von Böhmen und Benetig 10

. trouble. 5. He who dies for his king, dies with glory. 6. He Können Sie über jenes Thor springen? 11. 3d fonnte es, als ich jung who commits high treason, dies mostly upon the scaffold. 7.

12. Er bat mich, dahin zu geben, tamit er mit mir darüber sprechen They are born under a happy star. 8. In which country were

könne. those ladies born? 9. They were born in Italy, in the year

EXERCISE 48 (Vol. I., page 246). 1795, but their mother was born in England. 10. Are these ladies natives of Germany? 11. No, they are natives of France. 3. Will you go into the cabin ? 4. No, I am going down below deel

1. Have you seen my friend? 2. Yes, he has gone down the street. 12. Our music-master is a native of Italy, and was born in 6. Are you going over to Mainz to-day by the steamboat? 6. Yes, Florence. 13. I will do what I have promised. 14. Show mo

and this evening I shall come over by the railroad over the new bridge what you have found. 15. What enhances the glory of this of boats. 7. Our course is up and down.

8. The roe leapt down hero, is his modesty. 16. Let us grant him what we at first while the hare ran up the hill. 9. The soldiers sprang out of refused. 17.

Thou hast never told us what they have trusted the barracks, as the enemy rushed into the town. 10. As the watchyou with. 18. Why do you make yourself merry at the misery man stepped into the house, the terrified thief bastened down-stairs

, of the oppressed ? 19. The fruits which we saw in the garden 11. I cannot get out of the crossways of this garden. 12. Do you not of our neighbour were not so good as those which grew in know how this bird got in? 13. Yes, but he does not know where he yours.

can get out again. 14. The young' Swiss looked towards the blue mountains of his native country. 15. Are you not coming down to

day? 16. Yes, if my uncle comes up, I shall go down. 17. Have you KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN, seen this man already? 18. Yes, he entered the door as I went out

. 19. The friend went over the river and back again in one hour. » EXERCISE 44 (Vol. I., page 245).

The stream falls down the rock with great roaring. 1. Where is the brother-in-law ? 2. He is at the table. 3. Whero is the confectioner going? 4. He is going into the bakehouse.

EXERCISE 49 (Vol. I., page 246). Where is his friend, the actor ? 6. He is at the opera-house. 7. Where is his friend, the ropemaker, going? 8. He is going into his Neve dauerte über zwei Stunden 3. Das Reh sprang aus feinem

1. Der Sohn eilte binunter, seinen Vater zu empfangen. 2. Erine workshop. 9. Where is the shepherd ? 10. He is on the

mountain. ftede hervor

. 4. Werden Sie heure mit dem Dampfboote na Frantir 11. Where is the shepherd going? 12. He is going on the mountain. 13. Where is our old neighbour going? 14. He is now in the little hinübergehen? 5. Nein, ich werde mit der Eisenbahn þinübergeben

, um garden, but he is going into the large garden soon. 15. His wife is in mit dem Dampfboote zurüdtommen. 6. Gehen Sie nicht über den Kreti this house, but his cousin is going into that picture gallery. 16. 1 weg hinaus. 7. Ich sah Ihren Freund hereinfommen, als Ihr kein stanl at the

window, and you are coming to the window. i7. The binausging. 8. Dicle leute, welche über jene Brüde gehen, find in Bratis knight already sits upon his good horse, hind

the serrant "also is just ihres Lebens. "9. Werten Sie heute mit Ihrem Freunte binazɛgeber ?

war.

5.

no oxen.

10. Bon diesem Hügel können wir nach unserm Vaterlande hinübessehen. officer's courage is called in question; and it is a matter of 11. Wie ist der Dieb in Ihr Haus gefoinmen? 12. Eduard stürzte sich satisfaction that in this case of Admiral Byng the personal von dem Gelfen hinab. 13. Ich werde diesen Morgen an Ihrem Hause courage of the accused was admitted to be unsullied. But the vorbeikommen, und werde hineinkommen, ohne daß Sie mich bitten, solches zu way in which he had conducted himself in the Mediterranean, thut.

when not his own honour only, buós that of the kingdom also, EXERCISE 50 (Vol. I., page 259).

was entrusted to his keeping, was said to have been such as

greatly to tarnish the national glory. What that conduct was, 1. Will the aged soldier go to-day in the forest ?

2. He will go,

but he cannot to-day, because he has much to do. 3. The man-servant is and the result of it to the man most concerned, will be shown gone into the market to fetch meat. 4. To remain healthy, one must in this sketch. live orderly and temperately. 5. The woodcutter has gone into the

In 1755 war, which had for a long time threatened, broke out forest to cut wood. 6. The butcher goes from one village to the other between England and France and Spain. Various indecisive to buy oxen, 7. He goes from one village to the other, but can find aotions had been fought between the ships of the several

8. What does he want with the oxen ? 9. He means to kill countries, and a few collisions took place between detached them; we must indeed have meat. 10. The peasant has two horses, bodies of troops ; but there were not any operations on a large which the brewer wishes to buy. 11. I go to the city to buy a hat or scale till in the early part of 1756 the French determined on a cap. 12. He has books to read, and an exercise to write. 13. Where reducing the island of Minorca, which was held by General does your brother's friend wish to go? 14. He wishes to go nowhere; Blakeney for the British. All the previous winter they had be wishes to remain with his uncle. mountain ? 16. I shall go there, but not to-day. i7. Can you go to been secretly preparing for the enterprise, though they had morrow into the country? 18. I can go there, but I will not. 19. skilfully concealed the aim and objects of it. Indeed, until When does your father want his horses back again? 20. He must have February, 1756, the British Ministers were not aware that the them to-morrow morning, becanse he wishes to drive to-morrow even expedition was meant for any place in the Mediterranean, but ing to Frankfort. 21. Why will he not ride there? 22. Because he fancied that the British possessions in North America were has no good saddle-horse, and the weather is very cold.

the destination. Convinced, however, at this time, of the actual EXERCISE 51 (Vol. I., page 259).

designs of the French, the Government took steps, albeit tardily,

to frustrate them. 1. Es ist heute zu falt für ihn, um nach Frankfurt hinüberzugehen. 2. A squadron of ten ships of the line was fitted out, and the Dort läuft der Hase über den Berg. 3. Da fährt Ihr Bruder. 4. Der command was given, on the 1st of April, to Admiral Byng, with inZuderbäder ist in die Badstube gegangen, um Brod zu baden. 5. Der structions to proceed forthwith to Gibraltar, and to inquire there Mesger geht auf den Markt, um Schafe zu kaufen. 6. Ihr Kutscher hat whether the French fleet from Toulon had passed the strait. mich incl hierher gefahren. 7. Schen Sie jenen Mann auf dem Pferde, If they had, he was to detach Admiral West, his second in welches wir gestern jaben? 8. Die Soldaten reiten auf schönen Pferden. command, with a portion of the fleet, to North America, where 9. Man jagt, in diesen Kutschen führt man bequem. 10. Wir sind in it was still supposed a blow would be struck. If they had not, Ihrem Wagen gefahren, um unsere Visiten abzustatten. 11. übertritt he was "to go on without a moment's loss of time to Minorca.” nicht das Gesep 12. Das neue Dampfboot fährt heute zum ersten Male Failing to meet the enemy's fleet there, he was to go to Toulon, ten Fluß hinunter.

and blockade it in that port. He was also to use his utmost EXERCISE 52 (Vol. I., page 260).

diligence to protect Minorca and Gibraltar.

As soon as he found what work was marked out for him, 1. This hunter has a fine dog, mine is finer, and yours is the finest of Admiral Byng complained to the Admiralty of the inadequacy al. 2. The earth is smaller than the sun, and the stars are more distant of the force assigned to him. He had not a single frigate for than the moon. 3. Virgil is a more agreeable writer than Ovid.

4. reconnoitring or signalling purposes; the ships he had were The city of Canton is larger than Paris. 5. Alexander the Great had foul, the crews weak both in number and health ; and there less prudence than courage. 6. We find much more copper than

were not any marines on board of them, that valuable arm of silver, and more iron than tin. 7. This girl prattles more than she works. 8. The air in the towns is more impure than the country attr. service having been withdrawn in order to make room for a 9. France is not so fertile as Germany. 10. This youth has not as

regiment of soldiers he was to take to Minorca, and for another much understanding as his brother, but neither has he as much vanity. he was to pick up at Gibraltar. The only answer he received 11. The rose is one of the finest flowers in the world. 12. Those are from the Admiralty ras an order to proceed, and on the 7th of commonly the least proud, whose minds are the most educated. 13. April he put to sea. The manners of those with whom we have intercourse are commonly Owing to the foulness of his ships, on the sides and bottoms influential upon us. 14. The benefits that we are worthy of are more of which weed had so collected as to impair most materially agreeable to us than those we are unworthy of. man whose children are virtuous. 16. The Lord has no pleasure in those the 2nd of May, and there he found there were not enough

15. He is the richest their sailing qualities, the admiral did not reach Gibraltar till people who have no love to their brothers. thick trupk, the beech has a thicker trunk, and the onk has the stores to replenish his squadron, and that the governor would thickest trunk. 18. The more he has, the more he wants. 19.

not part with the regiment which Byng had been instructed to Florence is finer than Parma.

take from him to Minorca. While lying in Gibraltar Bay, the news reached him that a fortnight before the French admiral,

with a strong fleet, had appeared off Fort Mahon, Minorca, and HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XXV.

had landed the Duc de Richelieu, with an army of 16,000 men,

to besiege the place. The governor of Minorca was away ADMIRAL BYNG ON THE 14TH OF MARCH, 1757.

(General Blakeney, eighty-two years of age, was deputy“EVERY person in the fleet who, through cowardice, negligence, governor), and there were many of the officers of the garrison on or disaffection, shall in time of action withdraw or keep back, leave of absence; the fortress of St. Philip, though very strong, was or not come into the fight or engagement, or shall not do his very ill supplied; and there was not any assistance from Nature, utmost to take or destroy every ship which it shall be his duty to in the shape of rugged cliffs or difficult beaches, to defend the engage

every such person so offending, and being con place. General Blakeney did his best to prepare for the siege, victed thereof by the sentence of a court-martial, shall suffer with his 3,000 men against 16,000 of the enemy. Under these death." This was the article of war upon which the life and circumstances Admiral Byng's instructions “to go on without honour of Admiral John Byng were given in charge to a naval a moment's loss of time to Minorca ” should unquestionably court-martial on the 28th of December, 1756. The trial took have been acted on to the very letter, yet the admiral waited in place on board the St. George, in Portsmouth harbour, under Gibraltar Bay till the 8th of May, and did not sight Minorca till circumstances of unusual excitement. All England was smart- the 19th. ing under a sense of the disgrace which the conduct of the Though the British flag was still flying from the citadel of prisoner had appeared to bring upon it, and there was a uni. Port Mahon, the place was closely invested. The Duc de versal cry for investigation. The populace were deeply imbued Richelieu was pressing the siege with all his power, and M. de with the spirit which actuated all ranks, from the king down. la Galissonière, the French admiral, was cruising off the island wards, and as Admiral Byng was brought to Portsmouth from with a fleet about equal in strength to the British admiral's. Greenwich, under the escort of a strong guard, he was insulted General Blakeney had sunk some vessels at the mouth of the in every town and village he passed through.

harbour to prevent the French fleet getting in, and so succeeded It is, happily, an event of most rare occurrence when a British in relieving himself from the fire of the ship's guns; but by

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