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Min.

Frac. of Deg.

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of Deg.

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as the basis on which the projection is constructed.

As in cases where the projection is constructed on a large scale, a subdivision Name of Place. into fractions of a degree or minutes is desirable for the pur. pose of obtaining on the projection positions of places approxi. mating as closely as possible to their actual positions on the Auxonne world's surface as determined by observations, we append a

Aveiro table of minutes in fractional parts of a degree, which our Avignon

Avranches readers may find useful.

Aylesbury
Azov
Barcelona
Basle
Bassano

Bayonne
11

31
41
51

Beachy Head
2
12
22
32
42
52

Beauvais
3
13 18 23

33
43
53

Belle-Isle (I.)
14
24
34
44
54

Bender
5
15
25
35 1 45

55

Bergamo.
6
16
26
36
46
56

Bergen
17
27
37
47
57

Bergen-op-Zoom
18
28
38
48
58

Berlin
9
19
29
39
49
59

Berne
10
20
30
40
50
60

Berwick-on-Tweed
Besançon,

Beziers
When the positions of the cities and principal physical fea- Blois
tures, such as capes and headlands, mouths of rivers and moun- Bologna
tain peaks, have been marked; the contour of the coast and the Bomarsund
courses of rivers and mountain chains may be filled in from a Bommel
reliable map on a large scale which gives the details of the coast- Bonifacio (Strait)
line and river windings. The political boundaries may also be Bordeaux .
filled in from the same source.

Bornholm (I.)

Boulogne . Having given these instructions, we now proceed with our

Bourges list of latitudes and longitudes, compiled from the best authori

Brandenburg ties, in order to enable our students to proceed at once to the Braunau filling op of their projections. As every place in Europe lies Breda in some parallel of latitude north of the equator, the letter N. Bremen for north is appended only to the latitude of the first place, Brescia Aalborg ; but to prevent errors, the longitude of every place is Breslau

Brest distinguished by the letter E. or W. placed after it, as the posi

Bridgewater tion of the place itself happens to be east or west of the meri.

Briel dian of Greenwich.

Brieux, St. TABLB OF LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES OF PLACES

Brighton

Bristol
IN EUROPE.

Brixen

Bruck Name of Place. Country, etc. Latitude. Longitude. Bruges

Brunn

Brunswick
Aalborg
Denmark.
57° 2' N.

Brussels

9° 55'E. Aarhuus Denmark. 56

Bucharest

9 10 13 E.
Abbeville
France

50 7
1 49 E.

Buckingham
Aberdeen

57 Scotland

Buda
8

2 5 W.
Finland
60 28 22 18 E.

Burgos
Agen
France

13 0

Cadiz

38 E. Aix. France

43 33

5
25 E.

Caen
Ajaccio
Corsica
41 55 8 45 E.

Caffa, or Kaffa
Akerman.
Russia
46 12 30 19 E.

Cagliari
Aland Islands
Baltic Sea

60

20 15

Cahors

O E.
Alby
France
43 55

Calais
9 E.

2
Algeciras.
Spain

36 8
5 29 W.

Calmar, or Kalmar
Alicante
Spain
38 23 0

Calvi

25 W.
Alkmaar
Holland
52 38 4 46 E.

Cambrai
Almeria
Spain
36 51 2 32 W.

Cambridge
Alten
Norway

Camerino.
69

23 55

4 E. Altona Prussia 53 32 9

Candia

56 E.
Amiens
France
49 53 2 18 E.

Canterbury
Amsterdam
Holland

52 22

53 E.

Carcassone
Ancona
Italy
43 37 13 31 E.

Cardigan
Angers
France

47
0

Carlisle

33W. Angouleme

45 France

39

Carlsborg. 10 E.

0 Annan Scotland

Carlscrona 54 59

3 15 W. Antwerp

51 Belgium

Carlshamn

4 23 E. Aranjuez

Carlsruhe.
Spain

40 0

3 38 W. Archangel

64 Russia

83 40

Carmarthen

38 E. Arendal Norway 58

Carrickfergus 28

51 E.

8 Arles France 43 42

Cartagena

37 E. Arras France

Cassel

50 17 2 46 E. Astrakhan Russia 46 15 48 4 E.

Castiglione Athens

58

Castres

23 43 E. Auch France 43 88

France
Portugal
France
France
England
Russia
Spain
Switzerland
Italy
France
England
Franco
France
Russia
Italy
Norway
Holland
Prussia
Switzerland
Scotland
France
France
France
Italy
Russia
Holland
Corsica
France
Baltic Sea
France
France
Prussia
Austria
Holland
Prussia
Italy
Prussia
France
England
Holland
France
England
England
Austria
Austria
Belgium
Austria
Germany
Belgiam
Turkey in Europe
England,
Hungary
Spain
Spain
France
Russia
Sardinia
Franco
France
Sweden
Corsica
Franco
England
Italy
Crete
England
France
Wales
England
Sweden
Sweden
Sweden
Baden
Wales
Ireland
Spain
Prussia
Italy
France
Sicily
Ireland

47° 12'
40 38
43 57
48 41
51 49
47 2
41 23
47 33
45 46
43 31
50
49 26
47. 20
46 47
45 42
60 26
51 29
52 31
46 57
55 47

17
43 20

35 44 30 60 15 51 48 41 18

50 55 10 50 43 47

26 48 15 51 35 53 5 45 33 51 6 48 23 51 8 51 53 48 33 50 49 51 28 46

25 51 13 49 12 52 16 50 52

25 52 0

30
42 21
36 33

11
45
39 13

26
50 57
56 39
42 34
50 10
52 13
43 8
35 21
51 16
42 12
52 5
54 54
58 31
56 9
56 10
49 0
51

52 54 43 37 37 51 19

53 43 36 37 28 53 59

5° 23' E. 8 39 W.

50 E. 1

22 W. 0 49 W. 39 28 E. 2 9 E. 7 35 E. 11 43 E. 1 26 W. 0 15 E. 2 5 E. 3 10W.

32 E. 9 411 E. 5 22 E.

17 E. 13 23. E. 7 26 E. 2

OW. 6 5 E. 3 12 E. 1 20 E. 11 20 E. 20 11 E. 5 15 E. 9 20 E 0 31 W. 15 O E. 1 35 E. 2 24 E. 12

32 E. 13 2 B. 4 46 E. 8 48. E. 10 13 . 17 2 É. 4 7W. 8 7W. 4 10 E.

45 W. 0 8W. 2 35 W. ri 37 E. 15 16 E.

3 12 E. 16 37 E. 10 31 E.

4 21 E. 26 5 E.

0 59 W. 19 2 E. 3 42 W. 6 19 W. 0 21 W. 35 25 E. 9 6 E. 1 27 E. 1 50 E. 16 22 E. 8 3 12 E. 0 6 E.

4 E. 25 7 E. 1 5 E. 2 21 E.

39 W. 2 55 W. 14 28 E. 15 39 E. 14 52 E. 8 25 E.

19 W. 5 48 W. 0 55 W. 9 31 E. 10 48 E.

2 14 E. 15 8 E.

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37 Greece

Catania
0 37 E.

Cavan
Augsburg
Bavaria

48 52 10 53 E.
Auxerre
France

47 49

3 31 E.

22 W

(To be continuod.)

το πραυ.

Ζευ.

το.

το.

•ου,

an

LESSONS IN GREEK.—XIII.

Singular.

Nom.
THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued).

και πραος,

η πραεια, Gen. πράου,

πραειας, πραου, THERE are some nouns of the third declension which cannot

Dat. . πρας,

πραεια,

πραω. be classified, and the differential points of these must therefore

Aco.
πραον,

πραειαν, τραυ. be given separately; they are as follow :

Voc. .
πραός, πραε,

πραεια,

πραύ. EXCEPTIONAL NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

Plural.

Nom. 1. Ανηρ, ανδρος, a man; γαλα, γαλακτος, milk; γονυ, γονατος,

πραοι, πραείς,

πραειαι,

πραξα. Gen. πραέων,

πραειων, πραέων. a knee; δορυ, δορατος, και spear; ους, ωτος, an ear ; χειρ, χειρος,

Dat. a hand. The peculiar forms of these have been already set

πραοις, πραεσι, πραειαις, πραεσι.

Aco. forth.

πραεα.

πραους, πραείς, .

πραειας,

Voc. 2. Γυνη, ή, a married woman, a wife; gen. γυναικ-ος, dat.

πραοι and πραείς, πραειαι, πραξα, γυναικ-1, acc. γυναικ-α, voc. γυναι; pl. γυναικες, γυναικων,

Dual. γυναιξι, γυναικας.

Ν.Α.Υ.
πραώ,

πραεια,

πραώ. 3. Ζευς, Zeus (Jupiter), gen. Διοs, dat. Διϊ, acc. Δια, voc. G.D.

πρασιν,

πραειαιν, πραοιν.

Singular. 4. Θριξ, ή, hair, gen. τριχος, dat. τριχι, etc. ; dat. pl. θριξι.

δ. η.

δ. 5. Kλεις, ή, a key, gen. κλειδος, dat. κλειδι, acc. κλειν; pl.

Nom. πολυς, πολλη, πολυ. Ποτη. and acc. κλείs, also κλειδες, κλειδας.

μεγας, μεγαλη, μεγα. 6. Κυων, ο, ή, a dog, gen. κυν-ος, dat. κυν-1, acc. κυν-α, νοο.

Gen. πολλου, πολλης, πολλου. μεγαλου, μεγαλης, μεγαλου, κυον; pl. κυνες, κυνων, κυσι, κυνας.

Dat. πολλά, πολλη, πολλο. μεγαλω, μεγαλη, μεγαλώ, 7. Μαρτυς, o, a witness (our martyr), gen. μαρτυρος,

dat.

Acc. πολυν,
.
πολλην, πολυ.

μεγαν, μεγαλην, μεγα. Voc. πολυ,

πολλη, πολυ. μαρτυρι, acc. μαρτυρα, voc. μαρτυς; dat. pl. μαρτύσι.

μεγα, μεγαλη, μεγα. 8. Ναυς (Latin, ηαυis), ή, a ship, gen. νεως, dat. νηϊ, acc.

Plural. ναύν; dual gen. and dat. νεοιν (the norm, and acc. do not occur); Norm. πολλοι, πολλαι, πολλα. μεγαλοι, μεγαλαι, μεγαλα. pl. νήες, νεων, ναυσι, ναύς ; compare γραυs and βασιλευς.

Gen. πολλων, πολλων, πολλων. μεγαλων, μεγαλων, μεγαλων. 9. Υδωρ, τo, water, gen. υδατος, dat. υδατι, etc.

The other parts are regular.
VOCABULARY.

I
Αθηναιος, -ου, o, an Iθυνω,

VOCABULARY. make Μαρτυρια, ας, ή, tesAthenian. straight, I direct. timony.

Αιγυπτος, ή, Ιλιας, -αδος, ή, the Παθος, -ους, τo, safΑιακος, -ου, δ, Eicus. Ιστος, ου, o, a loom Οικια, ας, ή, a dwell- Egypt.

Iliad.

fering. Αίδης, -ου, ο, Hades, or mast.

ing. .

Αλεξανδρος, -ου, ο, Κροίσος, «ου, και, Προσαγορευω,Ιτιame, god of the lower Καστωρ,-ορος, Castor. : Oικος, -ου, o, a house. Alexander.

Crasus.

call. world (Pluto). Κιστη, ης, ή, a Πετρα, -ας, ή, a roclk | Αλγος, -ους, τo, pain, Μακεδων, -ονος, o, a Προσοδος, -ου, ή, εpΑιθιοψ, •οπος,

chest.
(hence Peter). grief.

Macedonian.

proach, income. Æthiopian. Κοιλαινω, I hollow. Πολυδεύκης, -ου, ο, Αφθονια, ας, ή, free- Μεγα, αάν., greatly, Σιτος, -ου, και, πheat, Απιστος, -ον, unfaith- Κομιζω,Ι carry, Polydeukes, Pol. 'dom from envy (a, very.

corn, ful, inadmissible. bring. .

lux.

not), abundance.

Ολιγος, -η, -ον, small; Φοβος, -ου, 8, fear; Δεησις, εως, ή, a Kτεις, κτενος, o, ο Σταγων, -ονος, ή, a | Eθος, -ους, τo, custom; plural, few.

φοβον έχειν, το request, entreaty. comb. .

drop.
plural, manners, Οφελλω, I nourish,

have fear-that Δεχομαι, I receive. Κτενιζω, I comb. Σωζω, I save, rescue. morals; hence our

augment, aid.

is, to cause fear. Εκκλησια, ας, ή, an | Κυβερνητης, «ου, ο, Σωτηρ, -ηρος, o, a ethics. assembly ; ( (the steersman.

saviour, deliverer.

EXERCISE 49.-GREEK-ENGLISH. New Testament Kυβος, -ου, και (our Ωφελεια, ας, ή, ad

1. Πολυν οινον πινειν κακον εστιν. 2. Οι βασιλεις μεγαλας προword for church). cube), a die.

vantage, ability.

σοδους εχουσιν.

3. Εν Αιγυπτφ πολλη σιτου αφθονια. 4. Η EXERCISE 47.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

θαλαττα μεγαλη εστιν. 5. Κροιση ην πολυς πλουτος. 6. ΠολΔια και Ποσειδω και Απολλω και αλλους θεους. 3. Ταις γυναιξιν Πολλων ανθρωπων εθη εστι πραεα. 10. Πονος αρετην μεγα οφελλει. 1. Αι γυναικες των κοσμο χαιρoυσιν. 2. οι Ελληνες σεβονται λακις εξ ολιγης ηδονης μεγα γιγνεται αλγος. 7. Πραεσι λογους

ηδεως εικομεν. 8. Τα μεγαλα δωρα της τυχης εχει φοβον. 9. η αιδως πρεπει.

4. Οι κυνες τον οικον φυλαττουσιν. 5. Ο κυβερνητης την ναυν ιθυνει. 6. Αί σταγονες του ύδατος πετρας

11. Οι παιδες τους πραους πατερας και τας πραειας μητερας στερκοιλαινουσιν. 7. Της γυναικος εστι τον οικον φυλαττειν. 8. γουσιν. 12. Ομιλιαν εχε τοις πραεσιν ανθρωποις. 13. Αι γυναικες Γυναικος εσθλης εστι σωζειν οικιαν. 9. Αει ευ πιπτουσι Διος

πραειαι εισιν. 14. Αλεξανδρον, τον Μακεδονων βασιλεα, μεγαν κυβοι. 10. Οι κυνες τους ανθρωπους ωφελειαν και ηδονην παρε

προσαγορευσι οι πολλοι. χουσιν. 11. Αί των μαρτύρων μαρτυριαι πολλακις απιστοι εισιν.

EXERCISE 50.-ENGLISH-GREEK. 12. Κομιζε, ω παι, την της κιστης κλεϊν. 13. Ω Ζευ, δεχoυ την του ατυχούς δεησιν. 14. Καστωρ και Πολυδεύκης των νέων σωτηρες | wine. 3. Much wine injures men.

1. Abstain from much wine. 2. Bad men delight in much

4. Kings have great in. ησαν. 15. Γυναικι παση κοσμον ή σιγη φερει. 16. Οι Αιθιοπες

comes. 5. The income of the kingdom is great. 6. Egypt has την τριχα μελαιναν εχουσιν. 17. Ω γυναι, σωζε την οικιαν. 18.

19. Αιακος τας Αίδου κλείς 8. Strive after mild manners.

much corn.

7. Many have much wealth, but little understanding. Το κτενι τας τριχας κτενιζομεν.

9. The manners of the women φυλαττει. EXERCISE 48.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

are mild. 10. (There) is beauty in (to) mild manners.

Alexander, the king of the Macedonians, is often called the 1. Ornament becomes a woman. 2. It is the business of Great. women to guard the house. 3. They bring the keys of the

THE SECOND DECLENSION CONTRACTED. house. 4. The keys of the house are brought to the mother. 5. The Athenians had (to the Athenians were) many ships. 6.

A deviation from the usual form of the Secord Declension Jupiter had (to Jupiter were) many temples. 7. The fish may here claim the student's attention. emerge out of the water. 8. The steersman guides the ship.

A few substantives in which an o or an e stands before the 9. The ship is guided by the steersman. 10. You worship case-endings undergo contraction. By contraction is meant the Japiter and Apollo.

blending of two vowels into a diphthong, or some other equira:

lent. The student must learn both the incontracted and the IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES.

contracted forms, first horizontally, as πλοος, πλούς; πλοου, πλού, There also some irregular adjectives, the forms of which I etc.; And then perpendicularly, as πλοος, πλοου, πλοω, πποο1 must got before you-such as πραος, πραεια, πραυ, soft; πολυς, | tracted; and πλούς, πλού, πλά, contracted. Thus Are declined πολλη, πολύ, much, pl. many; μεγας, μεγαλη, μεγα, greatas πλοος, ο Bailing or voyage; o περιπλοος, a sailing round or cirfollow :

cumnavigation; and TO OCTEOV, a bone.

11.

10. Ορεγου

EXAMPLES OF CONTRACTED NOUNA, SECOND DECLENSION. 6. Συν να τον βιον αγε. 7. Ο οχλος ουκ εχει νούν. 8. Μη εριζε Singular.

τοις ανθρωποις. 9. Οι αγαθοι τοις αγαθοις ευνοί εισιν. Uncon- Con- Uncon

12. Αι θεραCon- Uncon

φιλων ευνών. 11. Τα Ορεστου οστα εν Τεγεα ην.

Contracted, tracted. , tracted. tracted. tracted. tracted.

παιναι εν κανοίς τον αρτον προσφερουσιν. 13. Οι θεοι και καλον Nom. πλοος, πλούς. Η περιπλοος, περιπλους. Οστεον,

οστούν. και κακον πλούν τους ναυταις παρεχουσιν. 14. Ψυχης χαλινος Gen. πλοου, πλού. πεοιπλοου, περίπλου.

οστεου, οστού. ανθρωποις ο νούς εστιν. 15. Πολλακις οργη ανθρωπων νουν εκκαDat. πλοφ, πλω. περιπλοφ, περιπλω. οστεφ, οστώ.

λυπτει. 16. Απλούς εστιν και της αληθειας λογος.

17. Λογος Acc. πλοον, πλούν. | περιπλούν, περιπλουν.

οστεον, οστούν.

ευνούς επικουφιζει λυπην. 18. Το κυπελλον εστιν αργυρουν. 19. Voc. πλοε, πλου. περιπλοε, περιπλου.

οστεον, οστούν.

Ο θανατος λεγεται χαλκούς υπνος. Plural.

EXERCISE 52.-ENGLISH-GREEK. Nom. πλοοι, πλοί. περιπλοοι, περιπλοι. οστέα,

οστα. 1. The understanding is a teacher to men. 2. The wellGen. πλοων, πλων. περιπλοων, περιπλων.

οστεων, οστών.

disposed friend is honoured (θεραπευω), 3. Well-disposed friends Dat. πλοοις, πλούς. περιπλοοις, περιπλοις.

οστεοις, οστοιs.

are honoured. 4. To the well-disposed are many friends (that Acc. πλοους, πλούς. | περιπλοους, περιπλους. | οστεα, οστα. is, the well-disposed have many friends). 5. Abstain from the Voc. πλοοι, πλοί. περιπλοοι, περιπλοι. Οστεα,

οστα. senseless. 6. Strive after benevolent friends. 7. Bring the Dual.

bread in a basket. 8. Avoid senseless youths. 9. Senseless Ν.Α.Υ. πλοω, πλώ. περιπλοω, περιπλω. οστεω,

οστώ. youths are avoided. 10. The goblet is golden. 11. Silver οστεοιν,

οστούν. goblets are beautiful. 12. Pass life (Blov ayelv) with underAfter this manner decline the multiplicative adjective, ending standing. 13. Contend ye not with the senseless. in -00s (-ούς), -οη (-η), -ο0ν (-ούν), as απλοίς, απλή, απλούν, single

Remark that, as a general rule, the subject (or what is or simple; also adjectives of two terminations in -oos (-oớs) and commonly called the nominative) has the article, the predicate -DOV (-oûv), formed from the substantive voos (volls), the mind, being without it. Thus, if, as in the last Greek sentence, you as d, ý evvoüs, To envoûv, well-minded, that is, well-disposed; meet with a sentence having two nouns connected by the verb and from the substantine πλοος (πλούς) ο, ή ευπλούς, το ευπλούν, ειναι, take first-that is, take as the subject--that which has Foyaging successfully. These differ from their substantives the article before it, asonly in this, that in the neuter plural they suffer no contraction,

Subject.

Predicate. . ending in -voa and -2oa. Decline in the same manner adjectives

και θανατος λεγεται χαλκούς υπνος. ending in -oos, and denoting that of which a thing is made, as

Death is called a brazen sleep.

. χρυσεος (χρυσούς), χρυσεα (χρυσή), χρυσεον (χρυσούν), golden. In the neuter plural ea is contracted into a. When the femi

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK,-XII. nine termination ea is preceded by a vowel or p, the ea is con

EXERCISE 41.-GREEK-ENGLISH. tracted, not into ñ, but into à, as

1. The earth blooms with lovely flowers. 2. Keep not free from heat ερε-εος (ερεούς), ερε-εα (ερεά), ερεεον (ερεούν), woollen.

and cold. 3. We judge the honourable, not by length of time, but by αργυρ-εος (αργυρούς), αργυρ-εά (αργυρά), αργυρ-εον (αργυρ- | virtue. 4. Every height in the mortal race is not secure. 5. Do not ούν), of silver.

speak false.

6. Keep from evil gains. 7. Wicked gains ever bring

disgrace. 8. Brass is the mirror of beauty, and wine of the mind. 9. EXAMPLES OF CONTRACTED ADJECTIVES, SECOND DECLENSION.

Men aim at glory. 10. Men rejoice in glory. 11. The brave aim at Singular.

glorious deeds. 12. We admire the glorious deeds of men.
δ. η.

δ.
η.

EXERCISE 42.--ENGLISH-GREEK.
Nom. χρυσούς, χρυσή,
χρυσούν. απλούς, απλή, απλούν.

1. Απεχου πονηρων κερδων. 2. Οι σπουδαίοι απεχονται των πονηρων κερδων Gen. χρυσού, χρυσής, χρυσού. απλού, απλής, απλού.

3. Οι σπουδαίοι ορεγονται των καλων, 4. Μη απεχου, ω νεανια, θαλπους και Dat. χρυσό, χρυσή, απλώ, απλή, απλώ.

ψυχους αλλα των πονηρων. 5. Ζημια έπεται το ψευδει. 6. θαυμαζομεν Acc. χρυσούν. χρυσήν, χρυσούν. απλούν, απλήν, απλούν.

τους Έλληνας τοις κλεεσι. 7. Φευγομεν πονηρα κερδη. 8. Οι στρατιωται Voc. χρυσούς, χρυσή, χρυσούν. απλούς, απλή. απλούν.

χαίρουσιν εν τοις κλεεσι. Plural.

EXERCISE 43.-GREEK-ENGLISH. Nom. χρυσοί, χρυσαι, χρυσά. απλοί, απλαϊ, απλά.

1. The fishes rise up out of the river. . 2. The hunters catch wild Gen. χρυσών, χρυσών, χρυσών. απλών, απλών, απλών.

boars. 3. All were like corpses.

4. God rules our souls. 5. The Dat. χρυσοίς, χρυσαις, χρυσοίς. απλοϊς, απλαϊς, απλούς. vine brings forth grapes. 6. The earth brings forth ears of corn and Acc. χρυσούς, χρυσας, χρυσά. απλούς, απλάς, απλά. grapes. 7. The mico fought once with the frogs. 8. The mice are Voc. χρυσοί, χρυσαι, χρυσά. απλοί, απλαι, απλά. caught in traps. 9. The Syrians worship fishes as gods. 10. We Dual. .

catch fishes with a hook. Ν.Α.V. χρυσώ, χρυσά, απλώ, απλά, απλώ.

EXERCISE 44.-ENGLISH-GREEK. G.D. χρυσούν, χρυσαϊν, χρυσούν. απλοϊν, απλαϊν, απλοϊν. 1. Αγκιστροις αγρενομεν τους ιχθυς. 2. Οι ιχθυες αγρεύονται αγκιστροις. VOCABULARY.

3. ο θηρευτης ενεδρευει τους αγριους συνας.

4. Οι βοτρυες και οι σταχυες εισι

καλοι. 5. Αμπελός φερει βοτρυας. 6. Τοις βατραχοις ποτε ην μαχη προς Αδηλος,-ον, unknown. | Θεραπαινα, -ης, ή, a Οχλος, -ου, o, a mul

τους μνας. 7. Προσβλεπομεν τους νεκνας. 8. Η γη φερει πολλας αμπελους. Αληθεια, s, ή, truth. female servant. titude, crowd.

9. ο θεος βασιλευει των ιχθυων και βατραχων. 'Ανούς, -ούν (α, ηοί, Και--και, both. Προσφερω, I carry, I and νοος), unintel- Κανεον, -ου, το,

EXERCISE 45.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

bring to. ligent, senseless. small basket. Συν, with.

1. Wantonness produces outrage. 2. Many are our comrades in

3. Wealth sets men free Αρτος, -ου, ο, bread. | Κατοπτρον, -ου, το, Τεγεα, ας, ή, Tegea, eating and drinking, but few in a good work.

from scarcity and want. Δηλος, , -ον, known, a mirror.

4. Follow your nature. 5. The passions of the a city in Arcadia.

body produce wars, and insurrecticns, and battles. 6. The magisevident, clear. Κυπελλον, -ου, το, α| Τεκνον, -ου, το,

trates are the guardians of the laws in a city. 7. O citizens, keep Εκκαλυπτω, I on- goblet.

child. .

away from sedition. 8. O men, desire good deeds. 9. The natures Λεγω, I

say,

Iname. Yπνος, -ου, ο, sleep. of men differ. 10. Many evils spring from arrogance. 11. The gifts of Επικουφιζω,I lighten. Nούς, -ου, o, the un- Χαλινος, -ου, 6, 8 a bad man bring no gain. 12. Character and wealth without wisdom Εριζω, I contend,I derstanding, the bridle, rein. are not safe possessions. 13. The fruits of the fig-tree are sweet. am in strife with mind, the soul. Χαλκεος, -έα,

14. The possessions of virtue alone are secure. 15. Many cities have

walls. .
Ολιγος, , -ον,
few. . brazen, made of

16. The towers of the city are strong. 17. The towers are an Ευνούς, -ουν, well- Oργη, -ης, ή, anger. brass.

ornament to the city. disposed, benevo-| Ορεστης, -ον, 8, Yuxn (Eng., Psyche),

EXERCISE 46.- ENGLISH-GREEK. lent. Orestes. . ης, ή, the soul. 1. Ο πλουτος λυει σπανεως. 2. Ημιν εισι φιλοι εν

ποσει και βρωσει, αλλ'

4. EXERCISE 51.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

3. Εν τη πολει ο βασιλευς εστι φυλαξ των νομων.

Πιθου, ω νεανια, τοις εν τελει. 5. Ω παι, ορεγου των καλων. 6. Κτησις της 1. Λογος κατοπτρον εστι του νου. 2. Τον νούν εχουσιν οι ανθρωποι διδασκαλoν. 3. Τον ευνούν φιλον θεραπευε. 4. Οι αγαθοι φερουσν τιμην τα αστει.

αρετης εστι μονη βεβαια. 7. Το αστει εισι πολλοι πυργοι. 8. Αγαθοι νομοι

9. “Επου τη φυσει. 10. Οι στρατιωται μάχονται φιλοι πιστον νούν εχουσιν. 5. Ο πλούς εστιν αδηλος τους ναυταις. επι τη σωτηρία της πολεως. 11, Ω πολιτη, φευγε στασιν.

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ουκ εν τοις κακοίς.

LESSONS IN DRAWING.-XXII.

the forehead in the other, with reference to the angles formed

by all these lines respectively. Although we are at present THE HUMAN FIGURE (continued).

attempting only a profile, yet with some additional remarks We now propose to give our pupils some practical instruction (to be made presently), this method of commencing the outin the method of drawing the figure, and hope that from the line may be applied to any other view of the face, full or directions given in former lessons on this portion of our subject three-quarters. We will, then, begin from a, and mark in the they will be prepared to accompany us with full confidence as distance to b, observing the inclination ; join these two points we proceed. They will perceive that all we have said through. by a straight line; from b drop a perpendicular line to f, out this course respecting the treatment of curved lines, dis- arrange the distance fe, and join be by a straight line ; from tances, and especially the angles formed by the meeting of lines, a mark the distance and inclination a c. It will be noticed whether curved or straight, have a particular importance here. that the nose rises in the middle at d; observe the distance The rules of proportion, and the anatomical knowledge pre- of d from b, and also from e, and how far it departs from the viously acquired, must now be called into service; and we straight line be; join bd and d e by other straight lines ; trust that the principles we have given upon the theory of treat the points g, h, and all other extremities of lines, in the the figure will have been carefülly studied, so that the con- same way. When the whole is satisfactorily arranged, faint fidence hoped for may be well supported by the knowledge it, and carefully, with the points and lines as guides, draw the obtained; afterwards we feel assured the road will be easy, contours of each curve through the points, as in Fig. 134. and the practice pleasant. We have found from experience We recommend our pupils to copy this example three or four that the readiest way for beginners to understand quickly times, and then apply these principles of working to Fig. 135. how the arrangement of curved lines in conjunction may be It will be quite unnecessary to repeat the details of this pro

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best effected, is to treat them, whilst arranging the drawing, cess for each figure, as we trust there can be no difficulty if first as straight lines, or as a succession of straight lines in the the pupil will be particular in placing a point to determine every course of the curve, with reference to their lengths, and to the angle as he proceeds-or, in another sense, whenever the outline extent and flexure of the curve. Observe how the curved lines alters its course — and on no account attempt the drawina in Fig. 134 are first represented by straight lines in Fig. 133. until this scaffolding of straight lines is completed. The ad

Now, although the object of the pupil is to make a finished vantage of this method of arranging the drawing will be evidrawing as in Fig. 134, yet he must first put it together as dent after very little practice. In studying the contours of shown in Fig. 133. By this method he will not only obtain a the curves, almost the same remarks we made upon a former close resemblance to the general contour of the line, but also he occasion (Lesson XII.), respecting the management of halfwill more clearly understand the character and intention of the tints, and the amount of ability and observation necessary in curves in connection with each other, as well as their positions, order to do them justice, are applicable here. Our present letting alone the labour saved, and the facility it ensures. Here subject relates to form, the lesson we refer to relates to colour, is the first, and probably the most important step in the executive and light, and shade; yet the same degree of perception and part of the drawing, wherein most of the difficulties are found due appreciation of the delicacy of tone and tint is required that so frequently discourage beginners, and cause them to with respect to the delicacy of form. The slightest morebreak down at the outset. Now, to prevent the occurrence of ment of a muscle changes the outline, and although it may anything so disheartening, let us dwell upon this for a few be even so trivial that the uneducated eye may not perceive moments, and endeavour, with minute explanation on our it, yet it is the aim and desire of the true artist to mark the part, and the close attention of our pupils, to go through fact, and introduce those changes in the outline which are the construction of the subject (Fig. 133). It is advisable known to be subject to laws depending upon the movements generally to commence from the bridge of the nose, for when of the body, and the disposition and manner in which the the position of this part of the face is settled, we can then muscles approach or overlap each other. He who can realise better determine the line of the nose in one direction, and the changes in the contour of the body and its parts, and

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