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specimens of wild plants and pre
jects behind them: this rule may serve them in water; or, what is
be applied to all objects, regardbetter when practicable, take
less of their size or form. The them up bodily with the roots
strength of the shadows must be and plant them in pots. From
allowed to be an important consithese, separate and careful stu
deration. Our pupils will rememdies may be made, which will
ber the observation, that near the prove to be an excellent prepara
highest lights are the darkest tion for more extensive practice
shadows; so, for example, should when drawing them collectively
the light fall strongly upon the in their natural state, as seen on
leaves of a plant, the shadows the common, under the hedges,
beneath them will bear the same or in shady lanes. We cannot
proportion of depth, and those here refrain from expressing re
leaves which receive less light gret that we are limited in these
will have less strength in their lessons to form only, since so
shadows. Whilst we recommend much is gained by colour in the
our pupils to make close copies general effect of ground plants.
of plants separately, in order to If we reflect for a moment upon
obtain a knowledge of their conthe infinite variety of growth they
struction and character, we are exhibit upon the flowers whose
not advising them to make bobrilliant colours, blue, red-and
tanical studies, but art studies ; yellow, and sparkling white
this procedure will be all that is crop up from amongst greens of
necessary to obtain a practical acevery hoe, we must confess that
quaintance with their forms, and we should be very glad, were it
will enable our students to reprepossible, if we could take up
sent them with greater skill and the palette as well as the pencil,
freedom, which is of such great and by introducing our pupils
importance when grouping plants to these additional charms, give
in a landscape. The work then them another sengation besides
will be in the end pleasing and that which is produced by form
Fig. 106. satisfactory, because it is truthonly; but, even if this were prac
ful; otherwise, when less attenticable, we must withstand the
tion is paid to particular details, temptation to turn aside from the path we are pursuing, which and a slovenly manner is employed, it is sure to terminate in leads to a point where form and colour meet and help to perfect confusion and failure. Mr. Burnet, in his work on Landscape each other by their union; for if we must maintain that form Painting, says, "To begin with the foreground, as being that without colour is less satisfactory, it is, nevertheless, expressive; part of the landscape nearest the eye, it is necessary, therefore, bat colour
that it should without form,
receive all however beau
those qualities tiful the ar.
conducive to rangement
its situationmay be, con
such as detail, Teys no mean
breadth, and ing, and pre
largeness of sents nothing
parts." In whereby to
contrast to characterise it.
this, the same In the prac
writer says, tice of draw.
“In the early ing foreground
stages of the herbage,
art, the minuwriter on art
tiæ of indivi. observes" that
dual plants the edges of
and flowers вeтeral
carried more advanc.
to the highest ing leaves
pitch of must be made
absurdity; sharp and de
not only is the cisire against
whole ground the ground,
of these picwhilst those
tures inlaid that retire
with endless may have less
specimens of opposition ;
botanic scruthis will assist
the interventive," and they
ing spaces are will acquire &
filled with more receding
reptiles and character by
insects, as if slightly toning
the lives of down or blend
the artists ingthe remoter
Fig. 107. had been of parts with the
antediluground or ob
LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXVIII. soldat? 24. Je ne lui ai rien donné. 25. Pendant son séjour à
B., nous lui donnâmes tout ce qu'il voulut. SECTION L.—THE PAST DEFINITE [$ 120]. 1. THE past definite may be called the narrative or historical
EXERCISE 96. tense of the French. It is used to express an action entirely 1. What did you receive last week ? 2. We received fifty past, definite and complete in itself. The time must be specified, francs from your friend, and twenty-five from your brother. 3. and every portion of it must be elapsed. Some time at least Did you take your son to church with you yesterday ? 4. I should have occurred since the action took place.
did not take him there (y). 5. What did you lose last year? Mon frère partit hier pour Paris, My brother left yesterday for Paris.
6. We lost our money, our clothes, and our horses. 7. Have 2. The student will bear in mind that the past indefinite you looked (cherchés) for them? 8. I looked for them, but did
not find them. 9. Did they speak of your brother yesterday? [Sect. XL.] may be used for the past definite. The past definite, 10. They spoke of him and of you. 11. What did the physician however, may never be used for the indefinite. In conversation the indefinite is often preferred to the definite, as the latter give you ? 12. He gave me nothing. 13. At what hour did
your sister rise yesterday? 14. She rose at five o'clock. 15. would at times appear too formal ($ 121 (3)]. 3. The past definite may generally be rendered in English by six. 17. Has your cousin sold all his property? 18. He has
Did you rise early this morning? 16. We rose at half-past the simple form of the imperfect, or by the same tense conju- not sold it, he has given it to his eldest sister. 19. Has the gated with did. The past definite can never be rendered in traveller related his adventures to you? 20. He related them English by the participle present of the verb preceded by was.
to me. 21. Did that man try (cherché) to speak to your father? J'allai à l'église hier matin, I went or did go to church yesterday 22. He tried to speak to him. 23. Did the professor speak of
your brother during his stay at your house ? 24. He spoke of 4. TERMINATIONS OF THE PAST DEFINITE OF THE FOUR him. 25. Has your friend worn his new coat? 26. He has CONJUGATIONS. [See Sect. XXII., and $ 60.]
not worn it yet. 27. Have you thanked your brother ? 28. I chant -ai fin
have thanked him. 29. What have you given to your eldest
sister? 30. I have given her nothing, I have nothing to give parl chér
aperç-us vend -is, her. 31. When your brother gave you a book last year, did spokest cherishedst perceivedst soldest.
you thank him ? 32. I did not thank him. 33. Is it late ? n
perc -ut tend -it. 34. It is not late, it is only six. 35. Is it fine weather or bad gare furnished gathered tended.
weather ? 36. It is very fine weather. Nous cherch -âmes
SECTION LI.-THE PAST DEFINITE OF IRREGULAR port -âtes
1. The terminations of the past definite of irregular verbs aim -èrent
-irent déç -urent mord -irent.
are seldom arbitrary, * but an irregular verb of one conjugation
will sometimes, in this tense, assume the terminations of another 5. It will be seen that the terminations of the second and fourth conjugation. In a few instances the stem (Sect. XXII.) of the conjugations are alike.
verb is entirely changed. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Avoir, to have. ÊTRE, to be. VOIR, to see. LIRE, to read. On nous parla de vous hier. They spoke to us of you yesterday. Le banquier nous donna de l'argent The banker gave
US money last Tu
f-us l'année dernière. year.
f-ut Le banquier nous a donné de l'ar. The banker has given us money. Nous e-umes
1 -úmes, gent.
1 -utes. Le professeur nous parla de vous The professor spoke to us about you
1 -urent. l'année dernière. Il nous a parlé de ses amis et des He spoke to us of his friends and of new stem, e-us, f-us; être and lire, though belonging to the fourth
2. Avoir and être, it will be perceived, take in this tense : nôtres. Pendant notre voyage il nous ra. During our journey he related to us
conjugation, take the terminations of the third; and voir, & verb conta ses aventures.
of the third, takes the terminations of the fourth. Il nous a raconté l'histoire de sa He related to us the history of his 3. In other instances, the stem of the verb drops some of its vie.
letters, and sometimes adopts others. This may be seen in the VOCABULARY.
verbs Ainé, -e, elder, eldest. Se lev-er, 1, ref., to Propriétés, f. pl., pro
PRENDRE, CRAINDRE, ConxATRE, CONDCIRE, Avec, with,
to take. to fear. to know. to conduct. Se couch-er, 1, ref., to Lorsque, when.
conduis -is. go to bed. Neuf, -ve, new, Séjour, m., stay.
conduis -is. Dernier, -e, last. Ordinairement, gene- Semaine, f., week.
craign -it conn -ut conduis -it. S'échapp-er, 1, ref., to rally.
Nous vinmes pr -imes craign -îmes conn -úmes conduis imes. escape. Pendant, during. Tard, late,
Vous y intes
pr -ites craign -ites conn -ûtes conduis -ites. Habillement, m., dress. Pri-er, 1, to beg. Trop tôt, too soon.
Ils vinrent pr -irent craign -irent conn -urent conduis -irent. EXERCISE 95.
4. Like venir, are conjugated all verbs ending in enir; like 1. Le banquier reçut-il beaucoup d'argent la semaine dernière? and uire; and like prendre, those composed of this verb and a
craindre, connaître, and conduire, those ending in indre, aitre, 2. Il en reçut beaucoup. 3. Aussitôt que vous aperçûtes votre frère, ne lui parlâtes-vons pas ? 4. Dès que je l'aperçus, je lui prefix,
as comprendre, surprendre, etc. parlai. 5. Avez-vous déjà porté vos habillements neufs ? 6. irregular verbs, & 62, for those tenses of the irregular verbs
5. We would at all times refer the student to the table of Je ne les ai pas encore portés. 7. Quand il vous donna de with which he is not familiar. l'argent hier, le remerciâtes-vous ? 8. Je le remerciai et je le priai de vous remercier. 9. Avez-vous trouvé vos livres ? 10.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Je ne les ai pas encore trouvés. 1!. Lorsque vous vîntes nous Ne conduisites-vous point votre Did you not take your son to S12* voir ne finîtes-vous pas vos affaires avec mon père ? 12. Je les fils en Espagne l'année dernière ? last year? finis alors et je le payai. 13. N'avez-vous pas vu votre saur Je l'y conduisis et je l'y laissai. I took him there, and left him there. aînée pendant votre séjour à Lyon ? 14. Je ne l'ai pas vue. Aussitôt que vous vites votre frère, As soon as you saw your brother, did 15. Ne vous couchâtes-vous pas trop tôt hier au soir ? 16. Je
ne le reconnutes-vous pas ?
you not recognise him ! me couchai tard. 17. À quelle heure vous êtes-vous levé ce
Je le reconnus aussitôt que je I recognised him as soon as matin ? 18. Je me suis levé à cinq heures ; je me lève ordi- Le pharmacien ne vint-il pas vous Did not the apothecary come to *
ceived him, nairement de bonne heure. 19. Ne cherchâtes-vous pas à vous
voir ? échapper de votre prison l'année dernière ? 20. Je n'ai jamais
you ! cherché à m'échapper. 21. Avez-vous vendn vos propriétés ? This termination is arbitrary only in verbs ending in enir, ia which 22. Je ne les ai pas vendues. 23. Qu'avez-vous donné au an n comes after the i of the termination ; vinmes, tínmes, etc.
Il vint me voir ; il fut bien étonné He came to see me; ho was much d'argent et le porte-crayon d'or. 12. A-t-elle la robe de satin ? 13. de trouver chez moi un de ses astonished to find one of his old La scur du médecin a la robe de satin. 14. Qui a le bois ? 15. Le anciens amis. friends at my house.
frère du charpentier a le bois. 16. Avez-vous les bas de laine ? Ne prites-vous pas congé de vos Did you not take leave of your friends 17. Non, Monsieur, j'ai les bas de coton." 18. Qui a le pain du amis hier? yesterday !
1. ulanger? 19. Nous avons le pain du boulanger et la farine du Je nris congé d'eux, et je les priai I took leave of them, and begged them meunier. 20. Avons-nous le foin du cheval? 21. Vous avez l'avoine de m'écrire. to write to me.
du cheval. 22. Avons-nous le chapeau de soie du tailleur ? 23. Oui, VOCABULARY.
Monsieur, vous avez le chapeau de soie du tailleur et le soulier de cuir du cordonnier. 24. Avez-vous le soulier de drap de la sœur du
médecin ? Accompagn-er, 1, to De mon mieux, as well Histoire, f., history.
25. Non, Madame, j'ai la robe de soie de la dame.
EXERCISE 5 (Vol. I., page 20).
1. Have you some (or any) meat ? 2. Yes, Sir, I have a pound of Arrivée, f., arrival. Dès que, as soon as. Notaire, m., notary. meat. 3. Has your son a piece of bread ? 4. Yes, Madam, he has a Attend-re, 4, to wait for. Ecolier, m., scholar. Peintre, m., painter. piece of bread. 5. Has the bookseller a book? 6. He has ink and Au secours, to the as. S'ennuy-er, 1, pec., to Sans, without.
paper. 7. Has your sister a gold watch? 8. She has a gold watch sistance. become weary.
Secour-ir, 2, ir., to suc- and a silver thimble. 9. Has the baker wine or beer? 10. The baker Congé, m., leave. Se hát-er, 1, ref., to cour'.
has tea and coffee. 11. Has your brother cheese? 12. He has cheese Cour-ir, 2, ir., to run. haston.
and butter. 13. Has the lady a silver spoon? 11. The lady has a
fork and silver spoon. 15. Has the butcher any meat to-day? 16. EXERCISE 97.
Yes, Sir, he has a piece of beef, 17. Has the carpenter a table? 18.
19. Have you the physician's 1. Nos écoliers s'ennuyèrent-ils hier d'attendre si longtemps ? Yes, Sir, he has a mahogany table.
21. Who has 2. Is furent obligés d'attendre si longtemps, qu'à la fin ils per- coffee and sugar? 22. The grocer has coffee and sugar,
book? 20. No, Madam, but I have your sister's book.
23, Has the dirent patience. 3. Ne reçûtes-vous point votre parent amicale- bookseller's sister a glove! 24. No, Sir, but she has a book. 25. Has ment lorsqu'il vint vous voir ? 4. Je le reçus de mon mieux. she a steel pen? 26. No, Sir, she has a gold pen. 27. You have the 5. Ne lates-vous pas la lettre de votre frère avant-hier ? 6. Je physician's pencil-case. la lus et je l'envoyai à mon oncle. 7. Ne courûtes-vous pas au
EXERCISE 6 (Vol. I., page 20). secours de votre frère aussitôt que vous le vîtes en danger ? 8. Je me hâtai de le secourir. 9. Ne vous êtes-vous pas dépêchés 1. Avez-vous du thé ? 2. Oui, Madame, j'ai une livre de thé. 2. de venir ? 10. Nous nous sommes dépêchés. 11. Aussitôt que Qui a du pain? 4. Le boulanger a du pain, du beurre, et du fromage. vous eûtes aperçu mon frère, ne m'informâtes-vous pas de son
5. Le tailleur a-t-il du drap? 6. Le tailleur a un morceau de drap. arrivée ? 12. Je vous en informai. 13. À quelle heure votre 7. Le médecin a-t-il de l'or? 8. Oui, Monsieur, le médecin a de l'or sceur est-elle venue aujourd'hui ? 14. Elle est venue à midi. Mademoiselle, la dame a une montre d'argent et une plume d'or. 11.
et de l'argent. 9. La dame a-t-elle une montre d'argent? 10. Oui, 15. Vos compagnons vinrent-ils hier vous prier de les accom
Votre sæur a-t-elle de la soie ? 12. Oui, Monsieur, elle a de la soie pagner? 16. Ils vinrent me voir, mais ils me quittèrent sans et du coton. 13. Avez-vous un couteau ! 14. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai un me parler de leur voyage. 17. Ne peignîtes-vous pas un tableau couteau d'acier et un fourchette d'argent. 15. Avez-vous de la viande l'année dernière ? 18. Je peignis un tableau d'histoire. 19. aujourd'hui, Monsieur? 16. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai un morceau de bouf. Le peintre italien a-t-il fini son portrait ? 20. Il le finit hier. 17. Votre charpentier a-t-il une table d'acajou! 18. Oui, Monsieur, 21. Il l'a fini ce matin. 22. Dès que j'eus reçu cette nouvelle, il a une table d'acajou ? 19. Votre sæur a-t-elle un gant? 20. Oui,
21. Le fils du libraire a-t-il un j'envoyai chercher le notaire. 23. Ce jeune homme a-t-il pris Monsieur, ma scur a un gant de soie. congé de son père? 24. Il a pris congé de lui. 25. Il prit congé porte-crayon d'or? 22. Oui, Monsieur, il a un porte-crayon d'or et
une plume d'acier. 23. Qui a la montre de votre seur? 24. Votre de lui hier.
frère a la montre d'or et le chapeau de soie. 25. Nous avons de l'or, EXERCISE 98.
de l'argent, et de l'acier. 1. Did the notary accompany you yesterday ? 2. He accom
EXERCISE 7 (Vol. I., page 20). panied me as far as (jusque chez) your brother's. 3. Did your companion take leave of you yesterday? 4. He took leave of
1. Has the hatter silk ? 2. The hatter has no silk, but he has velvet,
3. Has he cotton velvet? 4. No, Sir, he has no cotton velvet, he has me this morning. 5. Did you read yesterday the book which
silk velvet. I have lent you ? 6. I read it the day before yesterday (avant. physician has no money.
5. Have you meat? 6. Yes, Sir, I have meat. 7. The
8. Who has money! 9. The merchant kas hier). 7. At what time did the painter come this morning ? no money, but he has cloth, velvet, and silk. 10. Have you anything ? 8. He came at half-past nine. 9. Has he finished your father's 11. No, Sir, I have nothing at all. 12. Has the tailor two silver but. portrait? 10. He painted all day yesterday, but the portrait tons? 13. No, sir, he has two silk buttons, 14. Who has your dog? is not yet finished. 11. Did you not run to your father's relief
15. The neighbour has my cousin's dog, 16. Has he not your horse when you saw him in danger ? 12. I hastened to succour him. also ? 17. No, Sir, he has your friend's horse. 18. Have you the 13. What did you do when you came? 14. As soon as I came
history of France? 19. No, Madam, I have neither the history of I sent for my brother. 15. Did you take your sister to Germany
France nor the history of England. 20. Have you peither the book
nor the paper? 21. No, Miss, I have neither the one nor the other. last year? 16. I took her there this year. 17. Did you take 22. Who has paper? 23. The bookseller has no paper. 24. Has any Four children to school yesterday? 18. I took them to my one a book ? 25. No one has a book. brother's. 19. Do you paint an historical picture ?
20. I painted last year an historical picture. 21. Did your sister beg
EXERCISE 8 (Vol. I., page 21). you to accompany her? 22. She begged me to accompany her. 1. Le boulanger a-t-il du velours ? 2. Non, Monsieur, le boulanger 23. Did you send for the notary as soon as you heard from your n'a pas de velours. 3. Qui a du velours de soie ? 4. Le chapelier a father? 24. I sent for him. 25. When did the notary take du velours de soie et un chapeau de soie. 5. Avez-vous deux boutons leave of you ? 26. He took leave of me this morning at nine. d'argent? 6. Non, Monsieur, j'ai un habit de drap, un chapeau de 27. Has the apothecary finished his letter? 28. He has not yet soie, et un soulier de velours. 7. Votre voisin a t-il uno table de bois ? finished it. 29. Were you not astonished yesterday to see that histoire d'Angleterre ! 10. Non, Monsieur, il a une histoire de France.
8. Oui, Monsieur, il a une table d'acajou, 9. Votre cousin a-t-il une lady? 30. I was not astonished to see her. 31. Did you make 11. Je n'ai ni le drap, ni le velours. 12. Nous n'avons ni la viande ni haste to read your book last night (hier au soir)? 32. I made le café. 13. Quelqu'un a-t-il un livre ? 14. Votre cousin a un livre, haste to read it. 33. Have you finished it? 34. I have not un habit de velours, et un chapeau de soie. 15. Avez-vous le livre yet finished it.
du médecin ? 16. Oui, Madame, j'ai le livre du médecin, et la plume d'or de la dame. 17. Le marchand a-t-il du drap? 18. Le marchand
n'a pas de drap, mais il a de l'argent. 19. Qui a le chien de votre KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.
voisin? 20. Personne n'a le chien de mon voisin. 21. Quelqu'un a-t-il
mon livre ? 22. Personne n'a votre livre. 23. Le frère de votre cousin EXERCISE 4 (Vol. I., page 3).
a-t-il quelque chose ? 24. Non, Monsieur, il n'a rien. 25. Qui a le 1. Avez-vous le livre du tailleur ? 2. Non, Monsieur, j'ai la montre livre de votre ami ? 26. Votre frère a le livre de mon cousin. 27. A-t-il du médecin. 3. Qui a la montre d'or? 4. La dame a la montre d'or l'habit du tailleur ? 28. Il n'a pas l'habit du tailleur. 29. Nous n'avons et le porte-crayon d'argent. 5. Avez-vous le soulier du tailleur ? 6.
ni le drap ni la soie. J'ai le soulier de drap du tailleur. 7. Avons-nous la table de bois ?
EXERCISE 9 (Vol. I., page 43). & Oui, Monsieur, vous avez la table de bois. 9. Ont-ils le couteau d'argent ? 10. Ils ont le couteau d'argent. 11. La dame a le couteau 1. Who is sleepy? 2. My brother is hungry, but he is not sleepy.
3. Are you right or wrong? 4. I am right, I am not wrong. 5. Have called the square of that number. But the numbers 1, 4, 9, 16, you my brother's good gun? 6. I have not the gun. 7. Are you cold 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, etc., are the squares of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, to-day? 8. I am not cold; on the contrary, I am warm. 9. Have you 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, etc., because they are found by multiplying the good bread ? 10. I have no bread. 11. Are you not hungry? 12. I
latter numbers each by itself; and the fractions , , , , am neither hungry nor thirsty. 13. Are you ashamed? 14. I am neither ashamed nor afraid. 15. Have we pepper or salt? 16. You to st, etc., are called the reciprocals or inverses of the squares; have neither pepper nor salt. 17. What book have you ? 18. I have and ratio means the rate at which anything increases or de my cousin's book. 19. Have you the iron hammer or the silver creases; hence, the force of heat, or quantity of heat received hammer? 20. I have neither the iron hammer nor the silver ham. from a common fire, is in the ratio of the inverses of the squares mor, I have the tinman's wooden hammer. 21. Is anything the of the distances; or more shortly, in the inverse ratio of the matter with you? 22. Nothing is the matter with me. 23. Have squares of the distances. you the bookseller's large book ? 24. I have neither the book- This may be explained in another way still. Suppose A seller's large book, nor the joiner's small book; I have the captain's to be placed at 2 feet distance from the fire, and B at 3 feet good book.
distance; then B will receive less heat than A, not in the
ratio of 2 to 3, the numbers which represent their distances, LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XV. but in the ratio of 2 times 2 to 3 times 3, that is, of 4 to 9: in
other words, as 4 is contained 24 times in 9, so A will ASTRONOMICAL PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY.
receive 24 times more heat than B; and this is all that is In our last lesson we endeavoured to explain to our geographi- really meant by the phrase the inverse ratio of the squares of the cal students the nature of the motion of the earth round the distances. sun, and of its motion round its own axis. We there stated Having thus explained the law of the influence of heat upon the principle or law of attrac
two bodies, or any number of bodies tion in the language peculiar to
at different distances from the the science of astronomy, somewhat
source of heat, in the case of a modified and simplified; but as
common fire, we again observe that some of our readers may be entire
this law is equally true of the innovices, and may never have heard
fluence of light and of the influence or understood several of the terms
of attraction upon bodies at different we made use of, we shall in this
distances from the source of light lesson endeavour to make the sub
and of attraction. Thus we know ject clearer still.
and feel that the sun is the great First, then, as to the said law of
source of light and heat to this attraction: let us illustrate this, by
world of ours; and Astronomy a very familiar instance taken from
teaches us that it is also the source the heat of a common fire. Sup
of attraction, or of that power pose two persons, A and B, sitting
which has operated upon the earth at the same distance from the fire,
and the other planets, and which both in front of it-at least, the
continues still to operate upon one as much as the other; it
them, by causing them to revolve is plain that they would both feel
in elliptical orbits or paths round the same degree of heat; for,
that luminary, as explained in our whatever reason may be assigned
last lesson. to show that A received more
From the earliest ages up to the
MARS heat than B, the
time of Kepler, the planets (Greek, might be assigned to show that B
alamtns, pla-ne'-tees, a wanderer), received more heat than A ; there
or wandering stars so called in fore, they must both receive the
opposition to the fized stars, which
VENUS samo heat.
appear always to preserve the same Now, suppose that B removes to
relative distances from each other double the distance that he was at
were reckoned to be in number only when alongside of A, and that A
sic; and this number being ma. remains in the same place; it might
thematically perfect—that is, equal then be supposed that B would re
to the sum of all its factors, 1, 2, 3 ceive only half as much heat
-it was imagined that no more as he did before; or that A DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE RELATIVE POSITIONS, planets could exist, or could be erwas now enjoying double the
ETC., OF THE SUN, PLANETS, AND PLANETOIDS. pected to be found. Kepler, inheat which B was receiving in his
deed, inquired most earnestly thy new position. Such is not the case, however; for the degree | they were only six in number ; but Galileo, who first applied of heat does not diminish at the same rate that the distance the telescope to astronomy, opened a new door in the temple of increases, as you might expect at first sight; but it diminishes science, by the discovery of the four satellites of Jupiter, in at a much greater rate, and the question is how much greater? 1610, and led by this discovery to that of the other planeta Now, well-conducted and careful experiments in Natural at a later period, which put to flight all reasons why the Philosophy have proved that the heat received at the dis number of the planets should be limited to any given number. tances of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, etc., feet, is not } }, , , , }, };. He would be a bold man indeed now-a-days who would try to of the heat received at 1 foot ; but it is , a, a, i, o limit the number of the planets, seeing that so many have etc., of the heat received at 1 foot. So that B will receive at been discovered within these few years past. double the distance of A, only one-fourth of the heat which The six planets known from antiquity are the following :A receives ; at triple the distance, only one-ninth of the heat; Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Satur; no sateland so on.
lite was known from antiquity but the Moon. The first addiThe law of progression then is as follows:-Let the heat re- tion to the planets of the Solar System was Uranus, at first ceived at the distance of 1 foot be denoted by 1, then the heat called the Georgium Sidus (the Georgian Star), in honour of received at the distance of 2 feet will be represented by 1 King George III., by Sir William Herschel, who discovered it, divided by 2 times 2, ord; the heat received at the distance of March 13th, 1781. It was afterwards called Herschel, in honour 3 feet will be represented by 1 divided by 3 times 3, or $; the of the discoverer; but it is now called Uranus, because, for heat received at the distance of 4 feet will be represented by 1 sooth, Uranus was in the Greek mythology (the fables of divided by 4 times 4, or ; and so on.
the heathen gods) the father of Saturn! Uranus has eight Now, dividing 1 by any number gives a result which in satellites, of which six were discovered by Sir William Herschel.mathematics is called the reciprocal or inverse of that number; Of these, five have since been observed by other astronomers. and multiplying any number by itself gives a result which is The planet Neptune, the third in point of size of those that
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43
45 46 47 48 49
are yet known to form part of our Solar System, was discovered by Dr. Galle, of Berlin, September 23, 1846, in consequence of a letter received from Leverrier, of Paris, stating that he had calculated the position of a planet outside Uranus which would account for certain irregularities in the motion of that planet, hitherto unexplained, and indicating the part of the hearens in which it ought to be found. Neptune has two satellites. The credit of the discovery of the planet Neptune belongs to Leverrier and Galle, but it should be said that Mr. J. Couch Adams, of Cambridge, had also gone through a series of calcu. lations establishing the existence of this planet, and would have had the honour of being its discoverer, had the French astronomer been a little less prompt in giving publicity to the result of his calculations. By means of the calculations of Mr. Adams, Professor Challis, of Cambridge, also detected the planet simul. taneously with Dr. Galle. In 1859 a French physician named Lescarbault asserted that he had discovered a planet, to which he gave the name of Vulcan, moving in an orbit within that of Mercury. Leverrier was satisfied at the time that Lescarbault bad really lighted on a fresh member of our Solar System, but as no astronomer has yet been successful in detecting it a second time, it is supposed that Lescarbault was mistaken and that Lererrier gave credit to the supposed discovery because it satisfied an hypothesis he had formed, that a planet existed, moving between Mercury and the sun, and which would be at that time in that part of the heavens in which Lescarbault supposed he had found Vulcan.
At the close of the last century, and for some time prior to this, it was supposed that a planet, which had either escaped discovery or had disappeared from the Solar System, moved in an orbit between those of Mars and Jupiter, for reasons detailed at the close of this lesson. This suspicion was confirmed by the discovery of Ceres by a Sicilian astronomer named Piazzi, at Palermo, January 1, 1801, moving between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Further research has resulted in the discovery of nearly one hundred of these small planetary bodies having orbits near that of Ceres. These small planets are called planetoids or asteroids. They were at first supposed to be fragments of a shattered planet which once revolved round the sun between the orbits of Mary and Jupiter ; but this supposition has been proved to be antenable. The following is a list of the planetoids that have been discovered since the finding of Ceres, with the names of their discoverers and the dates and places of their discovery :LIST OF PLANETOIDS REVOLVING BETWEEN THE ORBITS OF
MARS AND JUPITER.
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88
Luther Atalanta Goldschmidt Leda
Chacornac Lætitia Chacornac Harmonia Goldschmidt Daphne Goldschmidt Isis
Pogson Ariadne Pogson Nysa
Goldschmidt Eugenia Goldschmidt Hestia Pogson Melete Goldschmidt Aglaia
Goldschmidt Virginia Ferguson Nemausa Laurent Europa Goldschmidt Calypso Luther Alexandra Goldschmidt Pandora Searle Mnemosyne Luther Concordia Luther Danaë
Goldschmidt Olympia Chacornac Erato
Ferguson Ausonia De Gasparis Angelina Tempel Cybele Tempel Maia
Tuttle Galatea Tempel Eurydice Peters Freia
D'Arrest Frigga Peters Diana
Luther Eurynome Watson Sappho
Pogson Terpsichore Tempel Alcmena Luther Beatrix De Gasparis Clio
Peters Semele Tietjen Sylvia Pogson Thisbe Peters
Oct. 26, 1854. Paris
Oct. 28, 1854. Paris
April 6, 1855. Bilk
April 19, 1855. Bilk
Oct. 5, 1855. Paris
Oct. 5, 1855. Paris
Jan. 12, 1856. Paris
Feb. 8, 1856. Paris
Mar, 31, 1856. Paris
May 22, 1856. Oxford
May 23, 1856. Oxford
April 15, 1857. Paris
May 27, 1857. Paris
June 28, 1857. Oxford
Aug. 16, 1857. Paris
Sep. 9, 1857. Bilk
Sep. 15, 1857. Paris
Sep. 19, 1857. Paris
Sep. 19, 1857. Washington Oct. 4, 1857. Marseilles
Jan. 22, 1858. Paris
Feb. 6, 1858. Bilk
April 4, 1858. Paris
Sep. 10, 1858. Albany, U.S. Sep. 10, 1858. Bilk
Sep, 22, 1859. Bilk
Mar. 4, 1860. Paris
Sep. 9, 1860. Paris
Sep. 12, 1860. Berlin
Sep. 14, 1860. Washington Sep. 14, 1860. Naples
Feb. 10, 1861. Marseilles
Mar. 4, 1861. Marseilles
Mar. 8, 1861. Cambridge, U.S. April 9, 1861. Madras, U.S. April 17, 1861. Milan
April 29, 1861. Bilk
April 29, 1861. Paris
May 5, 1861. Clinton, U.S. May 29, 1861. Bilk
June 13, 1861. Cambridge, U.S. April 7, 1862. Marseilles
Aug. 30, 1862. Clinton, U.S. Sep. 22, 1862. Copenhagen Oct. 21, 1862. Clinton, U.S. Nov, 15, 1862. Bilk
Mar, 1, 1863. Ann Arbor, U.S. Sep. 14, 1863. Madras, U.S. May 2, 1864. Marseilles
Sep. 30, 1864. Bilk
Nov. 27, 1864. Naples
April 26, 1865. Bilk
Aug. 25, 1865. Clinton, U.S. Sep. 19, 1865. Berlin
Jan. 4, 1866. Madras, U.S. May 17, 1866. Clinton, U.S. June 15, 1866. Marseilles
Aug. 6, 1866. Bilk
Oct. 1, 1866. Marseilles
Nov. 4, 1866. Clinton, U.S. July 7, 1867. Ann Arbor, U.S. Aug. 24, 1867. Ann Arbor, U.S. Sep. 6, 1867. Bilk
Nov. 23, 1867. Marseilles
Feb. 1868. Marseilles
Graham 10 Hygeia
De Gasparis 11 Parthenope De Gasparis 12 Victoria Hind 13 Egeria
De Gasparis 14 Irene
Hind 15 Eunomia De Gasparis 16 Payche
De Gasparis 17 Thetis
Luther 18 Melpomene
Hind 19 Fortuna Hind 20 Massalia De Gasparis Lutetia
Goldschmidt 22 Calliope
Hind 23 Thalia
Hind Themis De Gasparis 25 Phocea
Chacornac 26 Proserpine
Luther 87 Euterpe
Hind 28 Bellona
Luther 29 Amphitrite
Marth 30 Urania
Hind 31 Euphrosyne ! Ferguson
Jan. 1, 1801. Mar. 28, 1802. Sep. 1, 1804. Mar. 29, 1807. Dec. 8, 1845. July 1, 1847. Aug. 13, 1847. Oct. 18, 1847. April 25, 1848. April 12, 1849. May 11, 1850. Sep. 13, 1850. Nov. 2, 1850. May 19, 1851. July 29, 1851. Mar. 17, 1852. April 17, 1852. June 24, 1852. Aug. 22, 1852. Sep. 19, 1852. Nov. 15, 1852. Nov. 16, 1852 Dec. 15, 1852 April 5, 1853. April 6, 1853. May 5, 1853. Nov. 8, 1853. Mar. 1, 1854. Mar. 1, 1854. July 2, 1854. Sep. 1, 1851.
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
The additions made to the satellites of the planets since the discovery of those of Jupiter and the ring of Saturn by Galileo, are the following :-M. Huygens discovered one of Saturn's satellites in 1665; M. Cassini, four, between 1671 and 1685; Sir W. Herschel, two, between 1787 and 1789; and Messrs. Lassell and Bond, one, September 19th, 1847; making in all eight satellites for Saturn. Mr. Lassell has discovered satellites belonging to Neptune; it is also supposed that this planet possesses a ring like Saturn.
The following is a table of the principal planets of the solar system ; their approximate moan