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Cuvier divided the animal kingdom into four sub-kingdoms, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.—II.

as follows:





The three higher divisions remain very much as he constituted The main divisions of the animal kingdom, called sub-kingdoms them. There could be no higher testimony to the value of these or branches, were first established on anything approaching than this, that all the multitude of higher animals that have a scientific basis by the great Baron von Cuvier. Previous been discovered or examined since his time fall naturally under classifiers had endeavoured to mark out these divisions by one or other of his divisions. Cuvier himself assigned some differences in some one organ or system of organs. The system animals to the wrong branch, yet when the error was discovered which was generally made use of, as producing the most natural it did not necessitate the formation of a new system, but merely classification, was that of the organs of circulation of the blood, a transferenc from one branch to another; and this proves conor the nutritive fluid which answered to the blood. The classifi- clusively that the classification was not an artificial system cation of animals according to the structure of their hearts, fitted on to his knowledge, which, though wide, was of course blood vessels, etc., was perhaps as good as any founded on any limited, but was a recognition of the fundamental plan of one system of organs. At least, our great anatomist, Hunter, nature.



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INTERNAL ORGANS. IV. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF LOBSTER, EXHIBITED AT THE LINE a b. Refs. to Nos. in Figs. I., II., III., IV.-1, heart; 2, nervous system; 8, brain ; 4. alimentary canal; 5, vertebral column; 6, sympathetic

nervous system. who had carefully examined all the systems of organs of animals The lowest of these branches, designated Radiata, has not in relation to their use in classifying, thought so. It now, how maintained its ground as the others have, for the following ever, seems to be laid down as a rule that it will not do to rely reasons. Many of the animals assigned to this branch are on any one character in classification. If a classification be microscopic, and had been but little examined, and Cuvier made in dependence on the modifications of but one organ, it is founded his branch on the plan of structure exhibited by some sure to be an unnatural one. If, on the contrary, it can be of the more conspicuous animals, such as the star-fish, and he stated that any group of animals is distinguished from the rest assumed that all the lower animals conformed to that plan of by peculiarities in two or more systems of organs, that group is structure. This, however, has been found not to be the fact. sure to be a natural one. Cuvier was more successful than his Nor was the definition of this branch good as far as it went, predecessors, not so much because he had any better key by since it was founded on one peculiarity alone, namely, the plan which to interpret the animal kingdom, as because he relied on of structure. In fact, however derogatory the admission may 20. key, but trusting to his wide knowledge of the structure of be to the great anatomist, we are compelled to admit that his animals, and to his sagacious perception of what similitudes or sub-kingdom Radiata stands in the same relation to the rest of differences were fundamental and what were unimportant, he his admirable system, as the untidy lumber-room-which genemade a classification which recognised the plan of structure of rally exists in even a well-ordered house, and into which everyeach animal as a whole, that is, as made up of the sum of its thing which has no definite place of its own is thrown-does to organs. The difficulties attending such a method are far greater, the rest of the establishment. Most of us who make natural the definitions of the branches thus formed are less simple and history collections of any kind, have in our cabinets a spare precise, than those of the former mothods, but the results drawer, into which specimens we have not had time to examine hare the merit of being true to nature, and therefore stable. or to name, or whose place in the collection we are doubtful VOL. II.



comes a

about, are placed. The contents of such a drawer are the tubes, and which are wielded from within. Further, there is a measure of our ignorance, and when we are particularly fresh manifest tendency for each segment of the body to have a pair

or have much leisure, we open it with a confident of limbs. Thus, beginning from behind, we find on the last med in that a pavi ant study of its contents will lead us to a segment the limbs are not doveloped, but only indicated; bat ir knowledge, and a truer and more complete arrangement on the next they form the side lobes of the tail, and are the main i sin drawer is Cavier's branch Radiata, and men who have felt instruments by which the lobster darts rapidly backward when that Cuvier had forostalled all other anatomists in the arrange alarmed. The next four segments have each paired limbs, conment of the higher animals into their main divisions, have been sisting of two small fringed plates set at the end of a joint, and able to solace themselves by re-arranging the hoterogeneous with them the lobster paddles quietly forward. Th number of animals for which the star-fish and sea-urchin stood segment with a pair of limbs composed of two joints, used for as the representatives in the mind of Cuvier.

other necessary purposes. Then under the great shield are the Inasmuch as we must dismiss this branch Radiata from our walking limbs, all many-jointed. Two pairs with one claw are system, and shall not be able to recur to it again, as ve must preceded by two more terminated by small pinoers ; then come to the other branches, it is, perhaps, as well that w. should the formidable claws. Next come the foot-jaws and jawa. explain the character on which it was founded. Cuvier observed There are six pairs of these, placed closely one over the other, that while some of the higher animals have their two sides alike, beneath the mouth; they cannot be seen in the engraving. yet they could be split down the middle in one direction only, so Then come the pair of longer feelers, the shorter feelers, and as to leave two exactly similar halves. Thus, if one of us were finally the jointed eye-stalks. Thus each of the twenty-one seg. divided from the crown of the head vertically downward, so ments of which the lobster's integument is supposed to consist that the division passed through the mid-line of the back and has a pair of well-developed limbs, with the exception of the also of the breast, we should be divided into vivo like halves; last. but if the vertical division were made in any other direction, the How utterly different is the locomotive apparatus of the fish! two halves, though they might be equal, would certainly be not The necessary hard parts upon which the muscles must play are alike. If, on the other hand, a star-fish be placed flat on a nowhere to be found on the outside. They are situated intertable, it may be bisected in more than one direction, and the nally. Running through the centre of the body from snout to halves would be alike. Indeed, if we wanted to divide it into tail is a bony column or axis. This axis consists of pieces like portions, we should naturally cut it into five or tea or more which are so closely united end to end that they support one segments, beginning from the contre, and cutting outwards. The ' another, bat are capable of a slight motion on one another, so organs are not paired on each side of one plane, but arranged that the back-bone which they form can be bent and slightly like the spokes of a wheel in diverging directions from a central twisted. This back-bone, ending forward in the base of the axis. This plan of structure was therefore considered as the skull, is the main part of the hard skeleton which affords attachtype of the branch Ladiata, a radius meaning a line drawn from ment to the muscles which move the limbs. In this case the the centre to the circumference of a circle. If this radial tendency of each segment of the internal skeleton to produce arrangement of organs had been universal throughout this sub limbs is so little marked, that there are not more than two kingdom, and were found in no other; this would have formed a pairs of paired limbs in all; and throughout this large subwell-marked division, but it is not so. Some of the organs of kingdom, which includes brutes, birds, reptiles, and fish, there higher animals have an apparent radial arrangement, as, for are never more than this number found, though sometimes there instance, the hooklets by which intestinal worms fix themselves. is but one pair, and sometimes none at all. These limbs are not In so-called radiate animals there is generally a two-sided jointed hard tubes, pulled and mored by muscles running up the arrangement to be found. Thus, while the arms of the sea- inside of them, but they are supported by bony levers, while tho anemone are radial, stretching away on all sides, its mouth has muscles act on them externally. two lips and two corners. The common purple-tipped sea- Passing on to the other systems of internal organs, we find 2 hedgehog (echinus) is in outward form a typical radiate, but its marked difference in the arrangement of the nervous, alimentary near ally, the heart-urchin, is almost as two-sided as ourselves. (food), and blood circulatory systems, in relation to one other. We therefore reject this sub-kingdom, and substitute others in In the lobster the nervous system consists of a double series its stead, as will be seen in the sequel.

of rounded masses called ganglions, which commence with two Instead of at once enumerating the numbers of sub-kingdoms lying side by side (though partially united together) above the of the animal kingdom, and appending to each a dry catalogue mouth, and in connection with the eyes, antennæ (feelers), etc. of the characters upon which they are formed, it is, perhaps, From these two cords stretch back, one running on each side better to induce the reader

to exa’nine two animals belonging to the mouth or throat, to another double ganglion, and from this two different branches for himself, so that he may remark the cords pass back which unite the remaining nervous masses toge. essential differences in structure which they manifest. Suppose, ther, all of which

lie in a series along the floor of the tabalar then, he procure a prawn and a stickleback, or, if he aim at cavity of the body enclosed by the rings. Each ring has a double larger specimens, more easily examined, he can obtain, as we ganglion of its own, but these are sometimes united together, as have done, a lobster and a haddock. If these be carefully in the lobster. The food canal runs from end to end through observed, first as to their external character, and then as to the centre of the body, and at its front extremity passes through their internal organs, there will be found some points of simi- the nervous tract (as we have seen), and opens on the under sida larity, but a great many points of difference.

of the body. The heart is situated above the food canal, and Both are elongated animals, and both can be divided by a just under the hard covering of the back. We have, therefore

, mid-vertical section into two similar halves. The outer covering the main blood system situated above the food canal in the of the fish, though it is covered with small scales, is thin and centre, and the nervous system below it; these two latter, howflexible. It offers but little resistance to pressure, and no firm ever, crossing one another and exchanging places just at the support, or fixed point, from which muscles can play upon the front of the animal. All these structures are contained within limbs. It, moreover, manifests no tendency to division into sog. one tube, which is the hard covering of the animal. monts or rings. Turning to the lobster, we find it is enclosed Contrasted with this arrangement is that of the fish. In this in a hard, inflexible armour, which is divided into segments or animal the food canal ocoupies the same central position

, but rings, placed

one behind the other. This division is well marked the heart, instead of lying above it, lies on the under side. The and complete in the hinder part of the body, where there are nervous system does not consist of a series of knots, but of $ seven hard annular pieces united by softer membrane. They continuous column, and it is contained not in the tube which overlap one another above, but are separated below. The great lodges the other viscera, but in another tube, formed of bour shield which covers the head and fore part of the body also arches springing from the back-bone, and which is super

imposed consists of fourteen

segments, but they have all become united. on the other tube. The relative arrangement is best anderstood This thick, hard outer covering is the only solid part of the by a reference to the illustration, where transverse setions animal, and therefore to this must be attached the muscles at aro given, supposed to be taken from

the parts of the animals both ends ; that is, both at the fixed point of support from which where the lines marked a b cross the lateral views of the they pull, and also at the part of the body or limbs which they lobster and haddock. are intended to move. This arrangement is carried out even to The fish and the lobster, then, present two types of structure the limba, whose joints are likewise cased in separate hard which are utterly different in many fundamental

points, and if

in the comparison we have seized on those points which are of unsymmetrically through the body, their number and position greatest importance, we shall find that when we compare any being very various in the different divisions of the sub-kingdom. other animals belonging to these branches, first to the one type Organs of secretion, nutrition, and propagation more perfect than and then to the other, in reference to these peculiarities, we shall those of locomotion and animal life. have no difficulty in classifying them either in one division or Molluscoida.--Animals having the general character of the the other.

Mollusca, but distinguished from them by having hearts of a A dog, for instance, though a very different animal from a simple saccular character without division, or none at all. With fish, is like it in the points we have noted. It has a back-bone ciliated tentacles disposed in a circle or horse-shoe shape round of jointed vertebræ, and a columnar nervous system. It has the mouth. no segmented external skeleton. It has but four limbs, and its Annulosa (from annulus, a ring).—Animals with a body comjaws are not paired limbs lying side by side, but are placed one posed of a longitudinal series of more or less distinctly developed above the other. A dragon-fly is very different from a lobster ring-like segments, which are more or less repetitions of one in less fundamental particulars, but in the essentials named it is another, according to the lower or higher position of the species. like to it. It has a chain of double nerve masses on the floor of The horny or leathery exteriors of these rings form an exoits tubular body, crossed by the food canal between the first and skeleton, to which the muscles are attached, and which forms a second misses; and so we might run on through the whole of protective envelope to the body. Nervous system consisting the structure, and show that it was really built upon the same of a double chain of ganglia. Every organ or system of organs general plan as the lobster.

bi-laterally symmetrical. Locomotive organs and organs of The sub-kingdom to which the fish belongs is called Vertebrata, sense attain in this class a high-development. a vertebra being the technical name given to one of the joints Annuloida.—Animals somewhat like the Annulosa, but the of the back-bone. This name vertebra was given because the perfect form is developed within a ciliated larva. fact that the back-bone was so sub-divided enabled its elements Cælenterata.-Animals whose alimentary canal freely comto turn one on another (verto being the Latin for to turn). municates with their body cavity. The lobster belongs to the invertebrato animals, but the foundation membranes of definite cellular structure.

Body consisting of two invertebrates include more than one sub-kingdom, and that to which the lobster belongs was called by Cuvier Articulata, stance, which has no definite cellular structure, but which is

Protozoa. ---Animals whosg body consists of a sarcode subbecause they are jointed as to external skeleton of both body elastic, extensile, and albuminous in composition. They have no and limbs. Articulus is the Latin for a joint.

nervous system or organs of sense, but have structures called If, instead of a dog or a dragon-fly, we had taken a slug, we respectively nucleus and contractile vesicle. should have found that while the arrangement of the nervous, If the student finds these descriptions hard to understand, he blood, vascular, and food systems to one another was quite must wait for explanation till the following lessons are before different from the fish, and similar to the lobster, yet we should him. It is now necessary to be concise, even at the risk of being have found no hard jointed body, no chain of double ganglions obscure. on the floor of the body, and no limbs. This animal, therefore, belongs to neither of these types, though it is, of course, an invertebrate.

LESSONS IN LATIN.—XVI. The student is now prepared for the enumeration of the sub- RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. kingdoms and their characters. They are these :

Relative-Qui, quæ, quod, who or which. Interrogative-Quis, Vertebrata. Mollusca (ofs Mollusca.

quæ, quid ? who or which ?
Annulosa, = Articulata of
Cuvier). Molluscoida. Annuloida, Cuvier.



It should be noted that the form in which these are given has N. qui, who ;

quæ, who;

qo8d, which. a meaning. That the Vertebrata stand at the top of the scale is G. cujus, whose; cujus, whose; cujus, of which admitted by all; the Protozoa are as unquestionably the lowest

cui, to whom ; cui, to whom

cui, to which, animals, and next above them come the Celenterata. It is, how. Ab. quo, by whom;

quem, whom;
quam, whom;

quod, which eter, impossible to determine whether the Mollusca or the Arti

quả, by whom ; quo, by which. culata are the higher animals. The Mollusca seem, in the

Plural. higher members of their branch, to approach most nearly to the N. qui, who;

quæ, who; vertebrates, but the higher members of the branch Articulata G. quorum, whose;

quarum, whose;

qnorum, of which. are of such beautiful and complicated structure that they cer- quibus, to whom; quibus, to whom; quibus, to which. tainly cannot be placed lower than the Mollusca. We are com

quos, whom;
quas, whom ;

que, which, pelled, therefore, to range them side by side, at a like elevation. Ab. quibus, by whom ; quibus, by whom. quibus, by which We proceed to give the characters of the sub-kingdoms :

INTERROGATIVE. 1. Vertebrata. —Animals, the main trunk of whose nervous sys

Singular. tem consists of ganglionic matter massed together in the form of N.

quis ?

quis ? before a noun, quid ? before a noun, a column. It is found on the dorsal (upper) aspect of the body,

quæ ?

quod ? ita aris lying in the median vertical plane which divides the G.

cujus ?
cujus ?

cujus? animal into two symmetrical halves. This main nervous trunk D.

cui ?

cui ? consists anteriorly of the brain and posteriorly of the spinal Ac.

quem ?
quam ?

quid sord. It is usually enclosed in a bony or cartilaginous cavity


quo? formed by the upper arches of the vertebræ. The bodies of

Plural. these vertebræ form the essential portion of an internal bony or N.

qui ?

quæ ? cartilaginous (gristly) skeleton. The column thus formed is G. quorum ?

quarum ?

quorum? piaced immediately below the central nervous trunk, and sends D. quibus ?

quibus ?

quibus? upward processes to form a series of dorsal arches to defend the Ac.

quos ?
quas ?

qux ? nervous axis, and downward a series of less perfect arches, in

Ab. quibus ?

quibus ?

quibus ? which lie the circulatory and alimentary organs. Appended to The preposition cum is sometimes set after the pronoun; as, this column, which forms the axis of support and resistance quocum, quacum, quibuscum, with whom, with which. whereon the rest of the skeleton hinges, are (normally) four Quis is repeated so as to form the compound pronoun quislimbs, two anterior and two posterior. The blood is red, and quis, whosoever. In this case, both parts are declined thus: enclosed in vessels. Jaws playing vertically.

quisquis, m.; quæquæ, f.; quicquid, n. When the neuter is Mollusca (from mollis, soft). - Animals with soft bodies enveloped used as a substantive it is generally written quidquid. Take in soft skin, which is constantly moist, which is itself muscular, as instances : quoquo modo res habet, in whatever way the thing and to it the muscles are attached. This skin Las usually the is; quicquid id est, whatever that is. In quicunque, whosoever, power of secreting within or upon its tissues a calcareous extra- the qui is declined, and to its parts cunque is added, as cujus vascular secretion (the shell). The nervous masses are dispersed cunque, quodcunque, etc.






quæ, achich,


cui ?

quo ?

quæ ?





In quivis, quævis, quidvis (quodvis), the termination vis, thou Ardenter, adv., ar-, Gero, 2, I carry (E. R. | Mors, mortis, f., death wilt, increases the indefiniteness, so that quivis is, who or what dently, glowingly gestation).

(E. E. mortal). you will, cujusvis ; aco. quemvis, quamvis, etc. A similar import (E. R. ardent). Guberno, 1, I govern. Probus, •um, is found in quilibet (libet, it pleases), quælibet, quidlibet (quodCivitas, -átis, f., the Honoro, 1, I honour, good, kind (E. R. libet), ucho or what you please; so, gen. cujuslibet. state. Justus, -a, -um, just. probity).

Alias, another; alter, the other, the second of a pair (the latter, Curo, 1, I care for, Lex, legis, f. a la Sanctus, -a, -um, holy corresponding to the former); ullus, any; nullus (non ullus), 110 take care of (E. R. a (E. R. legal).

(E. R. sanctity). cure).

Maleficus, -um, Succurro, 3, I hasten one; uter, which (of the two); neuter (non uter), neither, neither Devasto, 1, I lay waste, wicked; as a noun, to aid, I succour.

the one nor the other, take the genitive singular in ins, and the devastate.

an evil-doer.

Tibi placet, thou art dative in i, like unus. See the next lesson on numbers. Exaudio, 4, I grant the Mitis, -e, mild (E. R. pleased.

VOCABULARY. request of. mitigate).

Adrmo, 3, I take away. | Inhæreo, 2, I stick to. Merttum, -i, m., corth, EXERCISE 59.-LATIN-ENGLISH,

Augurium, -í, n.,augury Insitus, -a, -um, inborn. value, merit. 1. Rex qui civitatem gubernat, civium salutem curare debet. 2. Dignitas, -ātis, f., dig. Jus, juris, n., right, Pecunia, -æ, f., money. Regi cujus imperium mite et justum est, omnes cives libenter parent. nity.

law (E. R. jury, ju- Quasi, as if. 3. Regem cai leges sunt sanctæ, cives colunt. 4. Felix est rex quem Futurus,


Sæculum, -i, 11., an age omnes cives amant. 5. O rex qui civitatem nostram gubernas, tibi future.

Justitia, -2, f., justice. (E. R. secular). placet honorare bonos cives, terrere maleficos, succurrere miseris, Græcia, f., Grocce. Locus, i, m., a place Terror, -öris, m., terror. exaudire probos.

Idcirco, therefore.

(E. R. local, locality). Tribuo, 3, I assiga,


Impendeo, 2, I hang Mens, mentis, f., a

over (E. R. impend). mind (E. R. mental). 1. Kings who govern states must care for the safety of all the citi. zons. 2. Good men willingly obey kings whose government is mild

EXERCISE 63.- LATIN-ENGLISH. and just. 3. Kings whose laws are holy are willingly obeyed by good

1. Si mortem timemus semper aliquis terror nobis impendet. 2. Si citizens. 4. The kings are happy who are dear to their citizens, 5.

cuipiam pecuniam fortuna adimit idcirco miser non est. 3. Græcia O kings who rule our states, ye ought to honour a good and great parvum quendam (quemdam) locum Europæ tenet. 4. Inhæret in

6. O God, we worship thee who art pleased to succour the mentibus nostris quasi quoddam augurium futurorum sæculorum. 5. wretched. 7. The enemies with whom you contend lay waste your In unoquoque virorum bonorum habitat deas. 6. Justitia jus unicuique country.

tribuit pro dignitate cujusque. 7. Cuique nostrum amor vite est VOCABULARY.

insitus. Ago, 3, I drive, I do. Honestus, -2, -um, Opinio, -ōnis, f., an

EXERCISE 64.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Ambulo, 1, I walk honourable (E. R. opinion.

1. Some terror always hangs over the bad. 2. What terror (quid abroad.


Peccatum, -i, n., a sin. terroris, literally, what of terror ?) hangs over thee? 3. If thou takest Cogito, 1, I think. Indulgeo, I am lenient Quæro, 3, I seek. fortune from any one thou art blamed. 4. They hold a certain small Curro, 3, I ru pass to (E. R. indulge). Repugno, 1, I fight part of Greece. 5. In every bad man evil dwells. 6. Justice allots away.

Ingratus, -a, -um, un- against (E. R, repug. to every one his merits. 7. Certain ones have money. Excrucio, 1, I tor- thankful (E. R. in- nance, pugilist). ture (E. R. excru- gratitude).

Sententia, -2, f., view,

CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS. ciate, from crux, a Luscinia, -, f., a opinion,

Correlative is a term denoting mutual relation, in such a way, cross).

nightingale. Utilis, -e, useful (E. R. that of two or more things, as is the one so is the other. Take, Falsus,

-um, Me habeo, I have my- utility). false, self (that is, in a cer. Veritas, ātis, f., truth meaning as and as; thus, qualis sum ego, talis es tu, such as

as an instance, the pair of correlative pronouns, qualis and talis; Habeo, 2, I have. tain condition), I am. (E. R. verity).

I am, such art thou.

These correlative pronouns are various, and are exhibited in 1. Quis me vocat? 2. Quid agis, mi amice? 3. Quis scribit has this table of literas ? 4. Quid cogitas? 5. Quid ago? 6. Cur me excrucio? 7.

CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS. Que amicitia est inter ingratos? 8. Quod carmen legis?

9. Quis homo venit? 10. Quis poeta dulcior est quam Homerus? 11. Cujus


Indefinite. vox suavior est quam vox lusciniæ? 12. Quibus peccatis facillime in. Qualis, of what kind ? talis, of such kind. dalgemus ? 13. Quicquid est honestum, idem est utile. 14. Quicquid Quantus, howo great? tantus, so great ;

aliquantus, of some sia, vides, currit cum tempore. 15. Quoquo modo res sese habet, ego Quot, how many! tot, so many;

aliquot, some number. sententiam meam defendo. 16. Quæcunque opinio veritati repugnat,


Relativo Indefinite. falsa est. EXERCISE 62.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

Qualis, of what kind ! qualiscunque, of what kind server, 1. What dost thou say? 2. Who is that man? 3. Who is that Quot, of what number ?

Quantus, of what size ?

quantuscunque, how great soever. woman? 4. With whom does thy friend walk? 5. Whom seekest

quotcunque, quotquot, of whatever number. thou? 6. What book dost thou read? 7. To whom dost thou write Quot, tot, aliquot; quot, quotcunque, and quotquot, are indethis letter? 8. However the things are we praise your view, clinable, and are used only in the plural number; as, quot INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

homines sunt? how many men are there? aliquot homines, some Quis in a dependent form undergoes slight changes in de men; tot homines quot video, as many men as I see; quotcunquə clination: thus, quis, qua or quæ, quid ; pl. qui, quæ, quæ. homines video omnes boni sunt, all the men I see are good. When it is used as an adjective pronoun, then quis may become

VOCABULARY. qui, qua becomes quæ, and quid becomes quod. The same is the Aristides, -is, m., the Imitator

, -oris, m., an Prædico, 1, 1 speed case with aliquis, some one; thus, sub. aliquis, aliqua, aliquid; name of a celebrated imitator. adj., aliquis, aliqua, aliquod. So alicujus, alicui, etc. In the Athenian.

Liberi, -orum, m.,

chil preach). plural, quis, etc., become qui, quæ, quæ, or qua, aliqui, aliquæ, Bonum, -i, 11., good, dren (used in the Quod, conj., that. aliqua.

the good.

plural only). Quis united with piam, becoming quispiam, acquires an in. Contemno, 3, 1 despise. Oratio, -ōnis, f., speech.

Existo, 3, I stand out, Pastor, - ris, 11., definite import, any one soever ; and runs thus : quispiam, quæ

become, exist.

shepherd (E. R. piam, quidpiam; adj. quodpiam.

rei publice, rema

Fragilis, easily pastor). Another form is quisquam (quis and quam), every one ; which brokon, fragile (from Pecco, I sin, fail, is declined: nom. quisquam, quicquam; gen. cujusquam; dat. frango, I break).

moncealth. cuiquam. Quidam, a certain one, stands thus: nom. quidam, Grex, gregis, m., a Permultus, -a,

Soleo, 3, I an actis. quædam, quiddam; adj. quoddam; gen. cujusdam, and so on.

tery much.

tomed. Quisque answers to our each one: nom. quisque, quæque, quid.

EXERCISE 65.-LATIN-ENGLISH. que (quodque); gen. cujusque; dat. cuique; acc. quemque, etc. Unusquisque, every one, brings the idea of individuality into hoc, quod peccant principes, quantum illud quod permulti imitatores

1. Quot sunt homines, tot sunt sententiæ. greater prominence, and is formed thus : unusquisque, unaquæque, principum existunt. 3. Quot genera orationum sunt, tot oratorum unumquidque; adj. unumquodque; the pronoun is made up of genera reperiuntur.* 4. Quales sunt duces, tales sunt milites. 5. Qualis que, and, quis, who or which, and unus, one.

est rex, talis est grex. 6. Quales in republica sunt principes, tales

before, declare (E. E.

Respublica (reg and

publica, both parts are declined; thus, publicam), the state, the republic, the ous

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2. Tantum malum est


solent esse cives. 7. Vir bonus non contemnit homines miseros,

HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XVI. qualescunque sunt. 8. Corporis et fortuna bona, quantacunque sunt, sunt incerta et fragilia. 9. Quotquot homines sunt, omnes vitam HOW IRELAND BECAME PART OF GREAT BRITAIN.-PART I. amant. 10. Quotcunque sunt scriptores, omnes Aristidis justitiam A GLANCE at the map of the United Kingdom will serve to show predicant. EXERCISE 66,-ENGLISH-LATIN.

that England being inhabited by a powerful people, numerically

superior to the peoples both of Scotland and Ireland, those two 1. As many men so many minds (the minds are as numerous as the

countries must necessarily be in union with her. Neither of men). 2. As many boys so many girls. 3. As many fathers so many them could rest in security in the neighbourhood of so strong a mothers. 4. As great as is thy grief so great is my joy. 5. Such as

state; both would in turn be liable to be objected to, as the ara parents such are children. 6. As is the shepherd so is the flock. lamb was by the wolf in the fable; and unless they could secure 7. I do not despise the things, whatever they are. 8. Aristides is declared just by all writers, how many soever they are.

efficient foreign alliances, they must, sooner or later, fall a prey, as the lamb also did. For it would be manifestly intolerable

for the strong state to have possible enemies so near, opening a KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.--XIV. way at any time into the very heart of her dominion, presenting (Vol. II., p. 64.)

a ready means of injury available by the first enemy which

chose to bid for the friendship of either Scotland or Ireland; EXERCISE 53.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

and it could not be but that the strong state should perpetually 1. Every nature is preservative of itself. 2. A wonderful desire for strive to remove, by some means or other, the possibility of the city, for my friends, and for thee holds (possesses) me. 3. Thy harm from such a source. Union would seem therefore to be iather is very much delighted by thy remembrance of him. 4. Anger has suggested by the best interests of all concerned. It was also, Do power over itself. 5. A wise man has always power over himself.

politically considered, a necessity. 6. Care for you makes m uneasy.

7. All men are kind judges of themselves. 8. Thy recollection of us is exceedingly pleasant to me.

In another paper (Historic Sketches, No. XIV.), it was shown 9. The friend is mindful of me and of thee. 10. (Our) father in his how the necessity for union presented itself to the mind of absence is held by a great longing

after me, and after you, my brother, him who has been called “ the greatest of the Plantagenets," and after you, O sisters. 11. (Our) friends are mindful of us. 12. “ the English Justinian,” Edward I. There, too, was shown, Many of you please me. 13. Very many of us greatly love thee. especially in regard to Scotland, the manner in which the EXERCISE 54.-ENGLISH-LATIN,

English king strove to supply his necessity: how, acting accord.

ing to his instincts, he tried to dragoon the Scots into union; 1. Insipiens est impotens sui. 2. Pater est potens sui. 3. Potens how he for a while succeeded, and how finally his efforts were sui est virtus. 4. Non est vitium potens sui. 5. Potensne sui est frustrated, and he had nothing for his warlike labour under the in? 6. Natura sui est conservatrix. 7. Natura virtutis est conserva

His state policy was a sound one, but his means for trix sui. 8. Nemo vestrum sui potens est. 9. Nostrum plurimi sui sunt potentes. 10, Immemor mei est infidus amicus. 11. Fidi amici carrying it out were unwisely chosen, and his proud spirit

He would be Cæsar or non sui sunt memores. 12. Tua memoria et desiderium mei mihi sunt scorned to apply itsel to any other. gratissima. 13. Cura tui me angit. 14. Plurimi vestrum, 0 discipuli, nothing, and in the course of his time he was both, as regarded diligentes sunt. 15. Mirus est amor sui.

the rulership of Scotland. How the union with Scotland was

ultimately managed was also pointed out in the same paper. EXERCISE 55.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Let us now turn to the case of the sister island, and see how 1. Sallnst is a very elegant writer. 2. His books I gladly read (I that came into the union. am glad to read). 3. I have a faithful friend. 4. I am very much To say that Ireland fell to England by conquest is neither attached to him. 5. The song of (thy) brother pleases me much, thou wholly true nor wholly false. It is wholly false to say that it onghtest to read it. 6. Idleness makes the body grow heavy, labour strengthens (it). 7. Avoid that, seek this. 8. This letter moves me very Scotland--conquered, that is, as a whole, the entire nation being

was conquered in the sense that Edward I. tried to conquer nneh.

9. These songs are very sweet. 10. I do not believe that

11. The soldiers gladly obey that general. 12. All favour united under one head for the purpose of resisting a common

13. That precept of thine is excellent. 14. This opinion invader. It is not only doubtful whether, had the Irish boen pleases me, that displeases me. 15. This war is very cruel. 16. This united, the Anglo-Normans who went over would ever have bog is industrious, that (one) slaggish. 17. I keep in memory that possessed more ground in the country than was needed to cover excellent precept. 18. That friend of thine is a very good man. 19. their bones, but it is almost certain that the subjugation of the That authority of yours is very great. 20. I praise the diligence of island would never have taken place; assuredly it would not that scholar, I blame the slowness of this (one). 21. To that (one) school with the force which actually went over. Of course, after the is very pleasant, to this (one) very troublesome.

precedent set at Hastings, where the fate of England was EXERCISE 56.--ENGLISH-LATIN.

decided in one pitched battle, and in view of the fact that a 1. Sallustius est scriptor elegans, Livius elegantior, et Cicero ele. mob, however numerous, can avail nothing against the attack guntissimus. 2. Eorum libros libenter lego. 3. Ejus frater et amicus of disciplined troops, it is perhaps presumptuous to say so much; mihi sunt cari. 4. Fidum amicum habes et ei es addictissimus. 5.

but we have only to point to the case of Scotland for justificaFilii mei habent fidas uxores et eas valde amant. 6. Vehementer his tion, and to see how there the whole strength of England failed literis moreor.

7. Mendaci mulieri non credas. 8. Hic puer mihi to hold in bondage a united, freedom-loving people, irregular placet, ille displicet. 9. Hoc poema valde est elegans, illud elegantius. and undisciplined though they were, in comparison with the 10. Hic taus miles fortis est. 11. Hujus discipuli diligentia a me followers of the first soldier of his day. Ireland was not conpræceptore landatur. 12. In hac scholā plures quam in vestra sunt quered as a whole, for it never resisted as a whole-never industrii discipuli.

acknowledged for the purposes of the common weal one supreme EXERCISE 57.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

head or “ dictator whom all men should obey.” It is not, there1. Many men do not think the same on the same things (subjects) fore, absolutely true to say that it was conquered, neither is it for the same day. 2. The fool now trusts, now distrusts the same absolutely false. It fell like the house that was built upon the opinion, 3. Seditious soldiers withstand the commander himself. 4. sand, because it had no foundation and was divided against The mind moves itself. 5. Virtue is praiseworthy on its own account. itself. Bit by bit it was subjugated by force of arms, and 6. Often nothing is more hostile to a man than he is to himself.

7. according to a system of warfare which aimed at preventing a Every animal loves itself. 8. Our country ought to be dearer to us than we ourselves. 9. That precept of the Delphic oracle is excellent which required the constant presence of a strong military force

repetition of resistance by means of extirpation - a system -Know thyself. EXERCISE 58.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

in the conquered districts, and which provoked from time to

time those outbursts of national and party anger which the 1. Hostes urbem obsident et eam expugnare tentant. 2. Hujus system has periodically put down with bloodshed and violence. magni hominis factum ab omnibus scriptoribus laudatur. 3. Cæsar At no one period in her history has Ireland ever been united as et Pompeins præclari duces Romani sunt. 4. Illi fortuna amicior est Scotland was when she successfully resisted the invader; and quam huic. 5. Nlius et hujus fortitudo mira est. 6. Rex ipse exercitiis est dux. 7. Non semper eědem de iisdem rebus sentis. 8. Pater certainly, at the time of the first attempt that was made upon et filias iisdem literis student. 9. Virtutes per se amabiles sunt. 10.

her independence, Ireland was split up into rival factions as Omnes se ipsos diligunt. 11. Patria tibi carior esse debet quam tute bitter and hostile to one another as the worst common enemy tibi. 12. Noscite vos ipsos, juvenes. 13. Mendax sæpe sibi ipsi could desire. diffidit.

The restless spirit that dwelt in the breast of every Norman

false man. that man.

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