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25 now take an illustration of this rule, by an example connected Debtor to my Customer, for what I receive, and Robert Brown with the former : Feb. 15th, 1863, Robert Brown, a customer of becomes my Creditor for what he has given away. I must mine, paid me, or I received from him, £100 for Cotton sold to accordingly enter his name and an account of this transaction in him on the 15th of January last. Here, I the Merchant become my books, that is, in the Cash-book, in the following manner:
This entry in the Cash-book would be transferred to the Journal, at the time when it was made up, as follows:-
Again, this entry in the Journal would be posted into the Ledger, as in the following examples :(Folio 2.)
(Folio 2.) Or.
Cr. £. 8. d.
In the first entry here from the supposed Ledger, the form of book called the Cash-Book ; but this system we would by no the account and the entry itself are exactly the same as in the means recommend. Cash-Book. Nor can this be otherwise ; for the Cash-Book is In the second entry above from the supposed Ledger, we have merely an abstraction of the Cash Account from the Ledger as combined the former transaction with the present, in order to kept on the old Italian system, for the sake of the division of show how matters are settled between the Merchant and his labour ; so that the Cashier may have only this Account to Customer. The account of Robert Brown in the Ledger is now attend to in a large establishment; while the Bookkeeper attends considered closed or balanced ; and may be considered as struck to the other Accounts. In small concerns, the Cash Account may off, unless he renews transactions with the Merchant by fresh still be kept in the Ledger, instead of being kept in a separate ' purchases and subsequent payments.
READING AND ELOCUTION.-XVI. effect of song, as differing from speech. The resemblance is
owing solely to the brevity of sound, in such cases, which does ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE (continued).
not afford time for broad and marked distinctions to be drawn
by the ear. The next characteristic of good reading and speaking is just The modes of voice which constitute speech, or are exemplified "stress.” This word is meant to designate a peculiar modifica- in reading, are the following:tion of force, which distinguishes speech from music. A long- I. RADICAL STRESS.-This form of force includes two modes drawn musical sound has its most forcible part-in consequence -“explosion" and "expulsion." of "swell" and " diminish”-at the middle portion of the note. 1. "Explosion” is an abrupt and instantaneous burst of voice The tones of speech, on the contrary-although, in a few cases, --as, for example, in violent anger. they approach to this mode of voice-usually have the chief
This being an instinctive, unconscious, involuntary, impulsive force of eacb sound at the opening or the closing part. In music, emotion, does not allow time or disposition for any intentional the increase of force is comparatively gradual; in speech and or deliberate effect, but makes the creation of vocal sound seem reading, it is frequently abrupt. To these distinctive modes of
an irrepressible, spontaneous, electric production of nature, voice the term “stress" is applied.
lying equally out of the reach of the understanding and the To understand the application of this term in detail, it be- will. This tone has its contrast in the deep, calm, and regular comes necessary to advert to the mode of creating vocal sounds. swell of the tone of reverence, or the ample volume, and deliberate In vocal music the result is obtained by full "inspiration' force, of conscious authority and command, in which the speaker (inbaling or drawing in the breath), and comparatively slight is self-possessed and self-directed, and controls his vocal effects expiration” (giving forth the breath). In this mode, much for purposes understood or felt. breath is drawn in, much retained or withheld, and little given
Contrast, for instance, the following angry shout of Douglas out at a time; and thus are produced those smooth, pure, and when enraged by the defiance of Marmion, with the 'examples gradually-increasing tones which are appropriate to 'music--all of reverential invocation and authoritative command which occur the breath that is given forth being converted into sound, and in the subsequent paragraphs. Done escaping that is not vocalised. In notes of very short duration, singing and speech are, it is true, brought nearer to
Example of " Explosion." a resemblance. But this resemblance is more apparent than
UP DRA WBRIDGE! GROOX! What, WARDER, HO'! real; as may be observed in the execution of every good singer, whieh, in the most rapid passages, still produces the genuine The sounds of all the accented vowels, in this style, fall upon
Let the PORTCU'LLIS FALL!
the ear with an instantancois, clear, scarp, akrap', 12) Stang Thus, in the tone of surprise, which is ezzed by a wide force, at the initial or "radical part of sch 2. “ Hxpulsion ”—a consmoas inteational, and desberate reise strikes with peculiar force on the first and las and
* upward slide,” beginning very low, and ending very ligh, the force, coming upon the ear with grea: power; as, for example, the side, in order to stamp it more distinctly on the ez, ss the in the language of authenite ou si vood.
Tehicle of intense emotion. A striking example aga ees * Example of " Erg, 'sion."
the language of Queen Constance, in the situation natione Vànguard! to night and left the froat fold!**
before, when overwhelmed with astonishment at the mos she In this style, bold and forcible as it is, and even sadden as
has just received. is its commencement, the accented rowe's do not startle the
Example of " Compound Stress." (ar with the abrupt shock of the tone of anger, exemplified
Gone to be married! gone to swear a peace! above. There is a partial, thoazh very brief, swell. perceptible
Gone to be friends! in the “radical,” or initial part of each sound. Both of the
V. THOROUGH STRESS.—This designation is applied to that preceding examples are classeul undur the head of " radical” species of force which marks all the forms of “stress– radical," stress; as their chief foroe lies in the radical,” or first part of “medial," and " vanishing ”—with intense power, on the same each sound.
sound, so as to cause the character of all to be deeply felt
, a II. MEDIAL STRESS.—This mode of force is exhibited in in a bold shout, or any other very impressive form of roce.
1. “ Effusion”a moderate, gentle, and gradual swelling of which indicates intense emotion. tone-as, for example, in the calm and tranquil utterance of
Example of “ Thorough Stress.” reverential feeling, in which no disturbing impulse agitates or
Awake l arise ! or be for ever fallen! forces out the breath, but the voice, somewhat as in music,
In this shout of the arch-fiend to his fallen host, the tose, it glides out, with a smooth effusive stream of sound, enlarging es will be perceived, is not that of mere volume or quantity
, of it flows, but never bursting out into irregular violence.
mere loudness or physical force, as in the mechanical act of Example of "Fusion."
calling, or the voice of a public crier. It has the wide "falling But chiefly Thon, ( Spirit! that dest prefer,
inflection" of authority and command, and the forcible “radical Before all temples, the upright heart and pare,
stress and "expulsive" utterance of courage ; and to preserve Instruct me, for thou knowest. the effect of all these, it must not only begin and close vids
swell,” and a distinot " vanish.” It Tho “offusivo " stylo avoids everything abrupt or sudden in but exhibit a “medial ** “ the formation of sound, and swella gradually to its "acmé" must, in other words, give distinctive force and character to the (chiof point), at the middle of each sound in the manner of beginning, the middle, and the end of each accented sound munio; and from this point " diminishes," or decreases, to the (trembling) or “intermittent” stress, takes place in the site
VI. INTERMITTENT STRESS, OR TREMOR.— The " tremor," clone, This apocies of "atross" is accordingly denominated ance of all those emotions which enfeeble the voice
, by their "medial," from the Latin word melons, the middle. 2. " Suppression "- a powerful force of "explosion" or
overpowering effect on feeling; as, for example, in jeer and pulsion," kopt down in the very mot of giving forth the voice, characterises also the foeble voice of age, or the tone of a
grief, and sometimes joy, when extreme. This mode of attenance and converted into the "modial" form, as in the case of a person coinmunioating, in great carnestness of foeling, with person shivering with cold.
Examples of the former will be found in the section : another, standing at a distance, and yet eroeedingly anxious not to be heard by a third person, still furthor
off; or, as in language both of the old woman and the farmer in Wordsworth's
“ Expressive Tones.” Of the latter we have instances in the the tone of extreme earnestneas, uttered by the watcher in the ballad, * Goody Blake and Harry Gill.” chamber of a siok person.
She prayed, her withered hand uprearing,
While Harry held her by the arm-
“ God! who art never out of hearing,
[Tremor.] John to hear what I am saying!
Oh! may he never more be warm?" Stop softly I speak lowmake no noise !
No word to any man he utters,
Abed or up, to young or old; This modo of voice may be termed a "half whisper;" it is
But ever to himself he mutters, the "aspiratod" and "impure" tone, which lies half way be
[TR] “Poor Harry Gill is very cold!" tween the ordinary tone of the voice and a whisper. It is enused by allowing a vast quantity of broath, not * vocalised," to rush out along with the sound of the voice. It is, in fact,
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY-XVI. "explosion," or "expulsion," merged, as it were, or drowned in a stroam of "axpiration," and made to assume the style of PROBLEM XXXVIII.—To describe a circle which shall touch “medial stress."
three given straight lines. III. VANISHING Stress. --Besides the "radical,” or initial, Let x, y, z (Fig. 57) represent the three given straight lines ; and the "modial," or middle, "strogs," there is also a "vanish- it is required to draw a circle ing,” or final " stress," which begins softly, swells onward, and touching the three given bursts out suddenly, and leaves off abruptly, at the very close of straight lines X, Y, Z. If the a sound, as in the jerking termination of the tone of impatient given straight lines do not feeling,
form a triangle, let them be Thus, in the language of maddened impatience, as uttered by produced both ways, if nemren Constance, in her frenzy of griof and disappointment, at cessary, until they form the ho overthrow of all her hopes for her son, in consequence of triangle A B C, as shown by to po ponaco formed between France and England :
the dotted lines in the figure.
Bisect the angle A B C by the
straight line B D, and the
angle A C B by the straight
Fig. 57. Picna of this class the voice withholds its force, and delays line CD, and let these lines en pierem for expulsion till the last moment of the emphatic intersect in the point D. Then from the point o draw De per *** thun throws it out with an abrupt, wrenching force, pendicular to BC, and from D as a centre, with the radius de
Ehint of n stone suddenly jerked from the hand describe the circle E F G. The circle E F G touches the given strewna, na it lies at the “ vanish,” or last point of straight lines x, y, z in the points E, F, G. The resnlt would be
P. *, --The designation of "compound in order to obtain the point D, of to what side of the triangle a bilo pette Torino " pitial and the vanish,” or the begin. hthu vratu in ench a manner as to mark, with of the required circle, as shown in the figure.
****** **** mode of forming tones which throws perpendicular is drawn from D in order to obtrin the radius www what to behabilly senunted or emphatic sound.
By this problem we are taught how to inscribe a circle in any given triangle, the construction adopted being precisely the
same as that which has been described above; and by Problem | D E F on the right of the straight line x y that passes through XXXVI. in the last lesson (page 49), which teaches us how to their centres. The dotted lines G L, HD, D A, and AG show draw the circumference of a circle through any three points how the tangent may be drawn to the left of the straight line that are not in the same straight line, it is plain that we are X Y The straight lines A D, B E, with the arcs A X B, D Y E, shown how to describe a circle about any given triangle ; for to show the position of an endless band passing over the wheels do this the circle must pass through the three points in which or drums A B C, D E F. the three straight lines (which form the sides and angles of the Now let it be required to draw a tangent to the given circles triangle) meet.
A B C, D E F, crossing the indefinite straight line x y that passes In making drawings of machines and machinery, the geome- through their centres G and H. From the point c in the direc
trical draughtsman will find it necessary tion of y, set off along c y the straight line c n equal to F ,
to know how to draw circles of different the radius of the circle D F E. The straight line G N is then B н,
A radii touching each other with the manifestly equal to the sum of the radii of the given circles,
utmost nicety externally and internally, being made up of g C, the radius of the circle A B C, and c N, and to draw tangents to two circles, which has been made equal to FH, the radius of the circle as when it is desired to represent in D F E. From the centre G, with the radius G N, describe the section the course of an endless band or arc O N P, and from , the centre of the circle D F E, draw 1 O
belt of leather which passes round two touching the arc O N P in the point o. Join G o, cutting the x wheels or drums, and transmits motive circumference of the circle a b c in the point q; and through
power from one to the other. This the point o draw Q R parallel to 0. The straight line Q R is brings us to the next two problems. a tangent to the two given circles A B C D E F. The same result
PROBLEM XXXIX.—To draw a circle may be obtained by drawing R through the point n, parallel with a given radius touching another to @ 0, and joining the points Q and R. The straight line Q R given circle externally or internally in a has been drawn as a tangent to the given circles A B C D E F, given point.
crossing the straight line x y that passes through their centres, Let ABC (Fig. 58) be the given circle ; from left to right; the dotted lines H P, PG, ST, and t u show Fig. 58. it is required to draw two circles with how the tangent may be drawn crossing x y from right to left.
the given radius x, one touching the The straight lines Q R, S T, with the arcs Q A B S, T DE R, show given circle A B C internally in the given point , and the other the position of a crossed endless band passing over the wheels externally in the given point c.
or drums A B C D E F. First, let us take the circle that is to touch the given circle The effect of crossing the endless band is to make the wheels internally in the point A. Find D, the centre of the given circle or drums over which it passes revolve in contrary directions. In A BC. Join AD, and produce it, if necessary, to meet the cir- the first case, when the band forms tangents to the wheels on cumference of the given circle A B C in the point E. Along A E both sides of the line that joins their centres, the wheels revolve set off A F equal to the given radius x, and from the centre F, in the same direction, that is to say, by the action of the band the at the distance Fa, describe the circle A G H, which touches the wheels revolve, so that a point B, on the circumference of the given circle a Bc internally in the given point a.
wheel A B C, is carried round towards A, and a point E on the cirTo describe a circle with the given radius x, touching A B C cumference of the wheel D E F is carried round towards D, the externally in the point c. Find D, the centre of the given strap being supposed to move in the direction of the arrows circle ABC. Join DC, and produce it indefinitely towards K. placed near the letters A, D, E, B. In the second case, when Set off along c k the straight line c L equal to x, and from the band forms tangents to the wheels crossing the line that as centre, with the distance L c, describe the circle cm N, which joins their centres, a point q in the circumference of the wheel
touches the given circle A BC A B C would be carried round towards 8, and a point r in the externally in the given point c. circumference of the wheel D E F would be carried round towards
PROBLEM XL. – To draw a R, the strap being supposed to move in the direction indicated tangent to any two given circles. by the arrows placed near the letters Q, R, T, s.
A straight line may be drawn The circles K LM, D E F are called concentric circles because touching any two given circles they are described from the same centre, H, and for the same either on one side of the straight reason the arcs A CB, ON P are called concentric arcs. line that passes through and Fig. 59 suggests the method of drawing a circle of a giver joins the centres of the circles, radius to touch two given straight lines. Let LG, MG, proor crossing this line. First, let duced indefinitely to a and b, represent the two given straight us take the case in which the lines, and z the radius of the required circle. In ga take any tangent to the given circles is point u, and through u draw uw at right angles to G a. required to be on one side of Bisect the angle a G b formed by the straight lines G a, ab the straight line that joins their (produced to meet in G if necessary) by the straight line G Y, centres.
and set off along the straight line u w, U V equal to z. Then Let A B C D E F (Fig. 59) be the through v draw v u parallel to G a, and meeting Gy in 1. given circles. Draw an indefinite Then from the point u as centre, with a radius equal to z, straight line x y, passing through describe the circle K L M. This circle touches the given straight and joining the centres, G and lines G a, ab in the points M and L. H, of the given circles, and also PROBLEM XLI.—To draw a tangent through any point in a
passing through the point o in given arc, when it is inconvenient to determine the centre of Fig. 59.
the circumference of the circle the circle of the circumference of which the given arc is a part.
A B C, and the point F, in the cir. Let ABC (Fig. 60) cumference of the circle D E F. From the point F in the straight be the given arc, and c line x y, set off FK equal to g C, the radius of the circle A B C. the given point through The remainder K of the straight line F 1, the radius of the which it is required to circle D E F, is manifestly the difference of the radii of the draw a tangent to the given circles. With H K as radius, from the point n as centre, arc A BC. Through c de ribe the circle K L M, and from the point G, the centre of the draw any straight line circle A B C, draw the straight line G m touching the circum-or chord c A, cutting
Fig. 60. ference of the circle K L M in the point m. Join 1 m, and the arc in the points A prodace it to cut the circumference of the circle D FE in the and c. Bisect a c in D, and through a draw Dr at right angles point , and through E draw E B parallel to G M. The straight to A C. Join B C, and at the point B in the straight line c B line E B is a tangent to the two given circles A B C, D E F. The make the angle C B E equal to the angle DCF or E C B. Then same result may be obtained by drawing G B through the point G, through c draw the straight line XT paralel to B E. The parallel to 1 E, and joining the points B and E. The straight line straight line x y is a tangent to the arc a B C, and it is drawn B E has been drawn as a tangent to the given circles A B C, through the given point c, as required.
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXVI.
9. Dach zem Herzoge, ber einem Corner glic, galt weber Bernunft, nety
guter Rath. 10. De er bišber alle feine Feinte überwunden hatte, glaubte SECTION XLIX.-VERBS REQUIRING THE DATIVE. er Jaem gewachsen zu sein. 11. Gr widerstrebte tem Verlangen
, ben MANY verbs compounded with the particles ab, an, auf, bei, Raija tie Ghre zu erweien, die demselben gebührte. 12. Der Kaiser, der vem ent, er, nach, ver, vør, zu, and wider; 23 also, tanten, to thank ; : berjoge iton feit langer Zeit übel wollte, und ihm wegen seinet Steljes trohen, to threaten ; folgen, to follow; gehorchen, to obey; it meubeln, qürnte, fam ibm pievor, und überzog thn mit Krieg. 13. Der Kriegsjug to flatter, etc. (8 129. 4), govern the dative, as :-Grenriigte sem mušlang dem Kaiser nicht. 14. Der Herzog fonnte ber feintlihen Macht Glück und der Boffnung, he resigned (they happiness and (the) hope. Aucht miterstehen, und erlag tem Kaiser in ter Sdlast. 15. Gr muste Den besten Menichen lieben Fehler an, faults cleave to the best of racha Englam flieben, und nur feine Familie und einige Freunde folgten men. Der Beltherr geberchte bem Befelle tes Safets, the commander. tbm 16. Huer entragte e jeter Hoffnung, und fluchte bem Stolze, ale ver in-chief hearkened to the command of the emperor. Nur ein Ursache feines Glente. 17. Ibrem Wunshe entirtechend, werde ich Ihnen Sclave jehmeichelt dem Herrn-tein freuet tem Freien, only a slave flat- beim Sucken des Pierres helfen, das Ihnen weggekommen ist. 18. Ma ters the master--no freeman, a freeman.
leucht gehecht man einem ele Gerrn, der überzeugt, intem er uns gebietet
. 19. Tuja Braten met mir nicht. VOCABULARY.
EXERCISE 95. Mcht, f.outlawry, ban. Gebühren, to be due. Someten, to taste,
1. I flatter myself that you will honour me with a visit. 2. An'geheten, to belong. Scal'len, to please, relish.
He would certainly harm me, if he could get at me. 3. The An'bangen, to adhere. to like.
Sameicheln, to flatter. star of hope lights man even in the gloomiest night. 4. I shall Auf'fertern, to sum Gelten, to be of Shweben, to wave, assist my friend for the assistance which he has rendered me.
5. The teacher has told me he was contented with his scholars ; Bayern, n. Bavaria. Genuígen, to suffice.
Trosen, to dare, defy. they were di.igent and anticipated all his wishes. 6. I know Peebʻren, to honour. Herpad, ien sein, to be Trube gloomy.
no one who flatters the passions of others as he does. 7. It Pa tenimen, to get at. a match.
lle beiwollen, to wish were to be wished that everybody might assist the poor. S. Do Bei stehen, to assist. Oleden, to be like. ill. Bo'stimmen, to assent. Herzei, m. duke.
not flatter your children too much. lleberzie'ten, to invade. I around him the best of his generals. 10. After he had made
9. Napoleon collected Bei'mchnen, to be pre- Ber'jezbut, m. ducal Un'umí tránti“, para- known to them his purpose, they volunteered to assist him. sent at. coronet.
mount. Peut', m. virit. Guinung, f. hope.
11. He trusted to his own power, invaded Europe with hostile
Umze'ben, to beset. Praten, m. roast meat. Cather, m. emperor. ¡ Ur'ja.be, cause.
troops, and defied every danger. 12. According to his own Iruben, to threaten. Alinzeln, to ring (the Berlanógen,n. demand. difficulties which beset him.
opinion his power was paramount, and he thought not of the Gtre, f. honour. bell).
Bernunft“, f. reason. Entía'gen, to resign, Kriejojus, m. warlike Bor baben, n. purpose. SECTION L.-VERBS REQUIRING AN ACCUSATIVE OF A renounce.
expedition. Weg fommen, to get Grlie'gen, to succumb. Krone, f. crown. away, be lost.
PERSON, AND A GENITIVE OF A THING. Grwei'sen, to render, kiuten, to toll, ring. Witerstre'ben, to strug.
Verbs signifying “ to accuse, to acquit,” and some others ($ Fliehen, to flee. Leuchten, to light. gle against. 126, 127) govern the accusatire of a person, and the genitive of Fluchen, to execrate. Pime, m. lion. Wunsch, m. wish. a thing, as :-Gr flagt seinen Diener des Diebstahls an, he accuses his fügen, to submit, Mago. f. servant-girl. 3u'Jehören, to belong servant of theft. Der Feind bemächtigte sich der Bestung, the enemy conform. Mislin'gen, to fail. to.
took possession of (mastered) the fortress. Sie beraubten mit Gebie'ten, to com- Nachtem', after. Zürnen, to be angry meines Geltes und meiner Ehre, they robbed me of my money and of mand. Drt, m. place.
my honour. Tie Rid ter sprachen ihn bes Mortes los, the judges doGebrechen, to want, Rath, m. council, ad. Zurer'lommen, to anti- clared him (spoke him free) innocent of the murder. Er entletişte need. vice.
sich seines Auftrags mit großer Pünftlichfeit, be delivered his commis
sion with great punctuality. Der Sandminn rühme fich te! Piluge, RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
the husbandman may pride himself of the plough. Well tem, Der'jenige, welcher einer bösen Ge. He who cannot renounce an sidereth the poor (needy), Ps. xli. 2.
ter sich des Dürftigen annimmt, Pi. xli. 2, Blessed is he that confellschaft nicht entsa'gen fann, evil company, can belong to fann feiner guten an'gehören. no good one.
VOCABULARY. Ihr Freund begegénete mir gestern, Your friend met me yesterday, An'ítultigen, to ac- Entle tigen, to release, Rrone, f. crown, aber mir wollte sein Name nicht but I could not remember his einfallen.
cuse of. name (his name would not
Lachen, to laugh. occur to me).
Anwesenc, present. Entschla'gen (ich), to Landstraße, f.highway. Fürsten entfa'gen nicht so leicht dem Princes do not resign the
Augenblic'licy, instant- get rid of, banish. leer, empty. Throne. throne so easily.
ly, at once. Gentsep'en, to remove, pflegen, to cherish, Was nütt ex tem Menschen, dem What avails it for man to
Bat, n. bath.
indulge in. Cchid Tale zu widerstreben ?--
Befleiben struggle against (the) his
Grbarómen (fich), to Raub, m. robbery. ftete muß er der Macht tesselben destiny ?--he must always
commiserate, have Räuber, m. robber. unterliegen succumb to its power. be studious of. pity on.
Rühmen (fido), to boast, Traue nicht jedem Menschen, und am Trust not every one ; and least Bege'ben (sich), to re- Fessel, f. fetter. allerwenigsten den jenigen, die vir of all, those who flatter thee. Belehren, to teach, Frei'sprechung, f. ac
sign, give up. Flehen, to supplicate. Shamen (ich), to be
ashamed of. schmeicheln Die Ermah'nung eines Freuntes gilt The admonition of a friend is Demäch'tigen (fish), to Freuen, to rejoice.
quittal. mir viel, und ich folge ihr gern. of much value to me, and I follow it gladly.
seize, take posses. Freundschaft
, f. friend. Spotten, to scoff at, sion of. ship.
deride. EXERCISE 94.
Berau'ben, to rob, de- Gedan'fe, m. thought. Ueberfühören, to conprive of.
Geten'fen, to think of. vict. 1. Wenn in alten Zeiten ein Mächtiger bem andern feiub war, so erflärte Bereits', already. Geschwei-ge, much less, Un'idustig, innocent er ihm ter Krieg. 2. Aus allen Orten, tie ihm angehörten, sammelte Beschul'digen, to ac- to say nothing of. Vieh hantler, ml. dealer dieser mådhtige Herr rie Männer, die ihm anhingen. 3. Nachdem sie seinem cuse of.
Gnade, f. grace, faBorhaben beigeftimmt hatten, verpflichteten sie sidy, ihm beizustehen, und ihm Bet'teln, to beg. in ten Kriez zu folgen. 4. Sold cin (Sect. XL. 6.) mächtiger Herr Bezüchtigen, to charge. Handlung, f. action. rather. war Heinrich ter löwe, Herzog von Bayern, welchem große Länder zugehörten, with.
Jebech', nevertheless. Boll, full. und Tausende von Kriegern gehorchten. 5. Doch die Krone eines Kaisers Bitten, to beseech. Kerfer, m. dungeon, Berig
, former, last. dywebte ihm immer vor Augen. 6. Der Herzoghut genügte ihm nicht. Entbloʻßen, to deprive, prison. 7. Gr traute seiner eigenen Kraft und tropte tem Kaiser. 8. Der Kaiser strip of.
Kloster, n. cloister,
safe, deign. forberte ihn auf, sich seinen Befehlen zu fügen, und drohte ihm mit der Acht. Enthe'ben, to free from convent.
Besei Bigen }(fich), to
pride one's self in.
Sorge, f. solicitude,
in cattle, drorer. Vielmehr', much more,
Würrigen, to vonchi
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
acquittal of the innocent, and vouchsafed to them the greatest
friendship. 9. The enemy (say, enemies) stormed the town and Det Hot verrath: an'geklagt, entging' Accused of high treason, he laughed at the supplicants, who besought them to have pity on
e bem Kerter nur durch die escaped the prison only by them. Flicct.
flight. Beleh're mit eines Bessern, wenn du Teach me (convince me of) a fannst. better, if you can.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. Sie bemach'tigten fich des Räubers, They seized the robber who had
EXERCISE 11 (Vol. I., page 68). ter den Kaufmann seines Geldes robbed the merchant of his beraubt' batte. money.
1. Is your friend, the captain, still a young man? 2. Yes, he is Gr befann sich eines Bessern, um He bethought himself of a
still young, but his good friend, the Dutchman, is old.
3. Have you
5. Has nicht einer Un'wahrheit bezüch'tigt better course in order not to a beautiful great dog? 4. No, I have a beautiful great horse. zu werden. be accused of an untruth.
your little child my new knife ? 6. No, but your good son has your
new stick. 7. Has the butcher a fat sheep? 8. Yes, and his good Mein Sohn hat mich alles Gelbes My son has stripped me of all
son has a beautiful white lamb. 9. Is your friend, the young Dutchentblößt'. (my) money.
man, rich or poor? 10. He is not rich, but he is contented. 11. Euthe"bet mich dieser trau'rigen Relieve me of (from) this sad A contented man is also rich. 12. A rich man is not always a Pflicht! duty.
contented man. 13. Your great house has a steep roof and a deep Der Gerech'te erbarmt sich seine The righteous (man) is merciful cellar. 14. From whom have you your new sofa ? 15. I have it from Biebe. to his beast.
a good friend, 16. The pig is a lazy fat animal. 17. A true friend is Grin'nere dich der vielen Wohl'thaten, Remember the many good deeds
a strong protection. tie ich dir erwies'. (favours) that I have shown
EXERCISE 12 (Vol. I., page 94). you. Geben'te deine Freundes selbst in Remember thy friend even in and your old friend, the teacher, has the ripe fruit.
1. Have you my ripe fruit? 2. No, I have your silver fruit-knife,
3. Have you my weiter Ferne! remote distance.
silver pencil? 4. No, the good teacher has it. 5. Has the old cook Drobe, wie tu willst, ich lache deiner. Threaten as thou wilt, I will my wooden table ? 6. No, the joiner has it, but the cook has a
laugh at thee.
marble table. 7. Has he also a wooden cask? 8. Yes, and this diliNach geschehener Arbeit fam man After completed (taken place) gent scholar has a beautiful leaden inkstand. 9. Has he also a silver ter Ruhe pflegen.
toil, we can indulge in (the) cup? 10. Yes, and he has also a copper kettle and an iron mortar. repose.
11, Have you my young friend's new knife ? 12. No, I have a new Biele tühmen fidy großer Thaten, tie Many boast themselves of great friend's good book, or his good cousin's silver pencil? 14. He has
knife from the good merchant. 13. Has this diligent scholar the old fie niemals vollbracht haben. deeds which they have never
neither a good book nor a silver pencil-he has only a wooden pencil.
15. Where is the cook's copper kettle? 16. The poor man has only an lleberlebe mich der Noth'wendigkeit, Exempt me from the necessity iron kettle. tich ju ftrafen. of punishing thee.
EXERCISE 13 (Vol. I., page 94). The ich mich eines Schlages verseh'en Before I had expected a blow, hatte, lag ich schon zu Boden ges I was already felled (lay
1. Hat sie mein reifes Obst? 2. Der alte Koch hat meinen silbernen ftredt'.
stretched) to the ground. Bleistift. 3. Hat er auch ein neues Messer ? 4. Der gute Kaufmann hat Er war so stolz, daß er mich feines He was so proud that he did einen alten marmornen Tisch. 5. Er hat weder ein golrenes Obstmesser, Blides wür'digte.
not vouchsafe to me a look. noch einen silbernen Becher. 6. Der Sommer ist eine goldene Zeit. 7. Der
fleißige Tischler hat den eisernen Sessel des Kochs. EXERCISE 96.
EXERCISE 14 (Vol. I., page 94). 1. Sie erinnern (5 86. 1, 2) fich wohl noch bes jungen Mannes, der
1. Is this young lady's young sister in Germany? 2. No, she is in tart verigen Jahre tes Naubes angeklagt war. 2. Er war beschuldigt, einen France, but her brother is in America. 3. Where is my new gold pen? reichen Viehhändler auf der Lantstraße seines Gettes beraubt zu haben. 4. Your young friend Miss S. has it. 5. Has your mother the beautiful 3. Man konnte ihn jedoch dieses Verbrechens nicht überführen. 4. Er hatte silk of your aunt? 6. Yes, and also the beautiful fine linen. 7. Where fie bereits aller Hoffnung einer Freisprechung begeben, und sich des Geran, are [ist] your gold spectacles? 8. I have no gold spectacles. 9. Have fene entíðlagen, für unschultig erflärt zu werten. 5. Der Richter jet och you a silver or gold watch? 10. I have a silver watch. 11. Is it a enthob ibn aller Sorge. 6. Nachdem er den Angeklagten aufgefordert hatte, good watch? 12. Yes, but it is not very beautiful. 13. Where is your aur gutes Muths zu sein, und sich alles Kummers zit entschlagen, erklärte watch? 14. It is in my watch-pocket. 15. Has your sister a gold er: Já bin der vollen Meinung, daß man diesen jungen Mann nicht des
watch? 16. Yes, and she has also a beautiful gold chain, 17. Where Kaubes bezüchtigen kann. 7. Denn nicht Jeter, der sich des Bettelns
are my new scissors? 18. I have them, but they are not very sharp.
19. Where is your sister? 20. She is with her mother in the library. schämt, und aller Mittel entblößt ist, wird ein Räuber. 8. Ich fann seines 21. Where is my glass lamp! 22. I have it. 23. Who has my new Betragens lobend erwähnen, denn er hat sich immer eines ordentlichen Lebens opera-glass? 24. I have it, and your new spectacles. beflifjen. 9. Ich erinnere euch aber an seine Thaten im leßten Kriege, teten er sich mit Recht rühmen fann. 10. Freuet euch seiner Freisprechung,
EXERCISE 15 (Vol. I., page 94). and wittiget ihn eurer Freundschaft. 11. Spottet feiner nicht, weil er im Retter war, sondern erbarmt euch vielmehr seiner, und gebenfet seiner Leiten. Der guten Tante eine goldene Uhr ? 3. Mein fleißiger Bruter hat weder
1. Die Mutter dieser Dame ist in Franfreich. 2. Hat die schöne Todter 12. Jetcr, ter seiner lacht, schäme fich seined cigenen Betragens. Alle Anwesenden freuten sich dieser Rete, und man entledigte augenblik lich keine Feine Leinwant, aber sie hat eine neue gläserne Lampe. 5. Mein
eine geltene Uhr noch ein gutes Opernglas. 4. Meine gute Schwester hat ten Angeklagten seiner Fesseln. 14. Lehre uns beine Wege, o Herr! und beraube uns nicht deiner Gnade! 15. 3 bin Willens (s 128), im näch Better mit der goldenen Brille ist bei meinem schönen Bruder in der flen Sommer ein Bab zu besuchen. 16. Ich kann durchaus nicht der
Bibliothet. änsöt sein, taš man nach Tische der Ruhe nicht pflegen sollte. 17. Wer
EXERCISE 16 (Vol. I., page 102). fide des lebens freut, soll sich auch des Sterbens erinnern. 18. Als General
1. Has the Frenchman the German's wine? 2. Yes, and the GerTilin fich der Stadt Magdeburg bemächtigt hatte, lachte er der Flehenden, man has the Frenchman's cloth. 3. What has the Russian? 4. He welte ihn baten, sich ihrer zu erbarmen.
has the country of the Pole. 5. This Greek is no friend of the Turk,
6. Who has the sharp knife of this boy? 7. The friend of this Greek EXERCISE 97.
has it. 8. Have you your nephew's writing-desk? 9. No, I have my
father's writing-desk, 10. Have you this boy's book, or his nephew's 1. In former times the people knew not how to read, much paper! 11. I have the boy's book, and my niece has the nephew's less to write. 2. I am willing to visit next summer the baths of paper. 12. Is our friend, the captain, a Frenchman or a Greek? 13. Homburg and Laubach. 3. When Louis Philippe, King of the Ho is a Frenchman, and a great enemy of the Russian. French, had abdicated his throne, he went with his whole family child a son of our neighbour, the merchant? 15. No, he [it] is the to England. 4. Some kings have little reason to boast of their son of a Jew, and his father is the neighbour of a Christian. 16. A
| lively countenance is not always the sign of a quiet conscience. 17. reigning. 5. The Emperor Charles V. gave up his crown and went Have you the count's book? 18. No, but the prince has the book. into a convent. 6. It becomes a man better to be studious of 19. The life of a soldier is fatiguing and unsafe. 20. Have you & his actions, than to boast of his abilities. 7. I will relieve my monarchy or a republic? 21. America has no prince, but liberty. self of all business, and enjoy a quiet life. 8. He rejoiced at the 22. I have a gold watch, and you have a silver pencil.
14. Is this