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described in the Rack exercises. Another method is the follow.
ing : lie upon the bar in the position shown in Fig. 27, holding GYMNASTICS-VIII.
the ropes firmly, but with sufficient ease to give freedom to the THE HANGING - BAR, TRAPEZE.
wrist. Then turn gradually over backwards, by lowering the This is an apparatus of which most of our readers have heard, head and raising the feet, which are kept close together, and but few who are unacquainted with the gymnasium know its pass between the ropes. You then come into position hanging precise nature or value in bodily training. The Flying Trapeze below the bar, and with the face directed to the ground. Afteris associated in the popular idea with the feats of Leotard and wards you can try to return to the lying position by reversing others-feats dangerous to execute, and unpleasant to witness, these movements ; but you will find this much more difficult from the risk obviously incurred by the performer. But the than the backward turn Trapeze of the gymnasium-although the same thing in the from the bar. principle of its construction-is an apparatus the use of which 5. Squatting on the need not excite any alarm in the minds of those concerned bar is a position which in the safety of the young gymnast. No doubt the same is practised in order amount of care, and of abstinence from the attempt to perform to obtain a facility in foats which are simply daring, but otherwise unmeaning and changing the seat, or unnecossary, is required in the practice with this contrivance, as returning to it from with any other ; but such exercises as those we shall have to the standing posture. describe may be performed in perfect safety.
Sitting sideways upon The Hanging Bar is, in principle, very much like the Rack, the bar, you grasp the
Fig. 26.-THE HAMMOCE, which was described in a former lesson (Vol. I., page 175), and rope on your right hand is intended for a somewhat similar series of exercises. In the a little above the level of the head, and then, resting the case of the Rack a horizontal bar is fixed upon two supports let other hand upon the bar itself, you draw up the knees and raise into the ground. In the Trapeze a similar bar is suspended from the body from the bar, thus remaining in the sitting position, but the ceiling by two ropes, one at each end, as shown in our illus- partly suspended in the air. tration (Fig. 25). The length of the bar should be about three 6. Change of seat is performed readily from the squatting feet; its thickness, about an inch and a half, sufficient to support position, by moving the hand which grasps the bar along its the weight of the gymnast, and at the same time to be readily surface, and turning the body round until you face the reverse grasped by the hands. Its height from the ground, as it hangs way to that from which you started. At the moment of sitting, when out of use, should be such that the learner can just reach you shift the bar-hand from the bar to the rope, while the other
it; its distance from the ceiling or the hand is passed to the rope on the opposite side. In this change cross-beam from which it is suspended the whole movement takes place between the ropes ; but you need not be more than eight or ten feet, may also change the seat by passing round and outside either unless the gymnast is sufficiently expert rope, as follows :-Grasp the bar, as you sit, with one hand and experienced to be entrusted with a close to the rope ; and let the other hand take firm hold of the greater power of movement.
same rope a little above the head. Thus, if you intend to pass The ropes, we need hardly say, must round the rope which hangs on your right hand, you take bold be strong and well secured ; and if they of the rope with your left hand while the right remains upon are attached to pulleys or any other con- the bar. You now raise yourself from the bar, extending the trivance by which they may be raised or legs horizontally forward, and turn the body round the rope, lowered at will, it will be found an advantage. until you are in position to resume the seat, but facing the other
The first of the exercises to be practised way. Your right arm, which has remained upon the bar, must on the Hanging Bar bear a close resom- assist you in preserving the balance of the trapeze, until
yen Fig. 25. blance to those on the Rack; and for these can quickly transfer it to the rope which now hangs at the right TUE HANGING BAR. we advise the reader to consult the lesson hand of you.
before referred to, in which we have de- 7. The exercise called the Rest is something like the Ham. scribed the various modes of hanging by the hands, rising and mock, which has already been described; but it requires a little sinking, etc. But there are other exercises peculiar to the more practice with the trapeze to perform it steadily. You kneel trapoze, among which may be mentioned
upon the bar, taking hold of the ropes at about the height of 1. Rising to the seat. -Stand crossways below the bar (that your shoulders; you next draw your legs along the bar until the is, with the bar endways before you ; when you are looking be- insteps are resting upon it, and then drop the body downwards tweon the two ropos, you are said to stand sideways); tako one and forwards. The ond of the bar in both hands, the right hand in front; then, by weight of the body is di. a forward swing, raise the right leg over the bar, grasping vided between the hands the bar in the hock. You now remove the hands, one after the which grasp the ropes, other, to the rope nearest you, and can then work yourself up and the insteps resting into the seat on one thigh without difficulty. To gain the seat on the bar, but is thrown on both thighs, you throw both legs over the bar in the first chiefly upon the former. movement, and hold the bar in one hand, and the rope in the 8. Hanging by the other. Another but more difficult way of attaining the seat is legs and hands together
Fig. 27.-THE TURN OVER. by rising into the rest, as in the Rack movement.
upon the bar may easily be accomplished from the sitting position. 2. Having reached the seat, you can next stand upon the bar, Raise the legs and
draw them backward until the bar is between by grasping a rope in each hand, and raising the body gradually the hocks, and held firmly; then shift the hands from the ropes by the purchase thus acquired. Standing upon the bar, you to the bar, either outside of or between the knees and leaa may awing gently backward and forward, and practise a firm backwards. You may thus swing in perfect safety, and ca5 hold upon the bar with the feet, which will prepare you for the raise yourself to the sitting position at pleasure. next exercise.
Many other exercises are practised upon the Trapeze, such as 3. The Hammock.–Standing on the bar, you grasp the ropes hanging solely by the hocks or by the insteps, swing and turn, firmly at about the height of the hips ; you then lean forwards, etc., but those we have described are quite sufficient for all benokeeping the feet steadily on the bar, and thus come into the posi- ficial purposes, and we do not advise any of our readers to tion shown in Fig. 26. You may next perform the same move attempt
the daring class of feats. Even in the simpler exercises ment by taking a higher grasp of the ropes, about the level of the care must be taken to guard against a slip or a fall, for to obtain head, and, as you throw yourself forward, the body then de- a perfect command of the Hanging Bar, as well as of your scribos almost a semicircle. leaning backwards instead of forwards, thus reversing the ferent thing to perform gymnastic exercises on a bar in a fixed position of the body as it appears in the illustration.
position, like the Rack, and to attempt them on one that is 4. Turning over may be done in various ways, among which swaying in the air ; and a corresponding degree of caution is may be mentioned the mode of "circling the bar,” which was required.
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXIX. house of business is closed for the evening; while the latter exhi
bits in an equal degree unmistakable signs of the deliberation, BUSINESS HANDWRITING.-I.
method, and thoughtfulness that should always be exercised by IN our present Lesson on Penmanship, we bring before our the bookkeeper or accountant, to prevent errors and the disreaders two excellent models of business handwriting, one figurement of the fair page neatly ruled in red and blue for the of which will
reception of give those
facts and who may be
figures, by seeking
the use of seat in
the pen-knife merchant's
or eraser to counting
remove any house, a clear
mistake that idea of the
may have un kind of writ
fortunately ing suitable а a
been made by for mercan.
undue haste tile corre
on the part spondence,
of the writer, while the
or want of other exhi. bits the style
tion to the best suited for entries in
task on which theday book,
he isengaged. ledger, jour.
The reader nal, and other
will notice &ccount
that while books used
the loops and in every office
tails of letters where a rigid
in the specisystem of
mens of busi. book-keeping
ness hand. is main
writing in tained, and
this page are the account
a little longer ant's duties
than those efficiently
in the spe. carried out.
cimens of It will be
official handuseful for SPECIMEN OF BUSINESS HANDWRITING.–NO. 1.
writing given our readers
in previous to mark the difference between the general character of the lessons (see pages 33,48), they are not carried above or below the handwriting suitable for the business letter, and that which body of the letter to the extent that was formerly insisted on in is better calculated for records of mercantile transactions. commercial handwriting, and that there is a total absence of all Although it must be conceded that both specimens of penman- | that obnoxious flourishing and redundancy of capital letters,
the have the pleasure receipt of you
formanded in a
6 Donaldson He
hrvoice debited to latter account
in error 31 December 1867, fou:
pieces of Irinted Cottons
500 yards @ 10 id per ya 21. then 2
SPECIMEN OF BUSINESS HANDWRITING. NO. 2.
ship are perfectly satisfactory, as far as neatness and legibility which were once considered as combining to form the height of are concerned, the former is marked by the ease and freedom perfection in the penmanship of the commercial clerk. For busithat a good writer naturally imparts to his handwriting, when, ness correspondence and the records of mercantile transactions, with ready thought and practised hand, he uses the pen as well as for official handwriting, a plain, clear hand, devoid of rapidly to get through the mass of business correspondence that flourishes and ornamentation of capital letters, is the most desirmust be cleared off and sent to the nearest post-office before the able, and will always command the preference of practical men.
Πειθομαι (with dat.), Πολλακις, often. Τικτω, I bring forth. Norm. σκι-αι. χωρ-αι. μν-αι. σφυρ-αι. Μουσ-αι. τραπεζ-αι.
I am persuaded, I Συνηθεια, ας, ή, in- Τρυφη, ης, ή, luxury.
believe, trust, obey tercourse, compa- Φιλια, ας, ή,friendship Gen. σκι-ων. χωρ-ων. μν-ών. σφυρ-ων. Μουσ-ων, τραπεζ-ων.
Πενια, ας, ή, poverty. nionship.
Χαλεπη, hard, trou. Dat. σκι-αις. χωρ-αις. μν-αις. σφυρ-αις. Μουσ-αις. τραπεζ-αις.
blesome. Acc. σκι-as. χωρ-ας. μν-άς. σφυρ-ας.
Πλεονεξια, ας, ή, ava- Τειρω, I rub (Latin,
tero), grieve. Toc.
3. Η φιλια G.D. σκι-αιν. χωρ-αιν. μν-άιν. σφυρ-αιν. Μουσ-αιν. τραπεζ-αιν. | επαγγελλεται καταφυγην και βοηθειαν. 4. Η μεριμνα την καρδιαν A mine is a Greek coin, equal to about 84 English. Its root εσθιει. 5. Θεραπευετε τας Μουσας. 6. Μη πειθου διαβολαις. 7.
8. Πολλακις χαλεπη πενιά is akin to the English money, the Latin moneta, and the Hebrew | Η δικη πολλακις τη αδικια εικει.
τειρομεθα. 9. Την αδολεσχιαν φευγετε. maneh.
10. Η κακια λυπην In nouns ending in n, the n remains in all the cases of the Erayel. 11. Τρυφη αδικιαν και πλεονεξιαν τικτει. 12. Φευγε την singular number. In nouns ending in a two kinds are observ- τρυφην ως λυμην. 13. Δια αρετης και συνηθειας αληθινη φιλια
γιγνεται. able :
EXERCISE 4.-ENGLISH-GREEK. 1st. The nominative in a (a long) or å (a short), and the a remains in all the cases when it is preceded by p, or the vowels e 1. Abstain from force. 2. He abstains from force. 3. He and • (in this last instance the a is called alpha pure) : thus, does not abstain from force. 4. They abstain from force. 5. χωρα, χωρας, etc. και ιδεα, form, ιδεας ; σοφια, isdom, σοφιας ; Ανοίd injustice. 6. You avoid injustice. 7. I avoid injustice χρεια, utility, χρειας ; ευνοια, benevolence, fαυour, ευνοιας. as madness. 8. Foroe brings grief. 9. Through justice pleaHereto belong contracted nouns in , as μνά; also αλαλά, α sure arises. 10. True friendships arise through virtue." 11. WETT-cry; and some proper names in a, as Avôpoueôā, Andro- The heart is grieved by poverty. * 12. Anxious cares are dissimedα ; Ληδά, Ledα ; Φιλομηλά, Philomelα.
pated by the lyre. 2nd. The nominative ends in ă (a short); the a, however, re
ETYMOLOGICAL VOCABULARY. mains only in the accusative and the vocative; in the genitive and dative it is changed into η when the a is preceded by λλ, σ,| ΔΙΚΗ, justice, judg- Κακια, wickedness, Κακοδαιμων, having
ment. σσ, ττ, ζ, ξ, Ψ, and (in general) ν.
an evil spirit, unΚακιζω,
I make When a is preceded by e or a, a contraction takes place in Alkmois, vengeance.
happy, wretched. some words, the ea being changed into ñ, and aa into â; the last Alknpopos, bringing wicked, revile. ΦΙΛΟΣ, a friend. syllable is then circumflexed in all the cases; see the declension punishment, or re- Κακισμος, reviling, Φιλια, friendship. of συκή (συκεα) and μνά (μναα).
Φιλικος, befitting a
bad friend. According to these paradigms, decline the feminine gender of | Δικιδιον,a(trumpery) Κακοβουλια, adjectives of three terminations. The feminine gender of these lawsuit.
counsel, folly. Φιλιοs, friendly, or adjectives ends in a when preceded by for ρ. The adjectives in | Δικογραφια, an in- Κακογαμος, unhap- friendlike. oos have oa in the feminine when o is preceded by p; otherwise
Φιλιππια, fondness they end in oη; thus αθροα, dense; ογδοη, eighth.
Δικολογεω, I speak | Κακογειτων, a bad for horses.
in a court of jus. neighbour. Φιλογελοιος, fond of NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES COMBINED.
Κακογενης, of base laughter, sportive.
Φιλοδημος, loving the
Δικομαχεω, I liti- | Κακογλωσσια, evil people (Latin,pub-
licola). Nom. καλη τιμη.
ΚΑΚΟΣ, bad, wicked. | Κακογλωσσος, an evil Φιλοδικος, fond of Gen. καλης τιμης. δικαιας γνωμης. εχθρας χωρας.
law-suits. Dat. καλη τιμη.
εχθρα χωρα. N.B.-Observe especially, that when pinos, in composition, is Acc. καλην τιμην.
εχθραν χωραν. a prefix, it is active ; but when a suffix, it is passive, as :-0110Voc. καλη τιμη.
dloc is loving God; but 0eopinos is beloved by God. Plural.
SECONDARY COMPONENTS. Nom. καλαι τιμαι.
εχθραι χωραι. Gen. καλων τιμών.
Γαμος, marriage. Γενησις, begetting, Iππος, a horse. Dat.
δικαιαις γνωμαις. καλαις τιμαίς.
Γειτων, neigh- from yevvaw, I beget Maxn, a fight, a conAcc.
. δικαιας γνωμας.
Γλωσσα (or γλωττα), καλας τιμάς.
εχθρας χωρας. Voe. . καλαι τιμαί.
popos, bearing, from Γελως, laughter, Aaluwv, a divinity. φερω, I bear, proDual.
Δημος, the people. duce. Ν.Α.V. καλα τιμα.
εχθρα χωρα. G.D. καλαιν τιμαιν.
By the help of these “ Secondary Components” and the
Vocabulary, the learner ought to be able to give the meanings Write out in full the following nouns :-Mndela, Medea ; of the several derivative words. Words, the roots of which have αληθεια, truth ; μοιρα, fate ; αρουρα, αrable land, δοξα, opinion. occurred previously, as γραφια in δικογραφια, are not repeated Write out also, in pairs, as in the last table, these nouns and under the head of " Secondary Components,” unless for special adjectives, namely, μικρα μανια, slight madness ; μακρα λυπη,
reasons. long grief; βραχεια ηδονη, short pleasure ; πασα κακια,
In enayw you see a preposition prefixed to a verb ; etayw is trickedness.
made up of eth, upon or to, and ayw (Latin, ago), I lead or conVOCABULARY.
duct. Hence επαγω means I lead to. Instead of επι, we might Aqw, I lead, drive. Γιγνομαι, Ibecome, I Κακια, ας, ή, wicked- have had the preposition απο, as in απαγω. Now απο means Αδικια, ας, ή,injustice. arise.
from, away from ; accordingly, anayw is, I lead away. With Αδολεσχια, ας, ή, gar. Διαβολη, ης, ή, ca- Καρδια, ας, ή, the ανα, which denotes motion upwards, αγω in the form of αναγω, rulity, talkative- lumny.
signifies, I lead up; and with kata, as in katayw, the same root Δικη, ης, ή, justice. | Καταφύγη, ης, ή, a means, I lead down. You thus see how the propositions are Αληθινη, true. Εικω, I yield.
used as prefixes, and how, as such, they modify the signification Απεχομαι, I keep| Επαγγελλομαι, I pro- Λυμη, ης, ή, outrage. and increase the vocabulary. A comparison of the English myself from, ab. mise. .
Λυπη, ης, ή, grief. “meanings” with the Greek verbs as just given, will show that stain from.
Επαγω, I bring on. Λυρα, ας, ή, a lyre. what we express by an uncombined verb and an adverb or prepoΑρετη, ης, ή, virtue. | Ηδονη, ης, ή, pleasure. Λυω, I undo, loose, sition, the Greeks express by a verb and a prefix in combination. Βια, ας, ή, force. Θεραπευω, I attend dissipate.
It may be well distinctly to state, though it has been already Βοηθεια, ας, ή, assist- to, heal, court. Mepruva, ns, , anxi. implied, that the genitive in Greek is to be Englished by of, and anoe. Και, and.
the dative by to. Sometimes from is a better translation of
the genitive, and by or for is required for the dative. The is blown upon a flame. A tin blow-pipe with brass nozzle costs
process of breathing with inflated cheeks can be continued, and thus a steady flame procured.
Herapath's Gas Blow-pipe, the price of which is 78. 6d. (Fig,
7), is more convenient, especially for blowing glass, and for Fig. 5.
fusions. The gas enters at a, and meets at with a current
Glass Tubing may be had any
size, from 2s. a pound. The three
smallest sizes will be found most
To Cut Glass Tubing.-Take a
Fig. 9. continued round the tube.
To Melt or Bend Tubes.--Simply put them in the blow-pipe Fig. 6.
flame, being careful to do it by degrees; then turn the tube
round, so that each part may be alike heated. The flame will a lecture-room, may be performed for a few shillings. We shall soon become
tinged with yellow, which is the burning of the enumerate the several things which are all but necessary; but soda in the glass, and proves that the glass is melting ; then the inventive student will soon find ways of adapting a very bend the tube to the shape required, but be careful not to allow little apparatus to many purposes.
the hot part, when removed from the flame, to touch anything It is advisable that all bottles and breakable apparatus should cold, or it most probably will crack. be kept in a room which can be set apart as a laboratory, or, To Blow a Bulb.-Hold the end of the tube in the flame (Fig. where this cannot be done, in a closet under lock and key. 8), and when it is soft touch it with another piece of tube. The
The most convenient mode of "heating" is either by a "spiritlamp," or by a "Bunsen's gas burner"—the flame of each being smokeless.
A Glass Spirit-lamp (Fig. 5a), with a ground-glass cap, which fits on the wick when the lamp is not in use, and prevents the evaporation of the spirit, costs 1s. 4d. The wick-holder is stoneware, which is preferable to brass, as it does not corrode; nor does it conduct the heat of the flame to the body of the lamp, as brass wick-holders do. A lamp of 5 or 6 oz. capacity is the most convenient stze. The spirit used is "methylated spirit,” the price of which is about 58. per gallon.
Bunsen's Gas Burner.-In this kind of burner (Fig. 6) the gas enters by the horizontal pipe, b, and escapes from a jet a
Fig. 10. little above the holes in the neck into which the upright pipe a is screwed. The gas thus mixes with the air, and burns with two will adhere. Now twist the latter, and by this means the a smokeless flame at the top of the pipe. When a broad surface hole in the first tube will be completely closed, or the tube wil is to be heated, which is generally the case in evaporation, a rose be hermetically sealed.” Place this sealed end in the fame burner, d, is used. The smallest size of Bunsen's burner G-inch and continually turn it round, so that all sides may be equally
bore) is 1s. 6d. ; with the rose 1s. more. When a greater heat heated. Upon blowing through the tube this softened glass
- roquired we use a blow-pipe (Fig. 5b), which is merely a tube will expand into a bulb. s used. The sia di ends in a very small hole, through which a stream of air It is freqnently required to pass tubes through corks. This 6d. ; with the edt dite we use a blow-:--03d0 in a very smasma VTOV