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PAGE ARCHITECTURE, LESSONS
15 Progress of Architecture in
Egypt and India-The
65 Ancient Architecture of
129 The Greek Orders of Architecture
193 Roman Orders of Archi
Composite Order 257
Terms used in Architec-
319 Architraves, Arches, and Vaulted Roofs
383 ARITHMETIC, LESSONS IN: Redaction
7 Compound Addition
37 Compound Sabtraction 78 Compound Multiplication. 78 Compound Division
101 Fractions in connection
with Compound Quan-
198 Decimals in connection
with Compound Quanti-
234 Short Methods of Reduc
tion with reference to
270 Rule of Three, Single and Double
294, 326 Per-centage Profit and
362 Simple Interest
402 BOOKKEEPING, LESSONS IN: Introduction
20 Principles of Double Entry 90 Principal Rules for finding
the Debtor and Creditor 154 Explanation of the Waste
Book, Cash Book, Bill
218 The Day Book, Journal, etc. 276 Property Accounts--Per
318 BOTANY, LESSONS IN: XXV.
ierous or Parsley Tribe. 24 XXVI. Myrtaceæ, or the Myrtle Tribe
25 XXVII. Cruciferæ, or Bras
sicacea- The Cruciferous
PAGE XXVIII. Passifloraceæ, or
Lower Oxides of Nitrogen the Passion-flower Tribe 56 and Compounds of this XXIX. Cucurbitacea, or
Gas with Hydrogen 289 the Cucumber Tribe 87 Carbon and its Oxides 335 XXX., XXXI. Solanaceæ, or
Hydro-carbons, Coal-gas, the Nightshade Tribe 88, 120 Flame, etc.
362 XXXII., XXXIII. Legu. Compounds of Carbon with minosæ, or the Legumi.
Nitrogen and Sulphurnous Tribe
The Halogens-Chlorine 399 XXXIV. Boraginacex, or
“ POPULAR the Borage Tribe
177 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: XXXVI. Scrophulariacea,
Introduction – Terms em. or the Foxglove Tribe 177
ployed in Classification XXXVII. XXXVIII.,
Divisions of the Animal
Kingdom - Vertebrata-
Annulosa - Annuloida
--Calenterata-Protozoa 81 rian-worts
Subdivisions of the Animal
Kingdom-Table of Sub-
249 XLII. Rubiaceæ, or Galia
divisions of Classes-Pro-
113 273 XLIII., XLIV. Cinchona
215 XLVI. Polemoniacee, or
Annelida: Ringed Worms 279 XLVII. Hydrophyllaceae
Rotatoria-Myriapoda 311 XLVIII. Gesneracew, or
315 XLIX. Bignonaceæ,
375 Sketch of Haddock, show. L. Pedaliaces, or Pedaliads 375 ing its external form, and LI. Acanthacem, or Acan
also the arrangement of thads
375 its internal organs LII. Selaginaceæ, or Sela
Transverse section of gids
375 Haddock -- Sketch of LIII, Utriculariæ
Lobster Transverse LIV. Plantaginaceæ, or
Section of Lobster
376 Amoba-Shell of Polycys. LV. Plumbaginaceæ,
tina-Sectional Diagram Leadworts
showing circulation in a LVI. Primulacem, or
Sponge--Group of Vorti.
401 cellæ--Noctiluca Miliaris 113 LVII. Ebenaceæ, or Ebe
Eudendrian Ramosum nads
432 Hydrozoon encrusting a LVIII. Aquifoliacea, or Shell-Rhopalonema Ve. Hollyworts
402 latum, the Veiled ClubLIX. Oleaceæ,' or 'Olive:
402 pendicular Section of Sea
Anemone Transverse CHEMISTRY, LESSONS IN:
Section of Sea Anemone Introduction Attraction
--Pleurobrachia --Transof Gravity-Force of Co
verse Section of Pleurohesion-Force of Affinity 1 brachia.
145 Elementary Substances
Coral of Caryophyllir
Smithii - Diagrammatic
Red Coral is secretedcity, and Weight-Ther
Cestum Veneris--One of mometry - To make a
the Polypes of Alcyonaria 184 Mercurial Thermometer 76 An Atoll-Fringing Reefs Chemical Apparatus
-Formation of Atoll 185
Plates and Holes on Echi-
100 nus Shell - Ambulacral Oxygen
132 Plates-Echinus divided Hydrogen — Diffusion of
to show Alimentary Canal Gases, etc. etc.
168 -Spine-Jaws and Teeth Water
-Side View of Single Peroxide of Hydrogen
Jaw- Tooth — Inside of Nitrogen, Air, etc.
271 Purple-tipped Sea-Urchin 217
Solium-Joint of same,
241 Nereis-Transverse Section
of Eunice-Proboscis of
279 Scolopendra Morsitans
nature of Rotary Illusion 313 Privet Hawk Moth-Cater
pillar : Pupa, Imago -
337 DRAWING, LESSONS IN: On Light and Shade in
Trees--Massing in the
7, 39 Foregrounds-High Lights
-Setting Drawings, etc. 72 Treatment of Trees and Foliage.
10% Treatment of Reflections in Water
135 The Human Figure
263, 327, 392 ILLUSTRATIONS : Figs. 100-110. Studies of
Trees and Foliage, and
40, 41, 72, 73, 104 Fig. 111. Application of
Vegetable Form to De.
105 Figs. 112-118. Treatment of
Reflections in Water 136, 137 Fig. 119. The Human Ske. leton
20) Figs. 120-121. The Facial
Angle in Men and Animals 902 Figs. 122-127. Arms, Legs, Hands, and Feet
264, 285 Fig. 128. Head of Judas, after Holbein.
323 Figs. 129–138. The Human Face
329, 392, 393 ENGLISH, LESSONS IN : Derivation: Prefixes .
13 Sufixes 38, 70, 110, 134, 166 Uncombined Suffixes. 206 Words that are both Pre
fixes and Suffixes.
pieces of the metal from the rest; that is, I have applied a force ETRACTION OF GRAVITY-FORCE OF
which has overcome the power of cohesion, and therefore certain
particles have been wrenched from their neighbours. Now I -IN-FORCE OF AFFINITY.
may collect the "filings,” and submit them to the greatest ay is to ascertain the nature and proper pressure I can exert, but I cannot bring them back into their of which our world is composed. Of late solid state; no pressure which we at present possess seems to the chemist has penetrated beyond the be capable of bringing the particles sufficiently near to each d of the “spectrum analysis," of which in other to allow the force of cohesion to come into play. treat, a new chapter has been added to But although particles of bodies are bound thus closely ar Chemistry," which gives some insight together, yet in no body do they seem to be in actual contact, - the great centre of our solar system, for all solids are porous. Two hundred years ago this was t stars. In pursuing his investigations, proved in the case of gold by the "Florentine Experiment;” and ne bodies under his consideration to expe- if gold, which is almost the densest of metals, can be shown to
upon them with various forces—heat, be porous, we may well believe it of the rest. The “Florentine og them within the action of re-agents, Experiment” is so celebrated that it demands recital. The nr in all circumstances, and never predicts question was raised concerning the compressibility of water, and
es all by experiment; hence chemistry is it was determined to try the experiment in the following - l science.
manner :-A hollow sphere of gold was filled with that liquid; e to do with bodies, let us in this lesson and seeing that a sphere is that solid which possesses the maxi
which act upon “substance," and which | mum capacity, any alteration in its shape would therefore lessen hemist in his research.
the quantity of water it could contain. The gold globe was That which has weight” is, perhaps, the accordingly slightly flattened, and the water oozed through the definition. Gases, although they are so gold, appearing as dew on the outside. The Florentines, thereo anything solid, are yet bodies ; they have fore, declared that water was not compressible--a conclusion of air on every square inch is 14:67 lbs., and they had no right to draw unless they could have collected the becomes wind, which sways the trees, carries dew, and found that it exactly filled the space by which the st, or in the hurricane devastates a country, pressure had diminished the capacity of the hollow sphere. do if the air were imponderable. There Water has been proved to be slightly compressible, and the ices present in the world which have no only use of the Florentine Experiment is to assert that gold is ich produces the phenomenon of heat; elec- porous. waves cause the sensation of light, and the This truth, that the particles of bodies, in spite of the great traction—these, not being "bodies," do not force of cohesion, are not in actual contact, may be inferred the range of Chemistry: they rather belong from the fact, that all bodies contract when cooled, which they physicist; but it will be necessary to speak could not do if their particles were already in contact. Thus it take such a prominent part in the decom- would appear that the particles or molecules of bodies are under ation of bodies.
two forces-one attracting, the other repelling them; and that action, by which the particles of bodies are the state of the substance, whether it be solid, liquid, or gaseous, the attraction of gravity, the attraction of will depend upon the ratio which these two forces bear to each sion of adhesion, and the force of affinity. other. In the solid state the molecular attraction, or cohesion, gravity is that mysterious power by which is by far the stronger. In the liquid condition the repelling ced to each other the suns and worlds which power almost balances the attractive; in a gas it entirely superne has ordained that all matter should exert sedes it, and the atoms are solely under the influence of " molei on all bodies in its neighbourhood. This cular repulsion.” When the temperature of a body is raised, he mass of the bodies and their distances this molecular repulsion is always increased, each atom being a stone be dropped over the edge of a perpen- repelled from its neighbour. The body expands, and at last the 3 sea beneath, it will strike the rock before it I cohesion is so nearly overcome that the solid becomes a liquid. because the cliff attracts the stone and draws | If the temperature still increase, the atoms are still further however, the stone be carried away from the repelled, until they cease to have any attraction for each other, force decreases. The power which made the and the body becomes a gas. The molecular repulsion is so avity," that is, the attraction which the earth closely allied to caloric, the one is so intimately dependent upon ; the force of that attraction we call its the other, that they have been thought to be the same thing. this force decreases with the distance the That the physical condition of a body entirely depends upon ve the earth, is proved by the fact that the heat may be shown in almost all bodies. Ice becomes, when less on the top of a high mountain than in heated, water-then steam. Put a small piece of zinc in the Of course, to test this fact a spring balance flame of a blow-pipe : it first becomes red-hot, then melts, and
finally goes away in vapour, which burns with a bright white sion, which has more claim upon our attention, flame, into the oxide of zinc. There is the strongest evidence
ity” chiefly in this, that “gravity" acts upon that all bodies are capable of assuming these three states. Carredor de, whereas the force of cohesion only begins Solids may be gases under certain circumstances; and gases, by the particles of matter are brought into the sufficiently reducing their temperatures, may become, first liquids,
then solids. In future lessons we shall find many examples of y al ais force that bodies possess solidity, and it this interesting fact. gases.
of some adhesive substance, such as gum, glue, eto. of iron, the teeth of the file separate small The force of affinity. This is eminently a chemical force.
263, 299, 323 KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES- Regular Verbs—The Second Stems 262, 358, 394, 409 Construction of Projection
SONS IN GERMAN:
403 Conversations on English
of Map of Europe.
The Key to the Exercises giren Grammar 134, 302, 331 Table of Latitudes and
63 34-37 247 in any Lesson in Latin will be Longitudes of Places 11-16. 95 38-41. 283
found at the end of the next ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY: in Europe
17-20 119 42, 43 315 Lesson or the next Lesson but MAPS :
372 Patience 77 Map of the World
144 2426 , 180
53–59. 408 MECHANICS : Unselfishness 131 Atlantic Ocean 232
12 Courage 193 Pacific Ocean 233 GREEK, LESSONS IN:
Principle of Virtual VeloFidelity 259 Europe
cities - The Three SysPerseverance 327 Norway, Sweden, and Den
2 tems of Pulleys Economy.
61 France 301
34 Punctuation, etc.
The Inclined Plane--The
Noun, the Adjective, and
Statical Forces-Friction . 107 XLIX, Regimen relating to
the Prepositions -The
Illustrations of preceding some Verbs 10
66 Principles - Kite, Boat, GEOMETRICAL PERSPECL. The Past Definite
Case-endings of the Declen
etc.-Elements of MaLI. The Past Definite of
139 Irregular Verbs Introduction Definitions The First Declension.
98, 130 Prime Movers Animal LII., LIII, The Imperfect
--Proportional Scales 161 The Second Declension 162, 195 Force, Water, Wind, Tonse Methods of ConstructionThe Third Declension 195, 229,
170 LIV. The Past Anterior Station Point, eto.-Pro
258, 291, 322, 354, 390 Dynamics – Definitions blem I. and the Pluperfect Tenses 106
of LV. Idiomatic ConstrucOrthographic and Isome.
223 tions in Regimen. 106 tric Projection Pro
Proof of Third Law of LVI. Idiomatic Uses of
The Key to the Exercises given 295
Motion-Laws of Falling
in any Lesson in Greek will be Tenses of Verbs 107 Problems VII.-XI. . 359
Bodies — Atwood's Ma
found at the end of the next LVII. Idiomatic Phrases 138
Lesson. LVIII. Rules for the Plu. GEOMETRY, LESSONS IN :
Laws of Falling Bodiesral of Compound Nouns 133 The Circle and its Proper
Projectiles-Collision or LIX. The Two Futures,
23 Simple and Anterior 172 Problems in Practical Geo- How England and Scotland
Impact-Centrifugal Force LX. Irregularities of the
metry on the Circle 49,92, 123
-The Pendulum-Centre Future
How Ireland became part
of Great Britain 85, 125 | MUSIC, LESSONS IN: LXII., LXIII, Idiomatic metry on Construction of How England became pos
Mental Effect of Notes 51 Phrases
Character and Effect of LXIV. Idioms : Faire used Copic Sections-The Ellipse 251 The Dagger Scene in the
115 Reflectively and Uniper. The Oval-Parabola .
284, 307 House of Commons 181
Mental Effect--Consonance sonally
of Notes, etc.. LXV. Idioms relating to
Measurement of Intervals A voir, etc. 237
the Rebellion of 1745 253
-The Glass Harmouicon LXVI, Idioms relating to
The Massacre of Glencoe 285
-German Concertina Avoir and Epouser 237 GERMAN, LESSONS IN:
Wilkes and Liberty
Relation of Notes, etc. 316, 379 LXVII. Idioms relating to XLV. Peculiar Idioms 26 The Right Noble and Va. Dimension, Weight, etc. 266 XLVI. Verbs governing the
lorous Sir Walter Raleigh 341 OUR HOLIDAY: LXVIII. Idioms relating
Admiral Byng on the 14th Gymnastics. to Mettre, etc. 235 XLVII. Adjectives re
of March, 1757
31 LXIX, The Imperative 297 quiring the Genitive 62
Summary of Sketches in
The Giant's Stride.
Vols. I. and II.
The Hanging Bar or Trathe Infinitive Idioms 298 quiring the Dative
peze LXXI. The Subjunctive
XLIX. Verbs requiring the
The Hanging Stirrups LXXII., LXXIII. The Use
The Hanging Rings of the Subjunctive
cusative of a Person and
Principle of Equality of
Croquet and Pluperfect of the a Genitive of a Thing , 96
Laws of Croquet Subjunctive 365 LI. Verbs requiring the
366 LXXV., LXXVI. Regimen,
Dative or Accusative
Pressure of Liquids arising PENMANSHIP, LESSONS IN: or Government of Verbs 383 LII. Verbs requiring two
from their weight
Official Handwriting .33, 64, 128 Accusatives, and those
Centre of Pressure
Business Handwriting KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES. governing the Accusative
Levels-Springs and Ar.
with the Dative
quiring the Genitive
119 LATIN, LESSONS IN : 4-9 36-41 .237 LIV. Prepositions re
READING AND ELOCUTIUN 10-15 75 42-19 233 quiring the Dative 155 Personal Pronouns
19 Analysis of the Voice : 50-53 . 331 LV. Prepositions requiring Possessive or
Exercises on Inflections 29,50 18-20
91 155 Pronouns
54 Just Stress 21-25 174) 57—60,337 LVI. Prepositions reDemonstrative Pronouns
Expressive Tones, Rules 26–28. 203 quiring the Dative or Relative and Interrogative
83 Appropriate Modulation 18 GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN: LVII. Examples illustra- Indefinite Pronouns
Promiscuous Exercises Astronomical Principles of ting the various uses of Correlative Pronouns
214, 250, 278, 306, 346, 378 Geography 4, 41, 79 Prepositions
178 The Numerals
122 RECREATIVE NATURAL HISThe Great Circles of the LVIII., LIX., Lx. Pecu
TORY: Earth-The Meridian-liar Idioms 180, 222, 246 The Latin Verb.
190 The Equator
111 Latitude and Longitude
The Frog rals, etc.
216 -Compounds of Sum 210 First Meridian, etc. 143 LXII. -- LXX, Various
The Latin Verb: its several
250, 274 of the World
The Spider 164
Regular Verbs- The First Natural Divisions of the LXXI. Passive Verbs in
Conjugation 310, 350 WHITWORTH SCHOLAREarth's Surface
382 SHIPS, THE
159, 23 287, 351