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Cyclopean or Pelasgic

Architecture Early
Monuments-First Re-
gular Constructions
Pyramids, etc.

15 Progress of Architecture in

Egypt and India-The

65 Ancient Architecture of

Persia-Greek Architec-
ture-The Parthenon-
Doric Order of Architec-

129 The Greek Orders of Architecture

193 Roman Orders of Archi

tecture-Tuscan Order

Composite Order 257
Explanation of some of the

Terms used in Architec-

319 Architraves, Arches, and Vaulted Roofs


7 Compound Addition

37 Compound Sabtraction 78 Compound Multiplication. 78 Compound Division

101 Fractions in connection

with Compound Quan-

142 Practice

198 Decimals in connection

with Compound Quanti-
ties-Reduction of Deci.

234 Short Methods of Reduc

tion with reference to

270 Rule of Three, Single and Double

294, 326 Per-centage Profit and

362 Simple Interest


20 Principles of Double Entry 90 Principal Rules for finding

the Debtor and Creditor 154 Explanation of the Waste

Book, Cash Book, Bill
Book, Day Book, etc.-
Forms of Drafts, Premis-
sory Notes, and Foreign
Bills of Exchange

218 The Day Book, Journal, etc. 276 Property Accounts--Per

sonal Accounts-Profit
and Loss Accounts


Umbellifera, or
A piacese--- The Umbelli-

ierous or Parsley Tribe. 24 XXVI. Myrtaceæ, or the Myrtle Tribe

25 XXVII. Cruciferæ, or Bras

sicacea- The Cruciferous
(Cross-bearing) or Cab-
bage Tribe



PAGE XXVIII. Passifloraceæ, or

Lower Oxides of Nitrogen the Passion-flower Tribe 56 and Compounds of this XXIX. Cucurbitacea, or

Gas with Hydrogen 289 the Cucumber Tribe 87 Carbon and its Oxides 335 XXX., XXXI. Solanaceæ, or

Hydro-carbons, Coal-gas, the Nightshade Tribe 88, 120 Flame, etc.

362 XXXII., XXXIII. Legu. Compounds of Carbon with minosæ, or the Legumi.

Nitrogen and Sulphurnous Tribe

121, 152

The Halogens-Chlorine 399 XXXIV. Boraginacex, or

“ POPULAR the Borage Tribe


XXXV. Labiatæ, or the

Lip-flower Tribe

177 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: XXXVI. Scrophulariacea,

Introduction – Terms em. or the Foxglove Tribe 177


ployed in Classification XXXVII. XXXVIII.,

Divisions of the Animal
XXXIX. Compositæ, or

Kingdom - Vertebrata-
Compound flowered

Mollusca Molluscoida
178, 209, 247

Annulosa - Annuloida
XL. Valerianaceæ, or Vale-

--Calenterata-Protozoa 81 rian-worts


Subdivisions of the Animal
XLI. Caprifoliaceæ, or

Kingdom-Table of Sub-

249 XLII. Rubiaceæ, or Galia

divisions of Classes-Pro-

113 273 XLIII., XLIV. Cinchona

Actinozoa (Rayed Animals) 183

Echinodermata (Hedgehog-
XLV. Convolvulaceæ 34

skinned Animals).

215 XLVI. Polemoniacee, or


2011 Phlox-worts.


Annelida: Ringed Worms 279 XLVII. Hydrophyllaceae


Rotatoria-Myriapoda 311 XLVIII. Gesneracew, or


337 Gesner-worts.

315 XLIX. Bignonaceæ,


or Bigaoniads

375 Sketch of Haddock, show. L. Pedaliaces, or Pedaliads 375 ing its external form, and LI. Acanthacem, or Acan

also the arrangement of thads

375 its internal organs LII. Selaginaceæ, or Sela

Transverse section of gids

375 Haddock -- Sketch of LIII, Utriculariæ


Lobster Transverse LIV. Plantaginaceæ, or

Section of Lobster

81 Ribworts

376 Amoba-Shell of Polycys. LV. Plumbaginaceæ,

tina-Sectional Diagram Leadworts


showing circulation in a LVI. Primulacem, or

Sponge--Group of Vorti.

401 cellæ--Noctiluca Miliaris 113 LVII. Ebenaceæ, or Ebe

Eudendrian Ramosum nads

432 Hydrozoon encrusting a LVIII. Aquifoliacea, or Shell-Rhopalonema Ve. Hollyworts

402 latum, the Veiled ClubLIX. Oleaceæ,' or 'Olive:

tentacled Medusa-PerWorts

402 pendicular Section of Sea

Anemone Transverse CHEMISTRY, LESSONS IN:

Section of Sea Anemone Introduction Attraction

--Pleurobrachia --Transof Gravity-Force of Co

verse Section of Pleurohesion-Force of Affinity 1 brachia.

145 Elementary Substances

Caryophyllia Smithii--Dry

Coral of Caryophyllir
-Acid - Alkali - Base-

Smithii - Diagrammatic
Chemical Nomenclature 36 Section, showing how
Measures of Length, Capa-

Red Coral is secretedcity, and Weight-Ther

Cestum Veneris--One of mometry - To make a

the Polypes of Alcyonaria 184 Mercurial Thermometer 76 An Atoll-Fringing Reefs Chemical Apparatus

-Formation of Atoll 185
Tubing Blowpipes

Plates and Holes on Echi-
Flasks, etc.

100 nus Shell - Ambulacral Oxygen

132 Plates-Echinus divided Hydrogen — Diffusion of

to show Alimentary Canal Gases, etc. etc.

168 -Spine-Jaws and Teeth Water

203, 235

-Side View of Single Peroxide of Hydrogen

Jaw- Tooth — Inside of Nitrogen, Air, etc.

271 Purple-tipped Sea-Urchin 217

Head and forepart of Tænia

Solium-Joint of same,
near tail end-Head of
Larva of Tænia Solium
--Distoma Conjunctum-
Liver Fluke - Oxyuris

241 Nereis-Transverse Section

of Eunice-Proboscis of
a nearly allied species--
Leech Circulation in
Leech--Section of Earth.
worn Transverse See-
tion of Ditto- Circula-
tion in Lob-worm.

279 Scolopendra Morsitans

Glomeris Julus-Antenna
and Eyes of Ditto-Under
side of double segment
of Ditto-Notomata Cen.
trura-Scheme showing

nature of Rotary Illusion 313 Privet Hawk Moth-Cater

pillar : Pupa, Imago -
Common Wasp : Larva,
Pupa, Imago–Under side
of Head of Bed-bug -
Beetle with Dorsal In-
teguments removed to
show Viscera---Bee, Para-
sitical Insect, seen by
Transmitted Light, and
highly magnified to show
Tracheal System

337 DRAWING, LESSONS IN: On Light and Shade in

Trees--Massing in the
Foliage, etc.

7, 39 Foregrounds-High Lights

-Setting Drawings, etc. 72 Treatment of Trees and Foliage.

10% Treatment of Reflections in Water

135 The Human Figure


263, 327, 392 ILLUSTRATIONS : Figs. 100-110. Studies of

Trees and Foliage, and
Plants in Foreground .8, 9,

40, 41, 72, 73, 104 Fig. 111. Application of

Vegetable Form to De.

105 Figs. 112-118. Treatment of

Reflections in Water 136, 137 Fig. 119. The Human Ske. leton

20) Figs. 120-121. The Facial

Angle in Men and Animals 902 Figs. 122-127. Arms, Legs, Hands, and Feet

264, 285 Fig. 128. Head of Judas, after Holbein.

323 Figs. 129–138. The Human Face

329, 392, 393 ENGLISH, LESSONS IN : Derivation: Prefixes .

13 Sufixes 38, 70, 110, 134, 166 Uncombined Suffixes. 206 Words that are both Pre

fixes and Suffixes.


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pieces of the metal from the rest; that is, I have applied a force ETRACTION OF GRAVITY-FORCE OF

which has overcome the power of cohesion, and therefore certain

particles have been wrenched from their neighbours. Now I -IN-FORCE OF AFFINITY.

may collect the "filings,” and submit them to the greatest ay is to ascertain the nature and proper pressure I can exert, but I cannot bring them back into their of which our world is composed. Of late solid state; no pressure which we at present possess seems to the chemist has penetrated beyond the be capable of bringing the particles sufficiently near to each d of the “spectrum analysis," of which in other to allow the force of cohesion to come into play. treat, a new chapter has been added to But although particles of bodies are bound thus closely ar Chemistry," which gives some insight together, yet in no body do they seem to be in actual contact, - the great centre of our solar system, for all solids are porous. Two hundred years ago this was t stars. In pursuing his investigations, proved in the case of gold by the "Florentine Experiment;” and ne bodies under his consideration to expe- if gold, which is almost the densest of metals, can be shown to

upon them with various forces—heat, be porous, we may well believe it of the rest. The “Florentine og them within the action of re-agents, Experiment” is so celebrated that it demands recital. The nr in all circumstances, and never predicts question was raised concerning the compressibility of water, and

es all by experiment; hence chemistry is it was determined to try the experiment in the following - l science.

manner :-A hollow sphere of gold was filled with that liquid; e to do with bodies, let us in this lesson and seeing that a sphere is that solid which possesses the maxi

which act upon “substance," and which | mum capacity, any alteration in its shape would therefore lessen hemist in his research.

the quantity of water it could contain. The gold globe was That which has weight” is, perhaps, the accordingly slightly flattened, and the water oozed through the definition. Gases, although they are so gold, appearing as dew on the outside. The Florentines, thereo anything solid, are yet bodies ; they have fore, declared that water was not compressible--a conclusion of air on every square inch is 14:67 lbs., and they had no right to draw unless they could have collected the becomes wind, which sways the trees, carries dew, and found that it exactly filled the space by which the st, or in the hurricane devastates a country, pressure had diminished the capacity of the hollow sphere. do if the air were imponderable. There Water has been proved to be slightly compressible, and the ices present in the world which have no only use of the Florentine Experiment is to assert that gold is ich produces the phenomenon of heat; elec- porous. waves cause the sensation of light, and the This truth, that the particles of bodies, in spite of the great traction—these, not being "bodies," do not force of cohesion, are not in actual contact, may be inferred the range of Chemistry: they rather belong from the fact, that all bodies contract when cooled, which they physicist; but it will be necessary to speak could not do if their particles were already in contact. Thus it take such a prominent part in the decom- would appear that the particles or molecules of bodies are under ation of bodies.

two forces-one attracting, the other repelling them; and that action, by which the particles of bodies are the state of the substance, whether it be solid, liquid, or gaseous, the attraction of gravity, the attraction of will depend upon the ratio which these two forces bear to each sion of adhesion, and the force of affinity. other. In the solid state the molecular attraction, or cohesion, gravity is that mysterious power by which is by far the stronger. In the liquid condition the repelling ced to each other the suns and worlds which power almost balances the attractive; in a gas it entirely superne has ordained that all matter should exert sedes it, and the atoms are solely under the influence of " molei on all bodies in its neighbourhood. This cular repulsion.” When the temperature of a body is raised, he mass of the bodies and their distances this molecular repulsion is always increased, each atom being a stone be dropped over the edge of a perpen- repelled from its neighbour. The body expands, and at last the 3 sea beneath, it will strike the rock before it I cohesion is so nearly overcome that the solid becomes a liquid. because the cliff attracts the stone and draws | If the temperature still increase, the atoms are still further however, the stone be carried away from the repelled, until they cease to have any attraction for each other, force decreases. The power which made the and the body becomes a gas. The molecular repulsion is so avity," that is, the attraction which the earth closely allied to caloric, the one is so intimately dependent upon ; the force of that attraction we call its the other, that they have been thought to be the same thing. this force decreases with the distance the That the physical condition of a body entirely depends upon ve the earth, is proved by the fact that the heat may be shown in almost all bodies. Ice becomes, when less on the top of a high mountain than in heated, water-then steam. Put a small piece of zinc in the Of course, to test this fact a spring balance flame of a blow-pipe : it first becomes red-hot, then melts, and

finally goes away in vapour, which burns with a bright white sion, which has more claim upon our attention, flame, into the oxide of zinc. There is the strongest evidence

ity” chiefly in this, that “gravity" acts upon that all bodies are capable of assuming these three states. Carredor de, whereas the force of cohesion only begins Solids may be gases under certain circumstances; and gases, by the particles of matter are brought into the sufficiently reducing their temperatures, may become, first liquids,

then solids. In future lessons we shall find many examples of y al ais force that bodies possess solidity, and it this interesting fact. gases.

of some adhesive substance, such as gum, glue, eto. of iron, the teeth of the file separate small The force of affinity. This is eminently a chemical force.


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The Greek Element-Greek


263, 299, 323 KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES- Regular Verbs—The Second Stems 262, 358, 394, 409 Construction of Projection



403 Conversations on English

of Map of Europe.

355, 388
Exs. 4-9 27 Exs. 27-33

The Key to the Exercises giren Grammar 134, 302, 331 Table of Latitudes and


63 34-37 247 in any Lesson in Latin will be Longitudes of Places 11-16. 95 38-41. 283

found at the end of the next ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY: in Europe


17-20 119 42, 43 315 Lesson or the next Lesson but MAPS :

21-23 11


one. Charity

372 Patience 77 Map of the World

144 2426 , 180

53–59. 408 MECHANICS : Unselfishness 131 Atlantic Ocean 232

The Pulley

12 Courage 193 Pacific Ocean 233 GREEK, LESSONS IN:

Principle of Virtual VeloFidelity 259 Europe

Introduction The Greek

cities - The Three SysPerseverance 327 Norway, Sweden, and Den


2 tems of Pulleys Economy.


Vowels --Consonants-

Compound Pulleys

61 France 301

34 Punctuation, etc.

The Inclined Plane--The

Gencral Remarks on the

Wedge-The Screw
Central Europe

XLVIII. Unipersonal Verbs 10
Projection of Map of Europe 356

Noun, the Adjective, and

Statical Forces-Friction . 107 XLIX, Regimen relating to

the Prepositions -The

Illustrations of preceding some Verbs 10

Definite Article

66 Principles - Kite, Boat, GEOMETRICAL PERSPECL. The Past Definite

Case-endings of the Declen

etc.-Elements of MaLI. The Past Definite of


98 chinery

139 Irregular Verbs Introduction Definitions The First Declension.

98, 130 Prime Movers Animal LII., LIII, The Imperfect

--Proportional Scales 161 The Second Declension 162, 195 Force, Water, Wind, Tonse Methods of ConstructionThe Third Declension 195, 229,


170 LIV. The Past Anterior Station Point, eto.-Pro

258, 291, 322, 354, 390 Dynamics – Definitions blem I. and the Pluperfect Tenses 106

The Second Declension Con-

Three Laws

of LV. Idiomatic ConstrucOrthographic and Isome.

tracted .


223 tions in Regimen. 106 tric Projection Pro

Proof of Third Law of LVI. Idiomatic Uses of

blems II.-VI.

The Key to the Exercises given 295

Motion-Laws of Falling

in any Lesson in Greek will be Tenses of Verbs 107 Problems VII.-XI. . 359

Bodies — Atwood's Ma

found at the end of the next LVII. Idiomatic Phrases 138


Lesson. LVIII. Rules for the Plu. GEOMETRY, LESSONS IN :

Laws of Falling Bodiesral of Compound Nouns 133 The Circle and its Proper

Projectiles-Collision or LIX. The Two Futures,


Impact. ties

23 Simple and Anterior 172 Problems in Practical Geo- How England and Scotland

Impact-Centrifugal Force LX. Irregularities of the

metry on the Circle 49,92, 123
became one

-The Pendulum-Centre Future

Regular Polygons

of Oscillation.

How Ireland became part
LXI, The Two Conditionals 173
Problems in Practical Geo-

of Great Britain 85, 125 | MUSIC, LESSONS IN: LXII., LXIII, Idiomatic metry on Construction of How England became pos

Mental Effect of Notes 51 Phrases

174, 202
Regular Polygons 148, 191, 211 sessed of India


Character and Effect of LXIV. Idioms : Faire used Copic Sections-The Ellipse 251 The Dagger Scene in the

Leading Notes

115 Reflectively and Uniper. The Oval-Parabola .

284, 307 House of Commons 181

Mental Effect--Consonance sonally

The Hyperbola, Cycloid,
Origin of the United States 219

of Notes, etc.. LXV. Idioms relating to

Spiral, etc.

Charles Edward Stuart and

Measurement of Intervals A voir, etc. 237

the Rebellion of 1745 253

-The Glass Harmouicon LXVI, Idioms relating to

The Massacre of Glencoe 285

-German Concertina Avoir and Epouser 237 GERMAN, LESSONS IN:

Wilkes and Liberty


Relation of Notes, etc. 316, 379 LXVII. Idioms relating to XLV. Peculiar Idioms 26 The Right Noble and Va. Dimension, Weight, etc. 266 XLVI. Verbs governing the

lorous Sir Walter Raleigh 341 OUR HOLIDAY: LXVIII. Idioms relating



Admiral Byng on the 14th Gymnastics. to Mettre, etc. 235 XLVII. Adjectives re

of March, 1757

The Hanging Rope

31 LXIX, The Imperative 297 quiring the Genitive 62

Summary of Sketches in

The Giant's Stride.
LXX. The Imperative and
XLVIII. Adjectives re-

Vols. I. and II.


The Hanging Bar or Trathe Infinitive Idioms 298 quiring the Dative

peze LXXI. The Subjunctive

XLIX. Verbs requiring the

The Hanging Stirrups LXXII., LXXIII. The Use


The Hanging Rings of the Subjunctive

330, 364
L. Verbs requiring an Ac-
Objects of the Science-

Swimming .
LXXIV. The Imperfect

cusative of a Person and

Principle of Equality of

Croquet and Pluperfect of the a Genitive of a Thing , 96

Pressure Hydrostatic

Laws of Croquet Subjunctive 365 LI. Verbs requiring the


366 LXXV., LXXVI. Regimen,

Dative or Accusative

Pressure of Liquids arising PENMANSHIP, LESSONS IN: or Government of Verbs 383 LII. Verbs requiring two

from their weight

Official Handwriting .33, 64, 128 Accusatives, and those

Centre of Pressure

Business Handwriting KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES. governing the Accusative

Levels-Springs and Ar.

Legal Handwriting

with the Dative
118 tesian Wells.


Germau Handwriting.
LIII. Prepositions re-

Greek Handwriting
Exs. 1-3 11 Exs.29-35, 233

quiring the Genitive

119 LATIN, LESSONS IN : 4-9 36-41 .237 LIV. Prepositions re



READING AND ELOCUTIUN 10-15 75 42-19 233 quiring the Dative 155 Personal Pronouns

19 Analysis of the Voice : 50-53 . 331 LV. Prepositions requiring Possessive or

Exercises on Inflections 29,50 18-20

139 54–56.333
the Accusative

91 155 Pronouns

54 Just Stress 21-25 174) 57—60,337 LVI. Prepositions reDemonstrative Pronouns

Expressive Tones, Rules 26–28. 203 quiring the Dative or Relative and Interrogative

156 Pronouns

83 Appropriate Modulation 18 GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN: LVII. Examples illustra- Indefinite Pronouns



Promiscuous Exercises Astronomical Principles of ting the various uses of Correlative Pronouns


214, 250, 278, 306, 346, 378 Geography 4, 41, 79 Prepositions

178 The Numerals

122 RECREATIVE NATURAL HISThe Great Circles of the LVIII., LIX., Lx. Pecu



TORY: Earth-The Meridian-liar Idioms 180, 222, 246 The Latin Verb.

190 The Equator

The Butterfly
102 LXI. Regimen of Nume.
Paradigm of the Verb Sum

111 Latitude and Longitude

The Frog rals, etc.

216 -Compounds of Sum 210 First Meridian, etc. 143 LXII. -- LXX, Various

The Latin Verb: its several

English Snakes
Construction of the Map

The Swallow
Idioms 282, 283, 314, 315, 340, Terminations

250, 274 of the World

The Spider 164

371, 407

Regular Verbs- The First Natural Divisions of the LXXI. Passive Verbs in

Conjugation 310, 350 WHITWORTH SCHOLAREarth's Surface

196, 231
the Indicative
407 Ou Parsing



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