« ZurückWeiter »
SCIENCE, ART, LITERATURE, AND PRACTICAL MECHANICS,
POPULAR VIEW OF THE PRESENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE.
NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS, A GENERAL ATLAS,
AND Appropriate diagrams.
Slc oportet ad librum, presertim miscellanel generis, legendum accedere lectorem, ut solet ad convivium conviva civilis.
A reader should it down to a book, especially of the miscell kind, as a well-behaved visitor does to a banquet. The
that does not suit this or that person's taste, they politely pass it over without notice, and commend other dishes, that they may not
BY THE ORIGINAL EDITOR OF THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA METROPolitANA,
IN TWENTY-Two VOLUMES.
PRINTED FOR THOMAS TEGG, 73, CHEAPSIDE;
*D BY N. HAiles, PiccAdilly ; e. wilson, Royal Exchange ; J. Mason, city ROAD :
INFANTIcIDE, the murder of infants, although one of the most horrible and unnatural of crimes, has, (to the disgrace of our species), been found to exist as a regular and systematic custom among whole tribes of the eastern nations. The exposure of deformed children among the Spartans, indeed, the sacrifices to Moloch among the Ammonites, the 300 young nobles to Saturn at Carthage, and various other similar occurrences are abundant evidences of the existence of infanticide in the ancient world. But it was reserved for the discoveries of modern times to find tribes of human beings regularly destroying all their female children, the mothers themselves being generally their executioners.
Some years ago it was reported by Mr. Duncan, then resident at Benares, that a sect of Hindoos in that neighbourhood, called Rajkūmars, were in the habit of destroying all their female infants. Mr. Duncan at length succeeded in persuading this deluded tribe to relinquish their barbarous habit; and so effectually that no instance has since been discovered of an infringement of the written penal obligation that the chiefs and other individuals of that tribe then voluntarily entered into. As well as the Rāj-kūmars, other sects of Hindoos, in the vicinity of Benares, were found to have been in similar habits, though to a less extent, and they executed a similar deed of renunciation.
Among the military tribe of Jarejahs infanticide was found so common, that a Jarejah female was very rarely seen or heard of. The men of this tribe procured wives from others who reared their daughters. The number of infants, thus sacrificed, amounted, by one computation, to 30,000 annually, in the insula of Guzerat alone: but this colonel Walker deemed an exaggeration; they commonly confessed that they put all daughters to death, and without delicacy or pain; but were more reserved on the mode of their execution. They appeared at first unwilling to be questioned on the subject, and usually replied, it was an affair of the women— it belonged to the nursery, and made no part of the business of men. “What trouble in blasting a flower!" said one of them significantly. They at last, however, threw off their reserve, and it appeared that the most frequent methods were to drown them in milk, or put opium into their mouths; but no particular manner was laid down, except that they were to be despatched immediately. To render the deed more horrible, the mother was commonly the executioner of her own offspring; for, although women of rank had attendants and slaves to perform the office, the far greater number executed it with their own hands. Colonel Walker at length, however, prevailed on this tribe formally to relinquish and :enounce by deed the practice of infanticide.
Vol. XII.-PART 1.
The following is a translation of this most curious instrument. ‘Whereas the Honorable English Company and Anand Rao Gaikawar Sena Khasil Shumsher Bahader, having set forth to us the dictates of the Sastras, and the true faith of the Hindoos; as well as that the Brahmavaiverkeka Puranadeclares the killing of children to be aheinous sin, it being written, that it is as great an offence to kill an embryo as a Brahmin; that to kill one woman is as great a sin as a hundred Brahmins: that to put one child to death is as great a sin as to kill a hundred women; and that the perpetrators of this sin shall be damned to the hell Kulesoothela, where he shall be infested with as many maggots as he may have hairs on his body; be born again a leper, and debilitated in all his members. “We, Jarejah Dewaji, and Koer Nuthu, zaninders of Gondar (the custom of female infanticide having long prevailed in our caste) do hereby agree forourselves, and for our offspring, as also we bind ourselves in behalf of our relations and their offspring for ever, for thesake of our own prosperity, and the credit of the Hindoo faith, that we shall from this day renounce this practice; and that in default of this, we acknowledge ourselves of. fenders against the Sirkars. Moreover, should any one in future commit this offence, we will expel him from our caste, and he shall be punished according to the pleasure of the two governments, and the rule of the Sastras.” This was readily signed by all the chiefs except one, who at length also consented. NFANTRY. This word is said to take its origin from one of the infantas of Spain, who, finding that the army commanded by the king, her father, had been defeated by the Moors, assembled a body of foot soldiers, and with them engaged and totally routed the enemy. In memory of this event, and to honor the foot soldiers, who were not before held in much consideration, they received the name of infantry. Dr. Robertson, however, well observes in his View of the State of Europe prefixed to the History of Charles V., that it is to the Swiss discipline, that Europe is indebted for the early establishment of infantry in her armies. The arms and discipline of the Swiss, he observes, were different from those of other European nations. During their long and violent struggles in defence of their liberties against the house of Austria, whose armies, like those of other considerable princes, consisted chiefly of heavyarmed cavalry, the Swiss found that their poverty, and the small number of gentlemen residing in their country, at that time barren and ill cultivated, put it out of their power to bring into the field any body of horse capable of facing the enemy. Necessity compelled them to place all their confidence in infantry; and, in o to
render it capable of withstanding the shock of cavalry, they gave the soldiers breast-plates and helmets, as defensive armour, together with long spears, halberts, and heavy swords, as weapons of offence. They formed them into large battalions, ranged in deep and close array, so that they might present on every side a formidable front to the enemy. The men at arms could make no impression on the solid strength of such a body. It repulsed the Austrians in all their attempts to conquer Switzerland. It broke the Burgundian gendarmerie, which was scarcely inferior to that of France, either in number or reputation; and, when first called to act in Italy, it bore down, by its irresistible force, every enemy that attempted to oppose it. These repeated proofs of the decisive effects of infantry, exhibited on such conspicuous occasions, restored that service to reputation, and gradually re-established the opinion which had been long exploded, of its superior importance in the operations of war. But, the glory the Swiss had acquired having inspired them with such high ideas of their own prowess and consequence as frequently rendered them mutinous and insolent, the princes who employed them became weary of depending on the caprice of foreign mercenaries, and began to turn their attention towards the improvement of their national infantry. The German powers, having the command of men whom nature has endowed with that steady courage and persevering strength which form them to be soldiers, soon modelled their troops in such a manner, that they vied with the Swiss both in discipline and valor. The French monarchs, though more slowly and with greater difficulty, accustomed the impetuous spirit of their people to subordination and discipline; and were at such pains to render their national infantry respectable, that, as early as the reign of Louis XII, several gentlemen of high rank had so far abandoned their ancient ideas as to condescend to enter into their service. The Spaniards, whose situation made it difficult to employ any other than their national troops in the southern parts of Italy, which was the chief scene of their operations in that country, not only adopted the Swiss discipline, but improved upon it, by mingling a proper number of soldiers, armed with heavy muskets, in their battalions; and thus formed that famous body of infantry, which, during a century and a half, was the admiration and terror of all Europe. The Italian states gradually diminished the number of their cavalry, and, in imitation of their more powerful neighbours, brought the strength of their armies to consist in foot-soldiers. From this period the nations of Europe have carried on war with forces more adapted to every species of service, more capable of acting in every country, and better fitted both for making conquests, and for preserving them. INFANTRY, HEAvy-ARMED, among the ancients, were such as wore a complete suit of armour, and engaged with broad shields and long spears. They were the flower and strength of the Grecian armies, and, had the highest rank of military honor. ! NFANTRY, Ilight, among the moderns, have
only been in use since the middle of the seventeenth century. They have no camp equipage to carry, and their arms and accoutrements are much lighter than those of the infantry. Light infantry are the eyes of a general, and wherever there is found light cavalry, there should be light infantry. They should be accustomed to the pace of four miles an hour, as their usual marching pace, and be able to march at five miles an hour upon particular occasions. Every regiment has a company of light infantry, whose station is on the left of the regiment, the right being occupied by the grenadiers. INFARCTION, n.s. Stuffing; constipation. An hypochondriack consumption is occasioned by an infarction and obstruction of the spleen.
Lat. in and farcio.
tuer. To strike with folly; to deprive of understanding; deprivation of reason. It is the reforming of the vices and sottishness that had long overspread the infatuated, gentile world : a prime branch of that design of Christ's sending his disciples. Hammond. Where men give themselves over to the defence of wicked interests, and false propositions, it is just with God to smite the greatest abilities with the greatest infatuations. South. The people are so universally infatuated with the notion, that, if a cow falls sick, it is ten to one but an old woman is clapt up in prison for it. Addison on Italy. The carriage of our atheists or deists is amazing: no dotage so infatuate, no phrensy so extravagant as theirs. Bentley. All are the sons of circumstance; away— Let's seek out, or prepare to be Tortured for his infatuation, and Condemned without a crime. Byron. Sardanapalus. INFAUSTING, n. s. Lat. infaustus. The act of making unlucky. An odd and inelegant word. As the king did in some part remove the envy from himself, so he did not observe, that he did withal bring a kind of malediction and infausting upon the marriage, as an ill prognostick. Bacon. INFEASIBLE, adj. In and feasible. Impracticable; not to be done. This is so difficult and infeasible, that it may well drive modesty to despair of science. Glanville. INFECT, n.a. Fr. infecter; Lat. inINFEc"tion, n.s. lo To act upon IN FEctious, adj. by contagion; to affect
INFEC’tiously, adv. with communicated InfectionsNess, n.s. qualities; to hurt by INFEc"rive, adj. contagion; to taint;
to poison; to pollute; to fill with something contagious. Infection, taint; poison; morbid miasma. Infectious, influencing by communication. Infective, having the quality of acting by contagion. But wel wote I, my lady graunted me Truly to be my woundes remedy; Hire gentilnesse may not infected be With doublenesse : thus, trust I til I die So cast 1 Voide Dispaires company, And taken Hope to council and to frende. Chaucer. The Court of Love. Thine eyes, sweet lady, have infected mine. Shakspeare.