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saviours, and under that notion built temples, and consecrated
was given to Minerva. Σώτειρα η ΑθηΜεγάλους σωτήρας, ομού Διός άφθιτα να παρά τοϊς "Ελλησιν. Ηesych. "Εστι τέκνα
γαρ 'Αθήνησι Σώτειρα λεγομένη, ή και as the hymn of Homer, v. 6.
Júovoi. Schol. Aristoph. in Ranas, 381. Σωτήρας τέκε παϊδας επιχθονίων ανθρώ- Aristotle in his will obliged Nicanor
to a dedication, Διί σωτήρι και Αθηνά 'Ώευπόρων τε νεών
σωτείρα. Laert. in Vit. Aristot. 1. ν. p. and Theocritus in the Idyllion on 117. And in general they invocated them, v. 6.
God under the notion of Σωτήρ, as 'Ανθρώπων σωτήρας επί ξυρού ήδη Plato in Τimeo: Θεόν δε και νύν επ' εόντων.
αρχή των λεγομένων σωτήρα εξ ατόπου Hence Lucian in Alexandre usetli καλάήθους διηγήσεως προς το των εικόit as their constant title, αλεξίκακε των δόγμα διασώζειν ημάς επικαλεσάμε“Ηράκλεις, και Ζεύ αποτρόπαιε, και Διόσ. νοι, πάλιν αρχόμεθα λέγειν. p. 341. κουροι σωτήρες. Neither have we * This was the constant title of the mention of the title oply, but of the first Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, given original and occasion of it. For to him by the Rhodians. 'Ovóuara when Castor and Pollux thrust the μεν δή κατά τα αυτά Πτολεμαίοι σφισιν, Sons of Theseus out of Athens, and άλλη δε επίκλησις άλλω" και γάρ Φιλοmade Menestheus king, he gave them μήτορα καλούσι, και Φιλάδελφον έτερον, first this name: δια ταύτα πρώτος και τον δε του Λάγου σωτήρα, παραδόντων Μενεσθεύς άνακτάς τε και σωτήρας Ροδίων το όνομα. Paus. Αtticis, C. viii. wvójaok. Ælian. Var. Hist. I. 4. c. 5. 6. Which name first given bim by Beside these, we read in the ancient the Rhodians was no way expressed inscriptions : 'Ασκληπιω θεώ Σωτήρι: in his usage of the Syrians, as is oband again: 'Ασκληπιω και Υγεία Σω- served by Josephus: ως και την Συρίαν τηρσι. For as they had their female άπασαν υπό Πτολεμαίου του Λάγου σωdeities, so did they attribute this title τηρος τότε χρηματίζοντας τα εναντία to theirgoddesses, and that both in the παθείν αυτού τη επικλήσει. Αntig. Jud. masculine and the feminine gender. l. xii. c. 1. This was so familiar, that As to Venus, Αφροδίτη θεά Παναγάθω Tertullian useth the title instead of και Σωτήρι" to Diana, Αρτέμιδι Σωτεϊρι, the name. • Post cum (sc. Alexanas the same collection of inscriptions drum) regnavit illic in Alexandria Sobath it. Thus Pherecrates, 'Hyoúpega ter annis 35.' Adv. Judæos, c. 8. Thus της πόλεως είναι ταύτας Σωτήρας, and Antigonus was first called by the Sophocles, Τύχν γε τώς Σωτήρι. Ed. Greeks their Ευεργέτης, or benefactor, Tyr. 80. Thus the epigram extant then Σωτήρ, or saviour: ου μόνον εκρίθη in Suidas,
παρ' αυτόν τον καιρόν Ευεργέτης, αλλά Φωσφόρος, ώ Σώτειρ', επί Παλλάδος ίστα- και μετάλλαξας, Σωτήρ. Polyb. Ι. ν. C. 9ι κλήρων,
9. Thus we read of Demetrius, who "Αρτεμι
restored the Athenians to their liberty: Ουδέν ήττον κακείνον σωτήρα και αλεξί- ανεκρότησαν και βοώντες εκέλευον αποκακον προσηγόρευον. Τheodoret. Serm. βαίνειν τον Δημήτριον, Σωτήρα και Ευερviii. 595. of Hercules. The Beenses, γέτην αναγορεύοντες. Ρlut. In Vita, an ancient people in Peloponnesus, c. ix. And not only so, but number"Αρτεμιν ονομάζουσι Σώτειραν. Paus. in ed Demetrius and Antigonus among Laconicis, c. 22. fin. Her temple and their Dii Soteres ; and instead of their statue in the city Troezen was built annual archon, whose name they used and named by Theseus at his safe re- in their distinction of years, they creturn from Crete. The Megarenses pre- ated a priest of these Dii Soteres, as served by her from the Persians, επί the same author testifeth: μόνοι δε τόδε σωτείρας άγαλμα εποιήσαντο Αρ- Σωτήρας ανέγραψαν θεούς, και τον επώ
Nor does it always signify so much as that it may not be attributed to man: for even in the Scriptures the Judges of Israel were called no less than their saviours. " When the children of Israel cried unto the Lord, the Lord raised up a deliverer to the children of Israel, who delivered them, even Othniel the son of Kenaz." (Judg. iii. 9.) And again, “ When they cried unto the Lord, the Lord raised them up a deliverer, Ehud the son of Gera.” (Judg. iii. 15.) Where, though in our translation we call Othniel and Ehud deliverers, yet in the original they are plainly termed saviours.*
Now what the full import and ultimate sense of the title of saviour might be, seemed not easy to the ancients : and the bestt of the Latins thought the Greek word so pregnant and νυμον και πάτριον άρχοντα καταπαύσαν- dications Διά Σωτήρι: 80 in the Latin TES, iepéa Ewrýpwv éxelporóvovv Kad' we find often Jovi Servatori, or ConÉKCOTOV évlavtóv. c. x. Appian relates servatori, sometimes Jovi Salvatori, of Demetrius that he received this title or Şalutari: all which are notbing else from the Babylonians. Tiuapxov &TUVi- but the Latin expressions of the Greek στάμενον ανελών, και τάλλα πονηρώς inscriptions. And without question της Βαβυλώνος ηγούμενον, εφ' ώ και Σω- Σωτήρ might have been rendered SoTrp åpšapévwv rūv Baßvloviwv wvouá- spitator, and even Sospes, as it was oyn. De Bell. Syriac. C. 47. Luciau's used in the days of Ennius. “Sospes, mistake in his Salutation tells us of salvus: Ennius tamen sospitem pro 'Avrioxos o Ewrrp, and Appian gives servatore posuit.' Festus. Neither us the routing of the Gauls as the indeed could the Sicilians mean any cause of that title: òg kai Ewrno&te- more of Verres, by the word Sotera, κλήθη Γαλάτας εκ της Ευρώπης ες την than Tully spake of himself, when he 'Aclav šußalóvras ételáoas. lb. c. 65. styled himself Servatorem Reipub. Pro And in process of time this title grew Planc. c. 36. At least Tacitus did so customary and familiar, that the conceive that Conservator is as much Sicilians bestowed it upon Verres as Soter, when speaking of Milichus, their oppressor.
Itaque illum non who detected the conspiracies to Nero, solum patronum istius insulæ, sed et- he saith : ‘Milichus præmiis ditatus iam Sotera inscriptum vidi Syracusis,' Conservatoris sibi nomen, Græco ejus says Cicero, 4. Verr. c. 63.
rei vocabulo, assumpsit.' Annal. l. xv. * Heb., 1933 yu 7 OP c. 71. He took to himself the name of Dyning benen So the Septuagint Conservator, in a Greek word which clearly: Kai nyeupe kúplog Ewrñpa rý signifies so much; and without quesΙσραήλ, και έσωσεν αυτούς, τον Γοθονιήλ tion that must be Σωτήρ. However, vióv Kevés. Qui suscitavit eis Salvato- the first Christians of the Latin Church rem, et liberavit eos, Othoniel. Again : were some time in doubt what word και ήγειρε κύριος αυτοϊς Σωτήρα τον Αώο, to use as the constant interpretation viòv Inpã Qui suscitavit Salvatorem of Swtyp, so frequent and essential to vocabulo Aioth, filium Gera. Vet, Christianity. Tertullian useth SalutiTransl. Upon which place St. Augu- ficator, or, as some books read it, Salstin notes : • Animadvertendum est vificator: 'Ergo jam non unus Deus, autem quod Salvatorem dicat etiam nec unus Salutificator, si duo salutis hominem, per quem Deus salvos fa- artifices, et utrique alter altero indiciat.' Quæst. 1. vij. c. 18.
gens.' De carne Christi, c. 14. and + So Cicero in the place before shews it was so translated in the Phicited, having said he saw Verres in- lippians, iii. 20. Et quidem de terra scribed Sotera, goes on : ‘Hoc quan- in coelum, ubi nostrum municipatum tum est? ita magnum, ut Latino uno Philippenses quoque ab Apostolo diverbo exprimi non possit.' But though scunt; Unde et Salutificatorem nostrum in Cicero's time there was no Latin exspectamus Jesum Christum.' De word used in that sense; yet not long Resur. Carnis, c. 47. St. Hilary after it was familiar. For as in the thought Salutaris a sufficient interGreek inscriptions we read often de- pretation : 'Est autem Salutaris ipso
comprehensive, that the Latin tongue had no single word able to express it.
But whatsoever notion the heathen had of their gods or men which they styled saviours, we know this name belongeth unto Christ in a more sublime and peculiar manner.
“ Neither is there salvation in any other ; for there is none other name under heaven given among men whereby we must be saved.” (Acts iv. 12.)
It remaineth therefore that we should explain how and for what reason Christ truly is, and properly is called, our Saviour. First, then, I conceive, one sufficient cause of that appellation to consist in this, that he hath opened and declared unto us the only true way for the obtaining eternal salvation, and by such patefaction can deserve no less than the name of Saviour. For if those apostles and preachers of the Gospel, who received the way of salvation from him, which they delivered unto others, may be said to save those persons which were converted by their preaching ; in a far more eminent and excellent manner must he be said to save them, who first revealed all those truths unto them. St. Paul “provoked to emulation them which were his flesh, that he might save some of them;” (Rom. xi. 14.) and “ was made all things to all men, that he might by all means save some.” (1 Cor. ix. 22.) He exhorted “ Timothy to take heed unto himself, and unto the doctrine, and continue in them; for in doing this, he should both save himself and them that heard him,” (1 Tim. iv. 16.) And St. James speaks in more general terms; “Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth, and one convert him; let him know, that he which converteth a sinner from the error of his way, shall save a soul from death.” (Jam, v. 19, 20.) Now if these are so expressly said to save the souls of them which are converted by the doctrine which they deliver, with much more reason must Christ be said to save them, whose minis. ters they are, and in whose name they speak. For it was he which 58
came and preached peace to them which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.” (Eph. ii. 17.) The will of God concerning the salvation of man was revealed by him. " No man hath seen God at any time: the only-begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him." (John i. 18.) Being then “the Gospel of Christ is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth,” (Rom. i.
illo nomine quo Jesus nuncupatur. tur, taurus ob utramque dispositionem: Jesus enim secundum Hebraicam lin- aliis ferus, ut Judex, aliis mansuetus, guam Salutaris est. In Psal. cxviii. ut Salvator. adv. Marcion. I. iii. c. 18. St. Augustin is indifferent between Which word of bis was rather followed that and Salvator : 'Deus salvos faci- by his imitator St. Cyprian, after whom endi Dominus est Jesus, quod inter- Aruobius used it, after him his disciple pretatur Salvator, sive Salutaris.' And Lactantius: and from thence it conso Lactantius. At last they generally tinued the constant language of the used the word Salvator. First Ter- church, till the late innovators thrust tullian : 'Christus in illo significaba, it out of the Latin translation,
16.) being they which preach it at the command of Christ are said to save the souls of such as believe their word, being it was Christ alone “ who brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel;” (2 Tim.i. 10.) therefore he must in a most eminent and singular manner be acknowledged thereby to save, and consequently must not be denied, even in this first respect, the title of Saviour.
Secondly, This Jesus hath not only revealed, but also procured, the way of salvation; not only delivered it to us, but also wrought it out for us : and so « God sent his Son into the world, that the world through him might be saved.” (John iii. 17.) We were all concluded under sin, and, being the wages of sin is death, we were obliged to eternal punishment, from which it was impossible to be freed, except the sin were first remitted. Now this is the constant rule, that: “ without shedding of blood is no remission. It was therefore necessary that Christ should appear to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.” (Heb. ix. 22, 23. 26.) And so he did, for he “shed his blood for many, for the remission of sins,” (Matt. xxvi. 28.) as himself professeth in the sacramental institution: “ he bare our sins in his own body on the tree,” (1 Pet. ii. 24.) as St. Peter speaks; and so in him “ we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins." (Col. i. 14.) And if “while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us: much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath by him.” (Rom. v. 8,9.) Again, we were all enemies unto God, and having offended him, there was no possible way of salvation, but by being reconciled to him. If then we ask the question, as once the Philistines did concerning David, “Wherewith should we reconcile ourselves unto our master?” (1 Sam. xxix. 4.) We have no other name to answer it but Jesus. For“ God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them.” (2 Cor. v. 19.) And as under the law " the blood of the sin-offering was brought into the tabernacle of the congregation to reconcile withal in the holy place;" (Lev. vi. 30.) so it pleased the Father through the Son, “having made peace by the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself." (Col. i. 20.) And thus it comes to pass, that us “ who were enemies in our mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled in the body of his flesh through death.” (Ibid. 21, 22.) And upon this reconciliation of our persons must necessarily follow the salvation of our souls. * For if when we were enemies, we were reconciled unto God by the death of his Son: much more being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.” (Rom. v. 10.) Furthermore, we were all at first enslaved by sin, and brought into captivity by Satan, neither was there any possibility of escape but by way of redemption. Now it was the Law of Moses, that if “any were able, he might redeem himself:” (Lev. xxv. 49.) but this to us was impossible, because absolute obedi
ence in all our actions is due unto God, and therefore no act of ours can make any satisfaction for the least offence. Another law gave yet more liberty, that he who “was sold might be redeemed again; one of his brethren might redeem bim. (Lev. xxv. 48.) But this in respect of all the mere sons of men was equally impossible, because they were all under the same captivity. Nor could they satisfy for others, who were wholly unable to redeem themselves. Wherefore there was no other brother, but that Son of man, which is the Son of God, who was like unto us in all things, sin only excepted, which could work this redemption for us. And what he only could, that he freely did perform. For “the Son of man came to give his life a ransom for many:" (Matt. xx. 28.) and as he came to give, so be “ gave himself a ransom for all.” (1 Tim. ii. 6.) So that in bimwe have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins.” (Eph. i. 7.) For we are “bought with a price:” (1 Cor. vii. 23.) for we are “redeemed, not with corruptible things, as silver and gold; but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot." (1 Pet. i. 18, 19.) He then which hath obtained for us remission of sins, he who through himself hath reconciled us to God, he who hath given himself as a ransom to redeem us, he who hath thus wrought out the way of salvation for us, must necessarily have a second and a far higher right unto the name of Jesus, unto the title of our Saviour.
Thirdly, Beside the promulging and procuring, there is yet a farther act, which is, conferring of salvation on us. All which we mentioned before was wrought by virtue of his death, and his appearance in the Holy of Holies: but we must still believe he “is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.” (Heb. vii. 25.) For now being set down at the right hand of God, he hath received all power both in heaven and earth ; and the end of this power which he hath received is, to confer salvation upon those which believe in him. For the Father gave the Son "this power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as he hath given him;" (John xvii. 2.) that he should raise our bodies out of the dust, and cause our corruptible to put on incorruption, and our mortal to put on immortality: and upon this power we are to expect salvation from him. For we must ** look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, from heaven, who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.” (Phil. iii. 20, 21.) And unto them that thus look for him shall he appear the second time, without sin unto salvation." (Heb. ix. 28.) Being then we are all to endeavour that our “ spirits may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus :" (1 Cor. v. 5.) being St. Peter hath taught us, that “God hath exalted Christ with his