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right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour;” (Acts v. 31.) being the conferring of that upon us which he promised to us, and obtained for us, is the reward of what he suffered: therefore we must acknowledge that the actual giving of salvation to us is the ultimate and conclusive ground of the title Saviour.
Thus by the virtue of his precious blood Christ hath obtained remission of our sins, by the power of his grace hath taken
away the dominion of sin, in the life to come will free us from all possibility of sinning, and utterly abolish death, the wages of sin; wherefore well said the angel of the Lord, “ Thou shalt call his name Jesus, for he shall save his people from their sins;” (Matt. i. 21.) well did Zacharias call him wa horn of salvation;" (Luke i. 69.) Simeon, “ the salvation of God;" (Luke ii. 30.) St. Paul," the Captain and Author of eternal salvation;" (Heb. ii. 10. v.9.) St. Peter, “ a Prince and a Saviour,” (Acts v. 31.) correspondent to those Judges of Israel, raised up by God himself to deliver his people from the hands of their enemies, and for that reason called saviours. “ In the time of their trouble (say the Levites), when they cried unto thee, thou heardest them from heaven, and according to thy manifold mercies thou gavest them saviours, who saved them out of the hand of their enemies."(Neh.ix. 27.)
The correspondency of Jesus unto those temporal saviours will best appear, if we consider it particularly in Joshua, who bare that salvation in his name, and approved it in his actions. For, as the son of Sirach saith, “ Jesus the son of Nave was valiant in the wars, and was the successor of Moses in prophecies, who, according to his name, was made great for the saving of the elect of God.” (Ecclus. xlvi. 1.) Although therefore Moses was truly and really “a ruler and deliverer," (Acts vii. 35.) which is the same* with saviour; although the rest of the judges were also by their office rulers and deliverers, and therefore styled saviours, as expressly Othniel and Ehud are; yet Joshua, far more particularly and exactly than the rest, is represented as a type of our Jesus, and that typical singularity manifested in his name.† For first, he it was alone, of all which passed out of Egypt, who was designed to lead the children of Israel into Canaan, the land of promise flowing with milk and honey. Which land as it was a type of the heaven of heavens, the inheritance of the saints, and eternal joys flowing from the right hand of God; so is the person which brought the Israelites into that place of rest | a type of
* Ρύστης, σωτήρ, λυτρωτής. And 1 “Ον τρόπον εκείνος εισήγαγεν εις την again: Σωτήρ, ο Ζεύς, ο ελευθέριος ή λυ- αγίαν γήν τον λαόν, ουχί Μωσής, και Touros. Hesych.
ως εκείνος εν κλήρω διένειμεν αυτήν τοίς + Quantum attinet ad propheticum εισελθούσι μετ' αυτού ούτω και Ίησούς apparatum, nec geri nec dici aliquid ο Χριστός της διασποράν του λαού επιpossit insignius, quandoquidem res στρέψει, και διαμεριεί την αγαθήν γήν perducta est usque ad nominis ex. èxáoty. Justin. Dial. cum Tryph. p. pressionem.' S. August. contra Faust. 340. 1. xvi. c. 19.
him who only can bring us into the presence of God, and there prepare our mansions for us, and assign them to us, as Joshua divided the land for an inheritance to the tribes. Besides, it is farther observable, not only what Joshua did, but what Moses could not do. The hand of Moses and Aaron brought them out of Egypt, but left them in the wilderness, and could not seat them in Canaan. Joshua, the successor, only could effect that in which Moses failed. Now nothing is more frequent in the phrase of the Holy Ghost, than to take Moses for the doctrine delivered, or the books written by him, that is, the Law ;* from whence it followeth, that the death of Moses and the succession of Joshua presignified the continuance of the Law till Jesus came,“ by whom all that believe are justified from all things, from which we could not be justified by the Law of Moses." (Acts xiii. 39.) “ The Law and the prophets were until John: since that the kingdom of God is preached.” (Luke xvi. 16.) Moses must die, that Joshua may succeed. “By the deeds of the Law there shall no flesh be justified (for by the Law is the knowledge of sin); but the righteousness of God without the Law is manifested, even the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe.” (Rom. iii. 20—22.) Moses ipdeed seems to have taken Joshua with him up into the mount: (Exod. xxiv. 13.) but if he did, sure it was to enter the cloud which covered the mount where the glory of the Lord abode: for without Jesus,t “in whom are hid all the * As Luke xvi. 29. 31. xxiv. 27. prædicatus est), ideo is vir qui in hu
45, 46. Acts vi. 11. collated jus Sacramenti imagine parabatur, with the thirteenth verse. Acts xv. 21. etiam nominis Dominici inauguratus xxi. 21. 2 Cor. iii. 15. Mwota vontéov est figura, ut Jesus nominaretur.' Terròv vóuov, 'InCOūv TÒV òpúvvuov treivų tull. adv. Judæos, c. 9. et adv. Marcion. owrñpa. őOTEP Toivuv sarà trviotoplav, I. iii. c. 16. ‘Idcirco Moysi etiam Mwon TeTeleUTNIÓros, 'Iyooős ròv Naòv successit, ut ostenderet novam legem, εις την επαγγελμένην εισήγαγε γήν, ούτω per Jesum Christum datam, veteri METÀ TÒ roð vómov télos o nuétepos étio legi successuram, quæ data per Moypaveis ’Inooõs åvévše tvo euocßei laço sen fuit.' Lactan. de vera Sap. I. iv. c. Tiv Baoilsiav tūv ovpavāv. Theodoret. 17. 'In cujus comparatione (Moyses) in Jos. Procem. t. i. p. 194. Cum improbatus est, ut non ipse introduSuccessor Moysi destinaretur Auses ceret populum in terram promissionis; filius Nave, transfertur certe de pri- ne videlicet Lex per Moysen, non ad stino nomine, et incipit vocari Jesus. salvandum, sed ad convincendum Certe, inquis. Hanc prius dicimus peccatorem data, in regnum coelorum figuram futuri fuisse. Nam quia Je- introducere putaretur, sed gratia et sus Christus secundum populum, quod veritas per Jesum Christum facta.' S. sumus nos, nationes in sæculi deserto August. contra Faustum, l. xvi. c. 19. commorantes antea, introducturus es- "Jesus dux qui populum eduxerat de set in terram repromissionis melle et Ægypto, Jesus qui interpretatur Sallacte manantem, id est, in vitæ æter- 'vator, Mose mortuo et sepulto in næ possessionem, qua nihil dulcius, Moab, hoc est, Lege mortua, in Evanidque non per Moysen, id est, non per gelium cupit inducere populum sulegis disciplinam, sed per Jesum, id um.' S. Hieron. in Psal. Ixxxvi. est, per novæ legis gratiam, provenire t'Moyses in nubem intravit, ut habebat, circumcisis nobis petrina operta et occulta cognosceret, adhæacie, id est, Christi præceptis (petra rente sibi socio Jesu, quia nemo sine enim Christus multis modis et figuris vero Jesu potest incerta sapientiæ, et
treasures of wisdom and knowledge,” (Col. ii. 3.) there is no looking into the secrets of heaven, no approaching to the presence of God. The command of circumcision was not given unto Moses, but to Joshua; nor were the Israelites circumcised in the wilderness, under the conduct of Moses and Aaron, but in the land of Canaan, under their successor. For “at that time the Lord said unto Joshua, Make thee sharp knives, and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time.” (Jos. v. 2.) Which speaketh * Jesus to be the true circumciser, the author of another circumcision than that of the flesh commanded by the Law, even “ the circumcision of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter;" (Rom. ii. 29.) that which “is made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh," (Col. ii. 11.) which is therefore called “the circumcision of Christ.” (Ibid.)
Thus if we look upon Joshua as the “ minister of Moses,” (Exod. xxiv. 13. Jos. i. 1.) he is even in that a type of Christ, the “minister of the circumcision for the truth of God.” (Rom. xv. 8.) If we look on him as the successor of Moses, in that he representeth Jesus, inasmuch as “the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.” (John i. 17.) If we look on him as now judge and ruler of Israel, there is scarce an action which is not clearly predictive of our Saviour. He begins his office at the banks of Jordan,+ where Christ is baptized, and enters upon the public exercise of his prophetical office. He chooseth there twelve men out of the people, to carry twelve stones over with them; as our Jesus thence began to choose his twelve I apostles, those foundation-stones in the Church of God, whose “ names are in the twelve foundations of the wall of the holy city, the new Jerusalem.” (Rev. xxi. 14.) It hath been observed, that the saving Rahab the harlot alive, foretold what Jesus once should speak to the Jews, “ Verily I say unto you, that the publicans and harlots go into the kingdom of God before you." (Matt. xxi. 31.) “He said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon: and the sun stood still in the midst of occulta comprehendere. Et ideo in όθεν και ο Χριστός βαπτισθείς ήρξατο specie Jesu Nave veri Salvatoris si- evayyedigeoJai. S. Cyril. Hieros. Cagnificabatur affutura præsentia, per tech. 10. quem fierent omnes docibiles Dei, qui I St. Cyril addeth that he divided Legem aperiret, Evangelium revela- the land by twelve men : Aúdeka di ret. S. Ambros. in Psal. xlvii. διαιρούντας την κληρονομίαν καθίστησιν
* Νon enim propheta sic ait, Et και του Ναυή υιός, και δώδεκα τους 'Aποdixit Dominus ad me; sed ad Jesum: Otólovg Kýpukas rñs ålndeias eis nãoav nt ostenderet quod non de se Ioque- την οικουμένην αποστέλλει ο Ιησούς. retur, sed de Christo, ad quem tum Ibid. Deus loquebatur. Christi enim figu § By the same St. Cyril : IIloteúram gerebat ille Jesus: Lactan. de oaoav 'Padß Triv hópvnu čowOEV Ó TUTCvera Sap. 1. iv. c. 17.
κός· ο δε αληθής φησιν, 'Ιδού οι τελώναι + Τύπον δε έφερεν αυτού και του Ναυή και αι πόρναι προάγουσιν υμάς εις την Ιησούς κατά πολλά, αρξάμενος γάρ άρ- βασιλείας του θεού. Ιbid. χειν του λαού ήρξατο από του Ιορδάνου:
heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.” (Jos. x. 12, 13.) Which great miracle was not only wrought by the power of him whose name he bare, but did also signify* that, in the latter days, towards the setting of the sun, when the light of the world was tending unto a night of darkness, “ the Sun of righteousness should arise with healing in his wings,” (Mal. iv. 2.) and, giving a check to the approaching night, become “ the true light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.” (John i. 9.)
But to pass by more particulars, Joshua smote the Amalekites, and subdued the Canaanites; by the first making way to enter the land, by the second giving possession of it. And Jesus our “ Prince and Saviour,” (Acts v. 31.) whose
kingdom was not of this world,” (John xviii. 36.) in a spiritual manner goeth in and out before us against our spiritual enemies, subduing sin and Satan, and so opening and clearing our way to heaven; destroying the last enemy, death, so giving us possession of eternal life. + Thus do we believe the man called Jesus to have fulfilled in the highest degree imaginable, all which was but typified in him who first bare the name, and in all the rest which succeeded in his office, and so to be the Saviour of the world ; " whom God hath raised up, a horn of salvation for us, in the house of his servant David, that we should be saved from our enemies, and the hands of all that hate us.” (Luke i. 69. 71.)
The necessity of the belief of this part of the Article is not only certain, but evident: because there is no end of faith without a Saviour, and no other name but this by which we can be saved, and no way to be saved by him but by believing in him. For “this is his commandment, that we should believe on the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and he that. keepeth his commandment dwelleth in him and he in him.” (1 John iii. 23, 24.) From him then, and from him alone, must we expect salvation, acknowledging and confessing freely there is nothing in ourselves which can effect or deserve it for us, nothing in any other creature which can promerit or procure it to us. For “ there is but one God, and
‘Stetit Sol, quia in Jesu et typum + Τί λέγει πάλιν Μωσής τώ Ιησού τω futuri agnoscebat et nomen. Neque του Ναυή υιω, επιθεις αυτό τούτο όνομα enim in sua virtute Jesus Nave, sed in όντι προφήτη; ίνα μόνον ακούση πάς Christi mysterio coelestibus luminibus λαός, ότι πάντα ο πατήρ φανεροί περί του imperabat. Designabatur enim Dei υιού Ιησού υιώ Ναυή και επιθείς τούτο flium in hoc saeculum esse venturum, όνομα οπότε έπεμψε κατάσκοπον τής γής. qui mundani luminis concidentis, et Λάβε βιβλίον εις τας χείράς σου, και γράjam vergentis in tenebras, virtute di- ψον δ λέγει Κύριος. "Οτι εκ ριζών εκvina differret occasium, lucem redde- κόψει πάντα τον οίκον του 'Αμαλής και ret, inveheret claritatem. S. Ambros. vids toŨ DeoŰ ÉT" łoxátwv Tūv vuepwv. Apolog. David. poster. c. 4. 'Ille im- oi dè (io. idė) trálıv'Ingoûç oux' ò'viós. peravit Soli ut staret, et stetit; et is- ávOpúrov, ål’ó vids toŨ JEOV, TÚTY dě tius typo ille magnus erat. Ille im- ¿v saprà pavepwoeis. Barnabæ Epist. perabat, sed Dominus efficiebat.' S. c. 9. al. 12. Hieron. in Psal. Ixxvi.
one mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus." (1 Tim. ii. 5.) It is only “the beloved Son, in whom God is well pleased,” (Matt. iii. 17.) he is “ clothed with a vesture dipped in blood;” (Rev. xix. 13.) he hath “ trodden the winepress alone.” (Isa. Ixiii. 3.) “ We like sheep have gone astray, and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all." (Isa. liii. 6.) “ By him God hath reconciled all things to himself; by him, I say, whether they be things in earth or things in heaven." (Col. i. 20.) By him alone is our salvation wrought: for his sake then only can we ask it, from him alone expect it.
Secondly, This belief is necessary, that we may delight and rejoice in the name of Jesus, as that in which all our happiness is involved. At his nativity an angel from heaven thus taught the shepherds, the first witnesses of the blessed incarnation ; “ Behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.” (Luke ii. 10, 11.) And what the angel delivered at present, that the prophet Isaiah, that old evangelist, foretold at distance. When “ the people wbich walked in darkness should see a great light; when unto us a child should be born, unto us a son should be given; then should they joy before God, according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil.” (Isa. ix. 2. 6. 3.) When “ God shall come with recompense, when he shall come and save us; then the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come to Sion withi songs, and everlasting joy upon their heads.” (Isa. xxxv. 4. 10.)
Thirdly, The belief in Jesus ought to inflame our affection, to kindle our love towards him, engaging us to hate all things in respect of him, that is, so far as they are in opposition to him, or pretend to equal share of affection with him. that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me, and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me,” (Matt. x. 37.) saith our Saviour; so forbidding all prelation of any natural affection, because our spiritual union is far beyond all such relations. Nor is a higher degree of love only debarred us, but any equal pretension is as much forbidden. “If any man come to me (saith the same Christ), and hate not his father and mother, and wife and children, and brethren and sisters, yea and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple.” (Luke xiv. 26.) Is it not this Jesus in whom the love of God is demonstrated to us, and that in so high a degree as is not expressible by the pen of man? “ God so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son.” (John iii. 16.) Is it not he who shewed his own love to us far beyond all possibility of parallel ? For “ greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends;" (John xv. 13.) but " while we were yet sinners (that is, ene