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mies), Christ died for us,” (Rom. v. 8.) and so became our Jesus. Shall thus the Father shew his love in his Son? Shall thus the Son shew his love in himself? And shall we no way study a requital? or is there any proper return of love but love? The voice of the Church, in the language of Solomon, is,“ my love:" (Cant. ii. 7. iii. 5. viii. 4.) nor was that only the expression of a spouse, but of Ignatius,* a man, after the apostles, most remarkable. And whosoever considereth the infinite benefits to the sons of men flowing from the actions and sufferings of their Saviour, cannot choose but conclude with St. Paul, “ If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be anathema, maran-atha.” (1 Cor. xvi. 22.)
Lastly, The confession of faith in Jesus is necessary to breed in us a correspondent esteem of him, and an absolute obedience to him, that we may be raised to the true teroper of St. Paul, who "counted all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord, for whom he suffered the loss of all things, and counted them but duny, that he might win Christ.” (Phil. iii. 8.) Nor can we pretend to any true love of Jesus, except we be sensible of the readiness of our obedience to him: as knowing what language he used to his disciples, “ If ye love me, keep my commandments;" . (John xiv. 15.) and what the apostle of his bosom spake, “ This is the love of God, that we keep his commandments. (1 John v. 3.) His own disciples once marvelled, and said, “ What manner of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey him ?” (Matt. viii. 27.) How much more should we wonder at all disobedient Christians, saying, What manner of men are these, who refuse obedience unto him whom the senseless creatures, the winds and the sea, obeyed? Was the name of Jesus at first sufficient to cast out devils? (Mark is. 38. Luke ix. 49.) and shall man be more refractory than they? Shall the exorcist say to the evil spirit, I adjure thee by the name of Jesus, (Acts xix. 13.) and the devil give place? Shall an apostle speak unto us in the same name, and we refuse? Sball they obey that name which signifieth nothing unto them; for “he took not on him the nature of angels, (Heb. ii. 16.) and so is not their Saviour ? And can we deny obedience unto him, who “ took on him the seed of Abraham,” (Ibid.) “ and became obedient to death, even the death of the cross,” (Phil. ii. 8.) for us, that he might be raised to full power and absolute dominion over us, and by that power be enabled at last to save us, and in the mean time to rule and govern us, and exact the highest veneration from us? For 6 God hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee shall bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth.” (Phil. ii. 9, 10.) Having thus declared the original of the name Jesus, the
* 'o fuos épws totaúpwrai. Epist. ad Roman. c.7.
means and ways by which he who bare it expressed fully the utmost signification of it; we may now clearly deliver, and every particular Christian easily understand, what it is he says, when he makes his confession in these words, I believe in Jesus: which may be not unfitly in this manner described. I believe not only that there is a God, who made the World; but I acknowledge and profess that I am fully persuaded of this, as of a certain and infallible truth, that there was and is a man, whose name by the ministry of an angel was called Jesus, of whom, particularly Joshua, the first of that name, and all the rest of the judges and saviours of Israel, were but types. I believe that Jesus, in the highest and utmost importance of that name, to be the Saviour of the world; inasmuch as he hath revealed to the sons of men the only way for the salvation of their souls, and wrought the same way out for them by the virtue of his blood, obtaining remission for sinners, making reconciliation for enemies, paying the price of redemption for captives; and shall at last himself actually confer the same salvation, which he hath promulged and procured, upon all those who unfeignedly and steadfastly believe in him. I acknowledge there is no other way to heaven beside that which he hath shewn us, there is no other means which can procure it for us but his blood, there is no other person which shall confer it on us but himself. And with this full acknowledgment, I BELIEVE IN JESUS.
AND IN JESUS Christ.
HAVING thus explained the proper name of our Saviour, Jesus, we come unto that title of his office usually joined with his name, which is therefore the more diligently to be examined, because the Jews * who always acknowledge him to be Jesus, ever denied him to be Christ, and “ agreed” together, “ that if any man did confess that he was Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue.” (John ix. 22.)
For the full explication of this title, it will be necessary, First, To deliver the signification of the word; Secondly, To shew upon what grounds the Jews always expected a Christ or Messias ; Thirdly, To prove that the Messias promised to the Jews is already come; Fourthly, To demonstrate that our Jesus is that Messias; and Fifthly, To declare in what that unction, by which Jesus is Christ, doth consist, and what are the proper effects thereof. Which five particulars being clearly discussed, I cannot see what should be wanting for a perfect understanding that Jesus is Christ.
For the first, We find in the Scriptures two several names, Messias and Christ, but both of the same signification; as appeareth by the speech of the woman of Samaria, “ I know
* 'Iovdañol ydp karadézovtai tò sivat TOūTOV OÚKéto. S. Cyril. Hieros. Catech. αυτόν Ιησούν το δε και Χριστόν είναι, 10.
that Messias cometh, which is called Christ;" (John iv. 25.) and more plainly by what Andrew spake unto his brother Simon, “ We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ.” (John i. 41.) Messias in the Hebrew tongue, Christ in the Greek.* Messias,t the language of AnΣύγγονε, Μεσσίαν σοφόν εύρομεν, ος Lactan. de ver. Sap. Ι. iv. c. 7. So the θεός ανήρ
Latins generally Christus a Chrismate: Χριστός Ιουδαίοισιν ακούεται Ελλάδι and without question Χριστός is from φωνή.
Yet I conceive the first Nonnus, c. i. v. 157. signification of this word among the + From nown unxit; in the Hebrew Greeks hath not been hitherto sufficimiwo and the unctus ; in the Sy- ently discovered. 'The first of the riac NTEO: in the Greek, by chang- ancients in whom I meet with the ing w into oo, by omitting is a guttu- word Xplotos is Æschylus the trageral not fit for their pronunciation, and dian, and in him I find it had another by adding s, as their ordinary termina- sense than now we take it in; for in tion, Neo is turned into Μεσσίας. his language that is not χριστον which That this was the Greek XPLOTÒS, and is anointed, but that with which it is the Latin Christus, is evident; and yet anointed; so that it signifieth not the the Latins living at a distance, stran- subject of unction, but the ointment gers to the customs of the Jews, and as diffused in the subject. The place the doctrine of the Christians, mistook is this in his Prometheus Vinctus, ver. this name, and called bim Chrestus, 478. from the Greek Χρηστός. So Sueto- Ουκ ήν αλέξημ’ ουδέν, ουδε βρώσιμον, nius in the life of Claudius, c. 25. “Ju. Ου χριστόν, ουδε πιστόν, αλλά φαρμάκων deos impulsore Chresto assidue tu- Xρεία κατεσκέλλοντοmultuantes Roma expulit.' Which Prometheus shews himself to be the was not only his mistake, but gene- inventor of the art of physic, that berally the Romans at first, as they fore him therefore there was no medinamed him Chrestus, so they called us cine, neither to be taken internally by Chrestiani. “Sed et cum perperam eating or by drinking, nor externally Chrestianus pronunciatur a vobis(nam by way of inunction, as the Scholiast nec nominis certa est notitia penes very well expounds it: Ουκ ήν ουδέν vos) de suavitate vel benignitate com- βοήθημα θεραπείας ουδε διά βρώσεως positum est.' Tertull. adυ. Gentes, c. 3. προσφερόμενον (which is ουδε βρώσιμον • Sed exponenda hujus nominis ratio in Eschylus) ούτε δε δι' επιχρίσεως έξωest propter ignorantium errorem, qui θεν, (which is oύ χριστον) ουδε διά πόeum immutata litera Chrestum solent σεως (τούτο δε δηλοί το πιστόν). So dicere.’ Lactan. de vera Sap. 1. iv. C. Eustathius: Τρείς φαρμάκων ιδέαι παρ' 7. Upon which mistake Justin Mar- Ομήρω, επίπαστα, ως νύν επί Μενελάου, tyr justifes the Christians of his time: ώπερ ήπια φάρμακα ειδώς πάσσεν ο Μα'Έπει όσον γε εκ του κατηγορημένου ημών χάων και χριστά οίον ιούς χρίεσθαι και ονόματος, χρηστότατοι υπάρχομεν. p. 54. πιστά κατά τον Αισχύλον, τουτέστι, ποτά And again: Χριστιανοί (or rather Χρη- ή πότιμα. Αd 11. Δ. As therefore στιανοί) γάρ είναι κατηγορούμεθα το δε from πίω πίσω, πιστόν, so from χρίω χρηστών μισείσθαι ου δίκαιον. Αpol. 2. χρίσω, χριστόν. And as πιστόν is not p. 55. It was then the ignorance of tliat which receiveth drink, but that the Jewish affairs which caused the drink which is received, not quod putat, Romans to name our Saviour Chre- but quod potabile est; so Xploròv is stus, and the true title is certainly not that which receiveth oil, but that Christus. Χριστός μεν, κατά το κεχρί- which is received by inunction. So ofai, saith Justin. Apol. i. p. 44. Tò the Scholiast upon Aristophanes, Plut. του Χριστού όνομα πρώτον Μωσέα τοϊς ν. 717. Τών φαρμάκων τα μέν έστι καχριoμένοις επιθεϊναι, says Euseb. Dem. ταπλαστά, τα δε χριστά, τα, δε ποτά. Evang. I. iv. c. 15. " Quoniam Græci And the Scholiast of Theocritus : 'Ioveteres χρίεσθαι dicebant ungi, quod τέον, ότι τών φαρμάκων τα μέν εισι χριnunc αλείφεσθαι, ob hanc rationem nos στά, ήγουν, άπερ χριόμεθα εις θεραπείας eum Christum nuncupamus, id est, τα δε ποτά, ήγουν, άπερ πίνομεν τα δε unctum, qui Hebraice Messias dicitur.' επίπαστα, ήγουν, άπερ επιπάττομεν.
drew and the woman of Samaria, who spake in Syriac; Christ, the interpretation of St. John, who wrote this Gospel in the Greek, as the most general language in those days; and the signification of them both is, the anointed. St. Paul and the rest of the apostles, writing in that language, used the Greek name, which the Latins did retain, calling him constantly Christus ; and we in English have retained the same, as universally naming him Christ.
Nor is this yet the full interpretation of the word, which is
Idyl. xi. 1. So that χριστόν in his v. 691. έχρισα μαλλώ. But though it judgment is the same witú čyxplotov in appears from hence that the first use Theocritus. I. s. I.
of the word Xploròs among the Greeks Ουδέν ποττόν έρωτα πεφύκει φάρμακον was to signify the act or matter used in άλλο,
inunction, not the subject or person Νικία, ούτ' έγχριστον, εμίν δοκεί, ούτ' anointed: yet in the vulgar acceptaεπίπαστον,
tion of the LXX. it was most con*Η ται Πιερίδες
stantly received for the person anointIn the same sense with schylus did ed, of the same validity with χρισθείς Euripides use χριστόν φάρμακον τη οι κεχρισμένος, (Suidas χριστος, ο κεHippolyto, v. 516.
χρισμένος εν ελαίω) as also with ηλειμΠότερα δε χριστόν ή ποτόν το φάρμακον; μένος. For though Lactantius in the and not only those ancient poets, but place fore-cited seems to think that even the later orators; as Dion Chry- word an improper version of the Hesostomus: Πολύ γάρ χείρον και διεφθαρ- Grecis scripturis, que male de He
• Unde in quibusdam μένου σώματος και νοσούντος ψυχή διεφθαρμένη, μα Δί', ουχ υπό φαρμάκων χρι: id est, unguento curatus, scriptum in
braicis interpretatae sunt, ήλειμμένος, στών ή ποτών. Οrat. 78. And the LXX. have used it in this sense; as
venitur, από το αλείφεσθαι :' yet the when the Hebrew speaks of a 3. οι ιερείς οι ηλειμμένοι. And although
LXX. have so translated it, Numb.iii. INWOT oleum unctionis, they translate it του επικεχυμένου επί την κεφα
Athenæus hath observed, 1. xv. C. 39. λήν του ελαίου του χριστού, Lev. xxi. των μύρων τα μέν έστι χρίσματα, τα δ' 10. and again ver. 12. nuo pw words there is no difference, as he
αλείμματα" yet in the vulgar use of the ότι το άγιον έλαιον το χριστον επ' αυτώ himself speaks a little after: Το δε Oleum unctionis then is έλαιον χριστον, which in Exodus xxix. 7. ΧΧΧν. 132 χρίσασθαι τω τοιούτο αλείμματι μυρίxl. 9. the same translators,
σασθαι είρηκεν. And Ρlutarch. Sym
correspondent to the Hebrew phrase, call έλαιον pos. 1. iii. c. 4. Πύθου παρά τών έτι χρίσματος, and more frequently έλαιον συναναπαυομένων γυναιξίν ή μύρον χρίσεως. The place of Sophocles is αληλιμμέναις ή έλαιον αναπίμπλανται
γάρ αυτού του χρίσματος εν τω συγsomething doubtful, Trachin. 662.
καθεύδειν. So Ηesych. 'Αλείψαι, ελαίω "Οθεν μόλοι πανάμερος Τάς πειθούς παγχρίστω
χρίσαι Κεχρισμένα, ήλειμμένα. 'ΑλοιΣυγκραθείς, επί προφάσει θηρός
φή, χρίσις. Schol. Ηom. Xρισσάμεναι, άλειψάμεναι. Οd. Ζ.
And Suidas, for though tlie Scholiast takes it in the 'Ήληλίμμην, έχριόμην. Hence Eustaordinary sense, παγχρίστω] λείπει το thius: Ιστέον και ότι ισοδυναμούντων πέπλο, ήγουν τω χρισθέντι πέπλο, συγ- κατά νούν τοϋ τε χρίω, και τού αλείφω" κεκραμένος και αρμοσθείς τη πειθοί του το μεν χρίω παρά τον χρoύν έρρήθη ός θηρός" yet both τάς πειθούς before it, χρίεται, το δε αλείφω παρά το αλέω. Οd. and συγκραθείς after, seem to incline 7. So Eusebius: Τρίτη τάξει χριστον to the former sense, and in the next αυτόν γεγονέναι ελαίω, ου τω εξ ύλης page αρτίχριστον is clearly attributed σωμάτων, αλλά τα ενθέα της αγαλλιάto the ointment, v. 687.
σεως ήλειμμένον παρίστησι. Ηist. Eccl. Το φάρμακον τούτ' άπυρον, ακτίνός τ' αεί 1. i. c. 3. Χριστός then in the vulgar θέρμης άθικτον, εν μυχούς σώζειν εμέ, use of the LXX. is a person anointed, "Εως αν αρτίχριστον αρμόσαιμί που, and in that sense is our Saviour called from whence Deianira says presently, Christ.
to be understood not simply according to the action only, but as it involveth the design in the custom of anointing. For in the Law whatsoever was anointed was thereby set apart, as ordained to some special use or office : and therefore under the notion of unction we must understand that promotion and ordination. “Jacob poured out oil on the top of a pillar,” (Gen. xxviii. 18.) and that anointing was the consecration of it. Moses anointed the tabernacle and all the vessels, and this anointing was their dedication, Hence“ the priest that is anointed” (Lev. iv. 3.) signifieth, in the phrase of Moses, the high-priest, because he was invested in that office at and by his unction. When therefore Jesus is called the Messias or Christ, and that long after the anointing oil had ceased, it signified no less than a person set apart by God, anointed with most sacred oil, advanced to the highest office, of which all those employments under the Law, in the obtaining of which oil was used, were but types and shadows. And this may suffice for the signification of the word.
That there was among the Jews an expectation of such a Christ to come, is most evident. The woman of Samaria could speak with confidence, “I know that Messias cometh.” (John iv. 25.) And the unbelieving Jews, who will not acknowledge that he is already come, expect him still. Thus we find “all men musing in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ or not.” (Luke iii. 15.) When Jesus taught in the Temple, those which doubted said, “ When Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is;" (John vii. 27.) those which believed said, “When Christ cometh, will he do more miracles than these which this man hath done ?" (John vii. 31.) Whether therefore they doubted, or whether they believed in Jesus, they all expected a Christ to come; and the greater their opinion was of him, the more they believed he was that Messias. “ Many of the people said, Of a truth this is the prophet: others said, This is the Christ.” (John vii. 40, 41.) As soon as John began to baptize, “the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem, to ask him, Who art thou ?” (John i. 19.) that is, whether he were the Christ or no, as appeareth out of his answer,
“And he confessed and denied not, but confessed, I am not the Christ.” (John i. 20.) For as they asked him after, "What then, Art thou Elias ? and he said, I am not: Art thou that prophet? and he answered, No:"(John i. 21.) so without question their first demand was, Art thou the Christ?'* and he answered, 'I am not:' from whence it clearly appeareth that there was a general expectation among the Jews of a Messias to come; nor only so, but it was always counted among them an article of their faith, † which
* So Nonnus hath expressed, what Tíg où tédels; un Xpiotòg ipus;in the evangelist is to be understood:
c. j. v. 65. Μυστιπόλοι δ' έρέεινον ομήλυδες οξεί + Auctor Sepher Ikkarim, I. iv.c. μύθω,
ult. Maimon. Tract. de Regibus,c, 11.