« ZurückWeiter »
power and dominion; for as it is often used as the interpretation of the name Jehovah, so is it also for that of Adon or Adonai. “The Lord said unto my Lord,” saith David (Psal. cx. 1.) that is, in the original, Jehovah unto Adon; and that Adon is the Word,* that Lord is Christ. We know the Temple at Jerusalem was the Temple of the most high God, and the Lord of that Temple in the emphasis of an Hebrew article was Christ, as appeareth by that prophet, “ The Lord + whom ye seek shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in.” (Mal. iii. 1.)
Now this notation, as it is the interpretation of Adon, signifieth immediately and properly. dominion implying a right of possession, and power of disposing. Which doth not only agree with that other notion of Jehovah, but presupposes it, as following and flowing from it. For he who alone hath a being or existence of himself, and thereby is the fountain of all things beside himself, must be acknowledged to have full power and dominion over all : because every thing must necessarily belong to him from whom it hath received what it is, Wherefore being Christ is the Lord, as that title is taken for Jehovah, the name of God, expressing the necessary existence and independence of his single being, and consequently the dependency of all others upon him ; it followeth, that he be acknowledged also the Lord, as that name expresseth Adon, signifying power authoritative and proper dominion. Thus having explained the notation of the word Lord, which we propounded as the first part of our exposition; we come next to the second, which is, to declare the nature of this dominion, and to shew how and in what respect Christ is the Lord.
Now for the full and exact understanding of the dominion seated or invested in Christ as the Lord, it will be necessary to distinguish it according to that diversity which the Scriptures represent unto uş. As therefore we have observed two natures united in his person, so must we also consider two kinds of dominion belonging respectively to those natures ; one inherent in his Divinity, the other bestowed upon his hu. decide this controversy by the arti- του Κυρίου αναξίως others with an cles, of which the sacred penmen addition, tò nothploy toŨ Kupiov ávawere not curious, and the transcribers 'Elws toũ Kupiove 1 Cor. xiv. 37. the have been very careless: 'nor is there Vulgar edition, őri ToŨ Kvplov cloiv so great uncertainty of the ancient évtolai, the Complutensis, őri Kvpiov. MSS. in any thing as in the words So where we usually read Xpistos, and articles of Kύριος and Θεός.. The divers ancient MSS. have Kύριος: Vulgar edition, Rev. i. 8. hath déyel • Lastly, it is observable that even in Kúpos only, the Complutensis Aéyel these words of the Creed, which we Κύριος ο Θεός, Plantine, λέγει ο Κύριος now expound, Κύριος is spoken ex• Deds, against the Socinian rule, who pressly of Christ without an article, will have an accession by ở to edg, for so we read it: Kai eis 'Incoûv and a diminution by o from Κύριος. Χριστόν, τον υιόν αυτού τον μονογενή, As Rev. iv. 11. "AÉLoç El, kúple, daßeiv Kúplov ñuñv. Triv državo in other MSS. “AELOS el, o
• Chaldee paraphrase. Κύριος και ο Θεός ημών ο άγιος, λαβείν Tov dočav. 1 Cor. xi. 27. 70 Torápiov
manity; one, as he is the Lord the Maker of all things, the other as he is made Lord of all things.
For the first, we are assured that “the Word was God," (John i. 1.) that by the same Word "all things were made, and without him was not any thing made that was made;" (Ibid. 8.) we must acknowledge that whosoever is the Creator of all things must have a direct dominion over all, as belonging to the possession of the Creator, who made all things. Therefore the Word, that is, Christ as God, hath the supreme and universal dominion of the World. Which was well expressed by that famous confession of no longer doubting, but believing Thomas, “my Lord and my God.” (John xx. 28.)
For the second, it is also certain that there was some kind of lordship given or bestowed on Christ, whose very unction proves no less than an imparted dominion; as St. Peter tells us, that he was "made both Lord and Christ.” (Acts ii. 36.) What David spake of man (Psal. viii. 5, 6.) the Apostle hath applied peculiarly unto him, “Thou crownedst him with glory and honour, and didst set him over the works of thy hands: Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet.” (Heb. ii. 7, 8.)
Now a dominion thus imparted, given, derived, or bestowed, cannot be that which belongeth unto God as God, founded in the divine nature, because whatsoever is such is absolute and independent. Wherefore, this lordship thus imparted or acquired appertainėth to the human nature, and belongeth to our Saviour as the Son of man. The right of judicature is part of this power; and Christ himself hath told us, that the Father " hath given bim authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of man;" (John v. 27.) and by virtue of this delegated authority, the “Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels, and reward every man according to his works.” (Matt. xvi. 27.) Part of the same dominion is the power of forgiving sins; as pardoning, no less than punishing, is a branch of the supreme magistracy: and Christ did therefore say to the sick of the palsy, “Thy sins be forgiven thee, that we might know that the Son of man had power on earth to forgive sins.”(Matt. ix. 2.6.) Another branch of that power is the alteration of the Law, there being the same authority required to abrogate or alter, which is to make a law: and Christ asserted himself to be "greater than the Temple,” shewing that the ·Son of man was Lord even of the sabbath-day.” (Matt. xii. 6. 8.)
This dominion thus given unto Christ in his human nature was a direct and plenary power over all things, but was not actually given him at once, but part while he lived on earth, part after his death and resurrection. For though it be true that “Jesus knew," before his death, “that the Father had given all things into his hands:?? (John xiii. 3.), yet it is observable that in the same place it is written, that he likewise
knew “ that he was come from God, and went to God :” and part of that power he received when he came from God, with part he was invested when he went to God; the first to enable him, the second, not only so, but also to reward him. “ For to this end Christ both died, rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.” (Rom. xiv. 9.) After his resurrection he said to his disciples, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.” (Matt. xxviii. 18.) “ He drank of the brook in the way, therefore he hath lift up his head.” (Psal. cx. 7.) Because “he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross: therefore God hath also highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name; that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” (Phil. ii. 8–11.) Thus for and after his death he was instated in a full power and dominion over all things, even as the Son of man, but exalted by the Father, “who raised him from the dead, and set him at his right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality and power, and might and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come; and hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things to the Church.” (Eph. i. 20-22.)
Now as all the power given unto Christ as man had not the same beginning in respect of the use or possession; so neither, when begun, shall it all have the same duration. For part of it being merely economical, aiming at a certain end, shall then cease and determinate, when that end for which it was given shall be accomplished: part, being either due upon the union of the human nature with the divine, or upon covenant, as a reward for the sufferings endured in that nature, must be coeval with that union and that nature which so suffered, and consequently must be eternal.
Of the first part of this dominion did David speak, when by the spirit of prophecy he called his Son his Lord; “ The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool;"(Psal.cx. 1.) where the continuation of Christ's dominion over his enemies is promised to be prolonged until their final and total subjection. “ For he must reign till he hath put all things under his feet.” (1 Cor. xv. 25.) And as we are sure of the continuation of that kingdom till that time, so are we'assured of the resignation at that time. For “when he shall have put down all rule, and all authority and power, then shall he deliver up the kingdom to God, even the Father.” (1 Cor. xv. 24.) “And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.” (Ibid. 28.) Thus he which was appointed to “ rule in the midst of his enemies” (Psal. cx. 2.) during their rebellion, shall resign up his commission after their subjection.
But we must not look upon Christ only in the nature of a general, who hath received a commission, or of an ambassador, with perfect instructions, but of the only Son of God, empowered and employed to destroy the enemies of his Father's kingdom: and though thus empowered and commissioned, though resigning that authority which hath already had its perfect work, yet still the only Son and heir of all things in his Father's house, never to relinquish his dominion over those whom he hath purchased with his own blood, never to be deprived of that reward which was assigned him for his sufferings: for if the prize which we expect in the race of our imperfect obedience be an immarcessible crown, if the weight of glory which we look for from him be eternal; then cannot his perfect and absolute obedience be crowned with a fading power, or he cease ruling over us, who hath always reigned in
We shall for ever reign with him, and he will make us priests and kings; but so that he continue still for ever Highpriest and King of kinys.
The certainty of this eternal dominion of Christ, as man, we may well ground upon the promise made to David, because by reason of that promise Christ himself is called David. For so God speaketh concerning his people; “I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd. And I the Lord will be their God, and my servant David a prince among them. I the Lord have spoken it." (Ezek. xxxiv. 23, 24.) Now the promise was thus made expressly to David, “Thy house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee, thy throne shall be established for ever.” (2 Sam. vii. 16.) And although that term for ever * in the Hebrew language may signify oft-times no more than a certain duration so long as the nature of the thing is durable, or at the utmost but to the end of all things; and so the economical dominion or kingdom of Christ may be thought sufficiently to fulfil their promise, because it shall certainly
ntinue so long as the nature of that economy requireth, till all things be performed for which Christ was sent, and that continuation will infallibly extend unto the end of all things : yet sometimes also the same term for ever signifieth that absolute eternity of future duration which shall have no end at all; and that it is so far to be extended particularly in that promise made to David, and to be fulfilled in his Son, is as certain as the promise. For the angel Gabriel did give that clear exposition to the blessed Virgin, when in this manner he foretold the glory of him who was then to be conceived in her womb; "The Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end." (Luke i. 32, 33.) Nor is this clearer in Gabriel's explication of the promise, than in Daniel's prevision of the performance, who "saw in the night
visions, and behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven; and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion and glory, and a kingdom, that all people and languages should serve him : bis dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.” (Dan. vii. 13, 14.)
Thus Christ is Lord both by a natural and independent dominion : as God the creator, and consequently the owner of the works of his hands: and by a derived, imparted, and dependent right, as man, sent, anointed, raised and exalted, and so made Lord and Christ : which authority so given and hestowed upon him is partly economical, and therefore to be resigned into the hands of the Father, when all those ends for which it was imparted are accomplished : partly so proper to the union, or due unto the passion, of the human nature, that it must be coeval with it, that is, of eternal duration.
The third part of our explication is, the due consideration of the object of Christ's dominion, inquiring whose Lord he is, and how ours. To which purpose first observe the latitude, extent, or rather universality of his power, under which all things are comprehended, as subjected to it. For “he is Lord of all,” (Acts x. 36.) saith St. Peter, of all things, and of all persons; and he must be so, who made all things as God, and to whom all power is given as man.
To him then all things are subjected whose subjection employeth not a contradiction. “For he hath put all things under his feet: but when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted which did put all things under him.” (1 Cor. xv. 27.) God only then excepted, whose original dominion is repugnant to the least subjection, all things are subject unto Christ; whether they be things in heaven, or things on earth. In heaven he is far above all principalities and powers, and “all the angels of God worship him;" (Heb. i. 6.) on earth all nations are his inheritance, “and the uttermost parts of the earth are his possession.” (Psal. ii. 8.) Thus Christ is certainly our Lord, because he is the Lord of all; and when all things were subjected to him, we were not excepted.
But in the midst of this universality of Christ's régal authority it will be farther necessary to find some propriety of dominion, by which he may be said to be peculiarly our Lord. It is true, he made us, and not we ourselves, we are the work of his hands; but the lowest of his creatures can speak as much. We are still preserved by his power, and as he made us, so doth he maintain us; but at the same time he feedeth the ravens and clotheth the lilies of the field. Wherefore beside his original right of creation, and his continued right of preservation, we shall find a more peculiar right of redemption, belonging properly to the sons of men. And in this re