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demption though a single word, we shall find a double * title to a most just dominion, one of conquest, another of purchase.
We were first servants of the enemy of God; for him we obeyed, “and his servants we are to whom we obey: when Christ through death destroyed him that had the power of death, that is, the devil, and delivered us; he spoiled principalities and powers, and made a show of them openly, triumphing over them.” (Rom. vi. 16. Heb. ii. 14. Col. ii. 15.) But contrary to the custom of triumphing conquerors, he did not sell, but buy us; because while he saved us, he died for us, and that death was the price by which he purchased us; even so this dying victor gave us life: upon the cross, as his triumphant chariot, he shed that precious blood which bought us, and thereby became our Lord by right of redemption, both as to conquest and to purchase.
Beside, he hath not only bought us, but provided for us; whatever we have, we receive from him as the master of the family; we hold of him all temporal and eternal blessings, which we enjoy in this, or hope for in another life. He is the “Prince of life,” (Acts iii. 15.) and “by him we live;" (John vi. 57.) he is "the Lord of glory,” (1 Cor. ii. 8.) and we are “called by his Gospel to the obtaining of the glory of our
* For the right understanding of ώνησάμενοι παρά του δημοσίου τους υπό. this double title involved in the word δόρυ πωλουμένους εκ των λαφύρων, ή redemption, it will be necessary to του στρατηγού συγχωρήσαντος άμα ταϊς take notice of the ways by which άλλαις ώφηλείαις και δορυαλώτους τοίς lιuman dominion is acquired, and λαβούσιν έχειν, ή πριάμενοι παρ' ετέρων, servitude introduced. * Servi ant κατά τους αυτούς τρόπους κυρίων γενοnascuntur, ant fiunt,' saith the Ci- uévwv ékéKTNUTO Tous doúlovsHist, I. vilian, Inst. I. i. tit. 3. but in Theo- iv. p. 227. ed. Sylburg. Where it is also • logy we say more, • Servi et na- farther to be observed, that the same scuntur, et fiunt.' Man is born the persons were made slaves by conquest, servant of God his maker, man is and possessed by purchase; by conmade the servant of bis Redeemer. quest to the city of Rome, by purchase Two ways in general they observed to the Roman citizen. The general by which they came to serve, who first took and saved them, and so made were not born slaves. • Fiunt aut them his, that is, reduced them to jure gentium, id est, captivitate ; aut the will and power of the state from jure civili, cum liber bomo major which he received his commission, viginti annis ad pretium participan- and in whose name and for whose indum sese venundari passus est.' terest he fought. This state exposed Two ways then also there were by their interest to sale, and so whatwhich dominion over those servants ever right had been gained by the was acquired, by conquest or by pur. conquering sword, was devolved on chase, and both these were always the Roman citizen for a certain sum accounted just. Dionysius Halicar- of money paid to the state to defray nasseus, an excellent historian, a cu- the charges of that war. Thus every rious observer of the Roman customs, lord or master of a slave so taken bad and an exact judge of their actions, full power over him, and possession being a Grecian, justifieth the right of him, by right of purchase, unto which the masters in Rome claimed which he was first made liable by over their servants upon these two conquest. And though not exactly grounds: 'Etúyxayov dr
) Tois 'Pwpaious in that manner, yet by that double αι των θεραπόντων κτήσεις κατά τους right, is Christ become our Lord, and δικαιοτάτους γινόμεναι τρόπους. ή γαρ we his servants.
Lord.” (2 Thess. ii. 14.) Wherefore he hath us under his dominion, and becomes our Lord by right of promotion.
Lastly, men were not anciently sold always by others, but sometimes by themselves; and whosoever of us truly believe in Christ, have given up our names unto him. In our baptismal vow we bind ourselves unto his service, “that henceforth we will not serve sin; but yield ourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and our members as instruments of righteousness unto God: that, as we have yielded our members servants to uncleanness, and to iniquity unto iniquity; even so we should yield our members servants to righteousness unto holiness.” (Rom. vi. 6. 13. 19.) And thus the same dominion is acknowledged by compact, and confirmed by covenant; and so Christ becomes our Lord by right of obligation.
The necessity of believing and professing our faith in this part of the Article appeareth, first, in the discovery of our condition ; for by this we know that we are not our own, neither our persons nor our actions. “Know ye not (saith St. Paul, 1 Cor. vi. 19, 20.) that ye are not your own ? for ye are bought with a price.” And ancient servitude, to which the Scriptures relate, put the servants wholly in the possession* of their master; so that their persons were as properly his as the rest of his goods. And if we be so in respect of Christ, then may we not live to ourselves but to him ; for in this the difference of service and freedom doth properly consist:t we cannot do our own wills, but the will of him whose we are. Christ took upon
him the form of a servant: and to give us a proper and perfect example of that condition, he telleth us,
Δούλος κτημά τι έμψυχον και ώσπερ servi, but dominus servi. ο μεν δεόργανον προ οργάνων πάς ο υπηρέτης. σπότης του δούλου δεσπότης μόνον, εκείAristot. Pol. 1. i. c. 4. Το τε γάρ νου δε ουκ έστιν ο δε δούλος ου μόνον σώμα εστιν όργανoν σύμφυτον, και του δεσπότου δούλός έστιν, αλλά και όλως δεσπότου ο δούλος ώσπερ μόριον και εκείνου. Ιbid. The servant then is s0 όργανον αφαιρετόν τόδ' όργανον ώσπερ wholly in the possession and for the doūlog, äyuxos. Id. Eth. Eud. I. vii. use of his master, that he is nothing c. 9. And again more expressly: Tíg else but a living tool or instrument; uèv oởv ý púors toŨ dotlov, kaì rís insomuch, (says hc, ibid.) that if all δύναμις, εκ τούτων δήλον. ο γάρ μη tools were like those of Dedalus, or avtoở púbel, áll ällov, av@pw tog dè, the tripods of Vulcan, which the ούτος φύσει δούλός εστιν άλλου δ' εστίν poets feigned to move of themselves, åvopwtos, og åv krñua y, a vopwaog óv. artificers would need no under-workPol. . i: c. 4. So that the definition men, nor masters servants. of a servant according to Aristotle is, + So Aristotle Ethic. Nic. 1. iv. c. 8. He, who being a man, is notwith- Ilpos atlov Sõv dovaixóv. and in the standing the possession of a man. first of his Rhetorics on the contrary: And although all relatives be predi- ¿devJépov tò un apòs allov lõv. c. 9. cated of each other in obliquo, as med. pater est filii pater, et filius patris 1 Το ζην ως βούλεται τις, της ελευfilius, dominus est servi dominus, et Depías čpyov, čítep toŨ doúlov, ővTOS, servus domini servus; yet he observes to, Sĝv un ús Botletai. Aristot. Poa difference in this, that a servant is lit. I. vi. c. 2. Quid est libertas? not only servus domini, but simply potestas vivendi ut velis.' Cic. Padomini; but the master is not simply rad. 5.
« I came
down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me.” (John vi. 38.) First therefore we must conclude with the apostle, reflecting upon Christ's dominion and our obligation, that “pone of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself. For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; or whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord's.”(Rom. xiv. 7, 8.)
Secondly, The same is necessary both to enforce, and invite us to obedience; to enforce us, as he is the Lord, to invite us, as Christ the Lord. If we acknowledge ourselves to be his servants, we must “ bring into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ.” (2 Cor. x. 5.) He which therefore died, and rose, and revived, that he might become the Lord both of the dead and living, maketh not that death and resurrection efficacious to any but such as by their service acknowledge that dominion which he purchased. He, “though he were a Son, yet learned obedience by the thing which he suffered; and being made perfect, he is become the author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him.” (Heb. v. 8,9.) Thus the consideration of the power invested in him, and the necessity of the service due unto him, should force us to obedience; while the consideration of him whom we are thus obliged to serve should allure and invite us. When God gave the Law with fire and thunder, the affrighted Israelites desired to receive it from Moses, and upon that receipt promised obedience. “Go thou near (said they to him), and hear all that the Lord our God shall say; and speak thou unto us, and we will hear it and do it.” (Deut. v. 27.) If they interpreted it so great a favour to receive the Law by the hands of Moses; if they made so ready and cheerful a promise of exact obedience unto the Law so given; how should we be invited to the same promise, and a better performance, who have received the whole will of God revealed to us by the Son of man, who are to give an account of our performance to the same man set down at the right hand of the Father? He first took our nature to become our brother, that with so near a relation he might be made our Lord. If then the patriarchs did cheerfully live in the land of Goshen, subject to the power and command of Egypt, because that power was in the hand of Joseph their exalted brother ; shall not we with all readiness of mind submit ourselves to the divine dominion now given to him who gave himself for us? Shall all the angels worship him, and all the archangels bow down before him, and shall not we be proud to join with them?
Thirdly, The belief of Christ's dominion is necessary for the regulation of all power, authority, and dominion on earth, both in respect of those which rule, and in relation to those that obey. From hence the most absolute monarchs learn, that the people which they rule are not their own, but the subjects of a greater prince, by him committed to their charge.
Upon this St. Paul doth ground his admonition to masters, “Give unto your servants that which is just and equal, knowing that ye also have a master in heaven.” (Col. iv. 1.) God gave a power to the Israelites to make hired servants of their brethren, but not slaves; and gives this reason of the interdiction, “ For they are my servants which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt; they shall not be sold as bondmen.” (Lev. xxv. 42.) What tenderness then should be used towards those who are the servants of that Lord who redeemed them from a greater bondage, who bought them with a higher price? From hence those which are subject learn to obey the powers which are of human ordination, because in them they obey the Lord of all. Subjects bear the same proportion, and stand in the same relation to their governors, with servants to their masters: and St. Paul hath given them this charge, “ Obey in all things your masters according to the flesh; and whatsoever you do, do it heartily, as to the Lord and not unto men; knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance: for ye serve the Lord Christ.” (Col. iii. 22–24.) Neither do we learn from hence only whom, but also how, to obey. For while we look upon one Lord in heaven, while we consider him as the “ Lord of lords,” we regulate our obedience to them by our service due to him, and so are always ready to obey, but in the Lord.
Lastly, This title of our Saviour is of necessary belief for our comfort and encouragement. For being Lord of all, he is able to dispose of all things for the benefit of those which serve him. He who commanded the unconstant winds and stilled the raging seas, he who multiplied the loaves and fishes, and created wine with the word of his mouth, hath all creatures now under exact obedience, and therefore none can want whom he undertaketh to provide for.
" For the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him.” (Rom. x. 12.) Many are the enemies of those persons who dedicate themselves unto his, service; but our enemies are his, and part of his dominion is therefore given him, and to continue in him until all his enemies be made his footstool. Great is the power of the lusts of our flesh, which war in our members; but his grace is sufficient for us, and the power of that Spirit by which he ruleth in us. Heavy are the afflictions which we are called to undergo for his sake: but if we suffer with him, we shall reign together with him: and blessed be that dominion which makes us all kings, that he may be for ever Lord of lords, and King of kings.
After this explication, every Christian may perceive what he is to believe in this part of the Article, and express himself how he would be understood when he maketh this profession of his faith, I believe in Christ our Lord. For thereby we may and ought to intend thus much: I do assent unto this as a certain and infallible truth, taught me by God himself, that
Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, is the true Jehovah, who hath that being which is originally and eternally of itself, and on which all other beings do essentially depend: that by the right of emanation of all things from him, he hath an absolute, supreme, and universal dominion over all things as God: that as the Son of man he is invested with all power in heaven and earth; partly economical, for the coinpleting our redemption, and the destruction of our enemies, to continue to the end of all things, and then to be resigned to the Father; partly consequent unto the union, or due unto the obedience of his passion, and so eternal, as belonging to that kingdom wbich shall have no end. And though he be thus Lord of all things by right of the first creation and constant preservation of them, yet is he more peculiarly the Lord of us who by faith are consecrated to his service: for through the work of our redemption he becomes our Lord both by the right of conquest and of purchase; and making us the sons of God, and providing heavenly mansions for us, he acquires a farther right of promotion, which, considering the covenant we all make to serve him, is at last completed in the right of a voluntary obligation. And thus I believe in CHRIST OUR LORD.
Which was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the
Virgin Mary. THESE words, as they now stand, clearly distinguish the conception of Jesus from his nativity, attributing the first to the Holy Ghost, the second to the blessed Virgin : whereas the ancient Creeds made no such distinction; but without any particular express mention of the conception, had it only in this manner, who was born by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary; or of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary ; * under
* · Deum Judæi sic prædicant so- natus est de Spiritu S. ex Maria Virlum, ut negent filium ejus; negent gine.' Qui natus est de Spiritu 3. simul cum eo unum esse, qui natus ex Maria Virgine.' S. Leu Epist. x. est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Vir- c. 2. Maximus Taurin. Chrysol. Ethegine.' Novatianus. Qui natus est rius Uxam. Auctor Symbol. ad Catede Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine.' chum. So also Venantius Fortanatus. Ruffinus in Symbolum, §. 12. “Natus From whence Fulgentius de Fide ad de Spiritu S. et Maria Virgine.' S. Au- Petrum Diaconum: «Natum de Spigust. Ench. ad Laurent. c. 34. 37. et ritu S. ex Maria Virgine, in Symbolo 38. As also the Council of Francford acceptum, et corde ad justitiam crein Sacrosyllabo. 'Natus est per Spiri- dit, et ore ad salutem S. Ecclcsia contum S. ex Virgine Maria.' S. August. fitetur. Item prædicandum est quode Fide et Symb. c. iv. §. 8. “Nonne de modo Filius Dei incarnatus est de Spiritu S. et Virgine Maria Dei filius Spiritu S. ex Maria semper-Virgine.' unicus batus est? Idem, de Prædest. c. 2. Capitul. Caroli 82. and Alciinus Sanct. c. 15. Et paulo post: • Quja I. iii. de Trinitat. c. 1. • Dicitur in