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Thirdly, We believe the mother of our Lord to have been not only before and after his nativity, but also for ever, the most immacolate and blessed Virgin. For although it may be thought sufficient as to the mystery of the incarnation,* that when our Saviour was conceived and born, his mother was a virgin ; though whatsoever should have followed after, could have no reflective operation upon the first-fruit of her womb; though there be no farther mention in the CREED, than that he was born of the Virgin Mary: yet the peculiar eminency and unparalleled privilege of that mother, the special honour and reverence due unto that Son, and ever paid by her, the regard of that Holy Ghost who came upon her, and the power

of the Highest who overshadowed her, the singular goodness and piety of Joseph, to whom she was espoused, have persuaded The Church of God in all ages to believe that she still

continued in the same virginity, and therefore is to be acknowledged the Ever-Virgin Mary. As if the gate of the sanctuary in the prophet Ezekiel were to be understood of her : “ This gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, and no man shall enter in by it; because the Lord, the God of Israel, hath entered in by it, therefore it shall be shut.” (Ezek. xliv. 2.)

Many, indeed, have taken the boldness to deny this truth, because not recorded in the sacred writ;f and not only so

Μέχρι γάρ της κατά την οικονομίαν commended but by an Eunomian, , υπηρεσίας αναγκαία η παρθενία, το δ' 1hat is, a man of his own sect. Ας εφεξής απολυπραγμόνητον τώ λόγω του that epigram, , uvotnplov karalipwpev. S. Basil. Ho

'Evvoulavoû. mil. in Sanct. Christ. Gen. §. 5.

Ιστορίην ετέλεσσα θεού χαρίτεσσι σο+ For so the Greek Church always φήσι. . called her deltrápbevos, and from them Which I therefore mention, because the Latins, Semper Virgo.

Gotofred hath made an unnecessary | First we read in the time of emendation in the verse, été ego' đ94Origen, that some did maintain the ov, and a worse interpretation in the virginity of Mary no longer than to inscription, taking the Eunomian to Christ's nativity. In tantam nescio be a Catholic, and the name of the quis prorupit insaniam, ut assereret sect for the name of a man; and connegatam fuissc Mariam a Salvatore, firming this error by a greater miseo quod post nativitatem illius juncta take, saying Eunomianus was the fuerit Josepho. Homil. 7. in Lucam. name of a man, twice spoken of in Tertullian himself was produced as Suidas, once in Eůvoulavòs and again an assertor of the same opinion; nor in lovos. It is true indeed Suidas does St. Jerome deny it, though I saith expressly, Eůvoulavos, ovoua cúthink he might have done it. Apolli- plov, and immediately adds' these naris, or at least his followers, deli- words, tov Eůvoulavov človoe Belen vered the same, says Epiphanius, and cápios to Delov lourpòv, as if Belisarius Eunomius with his, Tòv 'Iwono uerd had baptized one whose name was την άφραστον κυοφορίαν συνάπτειν ου Eunomianus. But the words are Treppicaot napoévy, as Photius taken out of Procopius in Hist. Arout of Philostorgius. Not that these canu, p. 2. from whence it appears words in Photius were the words of that he who was baptized was by Philostorgius, for he was clearly an name Theodosius, and by sect an Eunomian, and therefore would ne. Eunomian. And whatsoever his name ver express their opinions with an ou was who wrote that epigram on the Teppikaol. And as he always com- History of Philostorgius, he was cermended Eunomius, so he was not tainly by sect an Eunomian, and that

but to assert the contrary as delivered in the Scriptures; but with no success. For though, as they object, St. Matthew testifieth that Joseph “knew not Mary, until she had brought forth her first-born son,”.(Matt. i. 25.) from whence they would infer, that afterwards he knew her; yet the manner of the Scripture language produceth no such inference.* When God said to Jacob, “ I will not leave thee until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of,” (Gen. xxviii. 15.) it followeth not that when that was done, the God of Jacob left him. When the conclusion of Deuteronomy was written, it was intended in the inscription, writ- περιορισμών υποφαίνειν, κατά δε την ten without question by some Catho- αλήθειαν το αόριστον δείκνυσιν. S. Basil. lic, who thought no man could com- Homil. in Sanct. Christ. Gen. §. 5. mend the History of Philostorgius but "Έθος τη γραφή την ρήσιν ταύτην μη επί one of his own opinion. These con- διωρισμένου τιθέναι χρόνου, S. Chrysost. tradictors of the perpetual virginity in Μatt. Homil. 5. Το “Έως πολλάκις of the mother of our Lord afterwards και επί του διηνεκώς εν τη θεία γραφή ευincreased to a greater number, whom piokopev keipevov. Isid. Pelus. lib. i. Epiphanius calls by a general name ep. 18. Το Έως πολλαχού ουκ επί χρόAntidicomarianita. And from him νου λέγει, αλλ' επί του αυτού πράγματος. St. Augustin: “Antidicomarianitæ ap- Adria. Isag. in S. S. To "Ews éviore pellati sunt Heretici, qui Marie Vir- μεν προς αντιδιαστολής του εφεξής χρόginitati usque adeo contradicunt, ut νου παραλαμβάνεται, ενίοτε δ' ούν επί afrment eam post Christum natum δηλώσει μεγάλων μέν έργων και θεοπρεviro suo fuisse commixtam. de Heres. πών καθάπερ και νύν ου μεν προς αντι56. condemned under that name by διαστολήν ετέρου χρόνου τινός, αλλά και the sixth general Council, Act.2.[xi.] εναντίον εις υποδήλωσιν απεράντου διαThe same were called by the Latins, στήματος. Phot. ep. 30. In the same Helvidiani, from Helvidius (a disciple manner it is observed by the Greek of Auxentius the Arian), whose name grammarians of mpiv, that if any one is most made use of, because refuted declared that he did it not apiv before by St. Jerome. He was followed by such a thing were done, it followeth Jovinian, a monk of Milan, as St. Je- not that he did it when or after that rome testifieth; though St. Augustin thing was done. As when Helena delivereth his opinion otherwise: saw and knew Ulysses a spy in Troy, • Virginitatem Mariæ destruebat, di- she promised upon oath that she cens eam pariendo fuisse corruptam.', would discover him to none till he Hares. 82. And Bonosus, a bishop' was safe returned to the Grecian fleet; in Macedonia, referred by the Council -Και ώμοσα καρτερον όρκον, of Capua to the judgment of Anysius Mή μεν πρίν Οδυσήα μετά Τρώεσσ' αναbishop of Thessalonica, was condemn φήναι, ed for the same, as appeareth by the Πρίν γε τον ες νηάς τε θοάς κλισίας τ' 79th Ep. of St. Ambrose, written to αφικέσθαι. Od. Δ. ν. 253.

Theophilas and Anysius : Sane non And yet it is not likely (says Eupossumus negare de Mariæ filiis jure stathius), that Helena did ever disreprehensum, meritoque' vestram cover Ulysses to the Trojaņs after he Sanctitatem abhorruisse, quod ex eo was returned: 'Εν δε τω, Μή πριν dem utero virginali, ex quo secundum 'Οδυσσέα Τρωσιν αναφήναι, πριν αυτόν Carnem Christus natus est, alius par- εις νήας ικέσθαι, είπερ μη δοκεϊ πιθανόν tus, efusus sit. This is the catalogue η ευλόγιστον το αναφήναι όλως τον of those by the ancients accounted 'Οδυσσέα τοϊς Τρωσιν, ενθυμητέον την heretics, for denying the perpetual δύναμιν του,μή πρίν ποιήσαι τόδε τι πριν virginity of the mother of our Lord. αν τόδε γένηται, (ήτις εν τη Α ραψωδία

* For in the word "Έως there is no της Ιλιάδος κείται) και φανείται εκείθεν, such force. • Το έως ου πάντως αντιδι- ως ουκ εικός την Ελένην ειπείν τοϊς Ίλιαιρείται το μέλλοντι, αλλά το μέχρι μέν εύσι περί του Οδυσσέως ουδέ ότε είς νήας τούδε τίθησι, το μετά τούτο δε ουκ αναί- και κλισίας αφίκετο αυτός. A negation verai. S. Greg. Naz. Orat. 2. de Filio. anteceding #piv ot éws, is no affirmaΤο έως πολλαχού χρόνου μέν τινα δοκεϊ tion following them.

was said of Moses," No man knoweth of his sepulcbre unto this day;" (Deut. xxxiv. 6.) but it were a weak argument to infer from thence, that the sepulchre of Moses hath been known ever since. When Samuel had delivered a severe prediction unto Saul, he came no more to see him until the day of his death;” (1 Sam. xv. 35.), but it were a strange collection to ipfer, that he therefore gave him a visit after he was dead. “ Michąl the daughter of Saul had no child until the day of her death;” (2 Sam. vi. 23.) and yet it were a ridiculous stupidity to dream of any midwifery in the grave. Christ promised his presence to the apostles “ unto the end of the world:” (Matt. xxviii. 20.) who ever made so unhappy a construction as to infer from thence, that for ever after he would be absent from them ?

Again, it is true that Christ is termed the first-born son of Mary,* from whence they infer she must needs have a second; but might as well conclude, that wheresoever there is one, there must be two. For in this particular the Scripture-notion of priority excludeth an antecedent, but inferreth not a consequent: it supposeth none to have gone before, but concludeth not any to follow after. “Sanctify unto me (saith God) all the first-born;" which was a firm and fixed law, immediately obliging upon the birth : whereas if the first-born had included a relation to a second, there could have been no present certainty, but a suspension of obedience; nor had the first-born been sanctified of itself, but the second birth had sanctified the first. And well might any sacrilegious Jew, have kept back the price of redemption due unto the priest,t nor could it have been required of him, till a second offspring had appeared; and so no redemption at all had been required for an only son. Whereas all such pretences were unheard of in the Law, because the original Hebrew wordt is not capable of any such construction; and in the Law itself it carrieth with it a clear interpretation, “Sanctify unto me all the first-born: whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel,

• For I shall not deny that Christ Gen. §. 5. ‘Primogenitus cst non was called the first-born in respect tantum post quem et alii, sed ante of bis mother, though Epiphanius quem nulļus.' S. Hieron. adv. Helvid. thought that a sufficient answer: Our col. 443. It is observed by Servius, cinev, ori éyévvyçe Tov TOWTórokov aú- on that of Virgil's Æneid. 1.5. Trojæ Tõsarlouk čyvw aurny, twę łyévvnge, qui primus ab oris,' that primus is τον υιόν αυτής, και ουκ είπε, τον πρωτό- post quem mulhus. τρικον αυτής, αλλά τον πρωτότοκον. Έπι, + Thus. Jerome makes his plea : HÈN yap to viq avrns tonjavev, t avrñs . Quid me in unius mensis stringis: κατά σάρκα γεγεννήσθαι επί δε τη τού articulo! quid primogenitum vocas, KPWTOTÓKOV énwvyuig Ouréti. To avrñs quem an sequantur fratres ignoro? ZOETo, áld mpwtórokov povov. Heres. Exspecta donec nascatur secundus: 78. §. 17. As if her son the first-born nihil debeo sacerdoti, nisi et ille fuerit were not her first-born son. Oů páva procreatus, per quem is qui ante Tus o TPWTÓTOKOS Tpòs Tous ŽalyLvogé- natus est incipiat esse primogenitas.? vous é xe Toy our plolv, åXX' ó apūrov. Advers, Helvid. col. 443. διανοίγων μήτραν Πρωτότοκος ονομάζεrai. Š. Basil. Hom. in Sanct. Christ.

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both of man and beast, it is mine.” (Exod. xiii. 2.) The apertion of the womb determineth the first-born;* and the law of redemption excludeth all such tergiversation : “ Those that are redeemed, from a month old thou shalt redeem;" (Numb. xviii. 16.) no staying to make up the relation, no expecting another birth to perfect the redemption. Being then they brought our Saviour to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord, as it is written in the Law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord;” (Luke ii. 22, 23.) it is evident he was called the first-born of Mary according to the notion of the Law of Moses, and consequently that title inferreth no succession, nor proveth the mother to have any other offspring.

Indeed, as they thirdly object, it cannot be denied but that we read expressly in the Scriptures of the brethren of our Lord: He went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his brethren,” (John ii. 12.) and, “While he talked unto the people, his mother and his brethren stood without, desiring to speak with him."(Matt. xii. 46.) But although his mother and his brethren be named together, yet they are never called the sons of his mother; and the question is not whether Christ had any brethren, but whether his mother brought forth any other children? It is possible Joseph might have children before Mary was espoused to him; and then as he was reputed and called our Saviour's fàther, só might they well be accounted and called his brethren, as the ancient fathers,t especially of the Greek Church,have taught.

• Definivit sermo Dei, quid sit tius Joseph ex priore conjugio susPrimogenituñ; Omne, inquit, quod cepti.' Com. in Matt. c. 1. Thus also aperit vulvam.' S. Hier. adv. Helv. St. Ambrose de Virg. And generally col. 443.

all the fathers to that time, and the t Origen first delivereth it on St. Greeks afterwards. St. Chrysostom, Matt. and Eusebius sheweth his opi- St. Cyril, Euthymius, Theophylact, nion, speaking of St. James the bro- Ecumenius, and Nicephorus. These ther of our Lord, Hist. Eccl. I. ii. c. all seem to bave followed an old 1. Τότε δήτα και Ιάκωβον τον του tradition, which is partly still conΚυρίου λεγόμενον αδελφόν, ότι δή και tinued, in Epiphanius: "Έσχε δε ούτος ούτος Ιωσήφ ώνόμαστο παις, τού δε ο Ιωσήφ την μεν πρώτην αυτού γυναίκα Χριστού πατήρ ο Ιωσήφ. So we read, εκ της φυλής Ιούδα και κυίσκει αυτή as it is set forth by R. Stephan. But avtn taiðas tov åpl@udy ez, réooapaç in my book collated with an ancient μεν άρρενας, θηλείας δε δύο. Ηares. MS. "Oti cai odros viós hv toŨ 78. §. 7. The first of these six chilΙωσήφ του νομιζομένου οιονεί πατρός dren was James: μετ' αυτόν δε γίνεται του Χριστού. Which is much more παίς Ιωσή καλούμενος, είτα μετ' αυτόν plain; for ωνόμαστο παίς is nothing so Συμεών, έπειτα Ιούδας και δύο θυγατέpertinent in tliis particular, as υιός ήν, ρες, η Μαρία, και η Σαλώμη καλουμένη. So Epiphanius:' 'Av ydp lákwßos Ibid. §. 8. Thus had the Greeks a ούτος υιός τού 'Ιωσήφ εκ γυναικός του distinct relation of the sons and 'Iwono, oúk årò Mapias. Hæres. 29. 9.4. daughters of Joseph, and of the order And Hæres. 42. §. 12. speaking of the of their generation. Whose authority rest he calls them: Tous vious 'Iwong I shall conclude with that of Jobius εκ της όντως αυτού άλλης γυναικός. Econ. Ι. ix. "Εδει πατέρα και αδελφούς Thus St. Hilary: • Homines pravis- énè yñs óvopáoal ròv áñáropa, ook &K simi hinc priestmunt opinionis sure των ληστών και πονηρών τούτους εξεauctoritatem, quod plures Dominum λέξατο, αλλά τους εν δικαιοσύνη διαλάμnostrum fratres habuisse sit traditum, ποντας τοιούτος γαρ 'Ιωσήφ, και οι τούquasi Mariæ illi fuissent, et non po- rov raides. In Phot. Biblioth. 222.c.38.

Nor need we thus assert that Joseph had any offspring, because the language of the Jews includeth in the name of brethren not only the strict relation of fraternity, but also the larger of consanguinity; and therefore it is sufficient satisfaction for that expression, that there were such persons allied unto the blessed Virgin. “We be brethren,” (Gen. xii. 8.) said Abraham unto Lot; when Abraham was the son of Terab, Lot of Haran, and consequently not his brother, but his nephew, and, as elsewhere properly styled, "the son of his brother." (Gen. xii. 5.) “Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan the sons of Uz, ziel the uncle of Aaron, and said unto them, Come near, carry your brethren from before the sanctuary:"(Lev. x. 4.) whereas those brethren were Nadab and Abihu, the sons, not of Uzziel, but of Aaron. “ Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother, and that he was Rebekah's son;" (Gen. xxix. 12.) whereas Rebekah was the sister of Rachel's father. It is sufficient therefore, that the evangelists, according to the constant language of the Jews, call the kindred of the blessed Virgin the brethren and sisters of her only son; which indeed is something the later, but the most generally approved, an

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col. 642. . And that of Amphilochius titulum habet juxta Petrum, aut ex Jun. 'Hriornoav Tote kai oi roll libro Jacobi) filios Joseph ex priore Ιωσήφ υιοι, καθώς μαρτυρεί ο Ευαγ- uxore, que convixerat ipsi antequam γελιστής, και τη πείρα διδαχθέντες το duceret Mariam. In Μatt. xiii. 55. αληθές, γεγραφήκασιν Ιάκωβος και Ιού- This Jacobus mentioned by Origen, δας παντί τω κοσμώ, Θεού και Κυρίου is the same with him whom EustaΙησού Χριστού δούλους εαυτούς είναι, thius mentions in Heraemero, p. 70. Orat. in Deip. in fin.

ed. Lugd. 1629. "Ažcov chiviotoThe first, I conceive, who re- plav, vv duételot Tepi tñs åylaş Mapias turned this answer was St. Jerome, 'lákwßóstis, é eleiv. Where be in a tractate written in his youth at reckons Joseph inter Tods xnpevovras, Rome against Helvidius; wherein, and Epiphanius calls 'lárußos 'Eafter a long discourse of several ac- Bpaños. Lib. de Vit. B. Mariæ. Virg.ceptions of brethren in the Scriptures, St. Jerome therefore observing that he thus concludes: • Restat igitur, the former opinion of Joseph's sons ut fratres eos intelligas appellatos was founded merely upon an apocry-cognatione, non affectu, non gentis phal writing, and being ready to privilegio, non natura, quo modo Lot assert the virginity of Joseph as well Abrahæ, quo modo Jacob Laban est as Mary, first invented the other soappellatus frater.' Adv. Helvid. col. Jution in the kindred of Mary, as 448. And as for the other opinion of founded not only in the language, those which went before him, he says but also testimony of the Scriptures : it was grounded merely upon an apo- 'Quidam fratres Domini de alia uxore cryphal history, Com. in Matt. c. xii. Joseph filios suspicantur, sequentes 49. col. 639. Quidam fratres Do. deliramenta Apocryphorum, et quanmini de alia uxore Joseph filios su- dam Escham mulierem confingentes. spicantur, scquentes deliramenta Apo- Nos autem sicut in libro quem contra cryphorum, et quandam Escham mu- Helvidium scripsimus continetur, lierculam confingentes.' Indeed Ori- fratres Domini non filios Joseph, sed gen bimself, followed in this particular consobrinos Salvatoris, Mariæ liberos by the Greek Church, did confess no intelligimus materteræ Domini, quæ; less; who tells the authors from esse dicitur mater Jacobi minoris et whom that interpretation first arose: Joseph et Judæ, quos in alio Evan• Fratres autem Jesu putabant non-, gclii loco fratres Domini legimus apnulli esse, (ex traditione Hebræorum pellatos. Fratres autem consobrinos : sumpta occasione, ex evangelio quod dici omnis Scriptura demonstrat. S.

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