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And yet this difficulty, though usually no farther considered, is not fully cleared; for they which impugned the perpetual virginity of the mother of our Lord, urged it farther, pretending that as the Scriptures called them the brethren of Christ, so they also shewed them to be the sons of Mary the mother of Christ. For first the Jews express them particularly by their names, “Is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?" (Matt. xiii. 55.) Therefore James and Joses were undoubtedly the brethren of Christ, and the same were also as unquestionably sons of Mary :* for among the women at the cross we find “ Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses.” (Matt. xxvii. 56.) Again, this Mary they think can be no other than the mother of our Lord, because they find her early in the morning at the sepulchre with Mary Magdalene and Salome; (Mark xvi. 1.) and it is not probable that any should have more care of the body of the son than the mother.† She then who was certainly present at the cross, was not probably absent from the sepulchre: wherefore they conclude, she was the mother of Christ, who was the mother of James and Joses, the brethren of Christ.

And now the urging of this argument will produce a greater clearness in the solution of the question. For if it appear that Mary the mother of James and Joses was different and distinguished from Mary the Virgin; then will it also be apparent that the brethren of our Lord were the sons of another mother, for James and Joses were so called. But we read in St. John, that “there stood by the cross of Jesus, bis mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.” (John xix. 25.) In the rest of the evangelists we find at the same place “Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and soses;” (Matt. xxvii. 56. Mark xv. 40.) and again at the sepulchre, “Mary Magdalene and the other Mary:" (Matt. xxviii. 1.) wherefore that other Mary, by Hier. in Matt. xii. 49. col. 639. After was taken for his undoubted opinion,' St. Jeronie, St. Augustin embraced and upon his and St. Jerome's authis opinion: Consanguinei Virginis thority, bath been generally since reMariæ fratres Domini dicebantur. ceived in the Latin Churcb. Erat enim consuetudinis Scriptura * From this place Helvidius arrum appellare fratres quoslibet consan- gued : ‘Hæc eadem vocabula in alio guineos et cognationis propinquos.' In loco nominari, et eosdem esse fratres Ioan. Tract. 28. §. 3. item Tract. 10. Domini filios Mariæ.' S. Hier. advers. §. 2. et contra Faustum, !. xxii. c. 35. Helv. col. 444. And from the next Although therefore he seem to be in- he concluded: « Ecce Jacobus et different in his exposition of the Joses, filii Mariæ, quos Judæi fratres Epistle to the Galatians, i. 15. “Ja- appellarunt.' Ibid. col. 445. cobus Domini frater, vel ex filiis Jo + Here Helvidius exclaiming tri- : seph de alia uxore, vel ex cognatione umphed: “Quam miserum erit et imMariæ matris ejus, debet intelligi:' pium de Maria hoc sentire, ut cum yet because this exposition was writ- aliæ fueminæ curam sepulturæ habuten while he was a presbyter, and erint, matrem ejus dicamus absenthose before-mentioned after he was tem!' Ibid. col. 445. made a bishop; therefore the former

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the conjunction of these testimonies, appeareth to be Mary the wife of Cleophas, and the mother of James and Joses; and consequently James and Joses, the brethren of our Lord, were not the sons of Mary his mother, but of the other Mary,* and therefore called his brethren according to the language of the Jews, because that the other Mary was the sister of his mother.

Notwithstanding therefore all these pretensions, there can be nothing found to raise the least suspicion of any interruption of the ever-blessed Mary's perpetual virginity. For as she was a virgin when she conceived, and after she brought forth our Saviour; so did she continue in the same state and condition, and was commended by our Saviour to his beloved disciple, as a mother only now of an adopted son.

The third consideration belonging to this part of the Article is, how this Virgin was a mother, what the foundation was of her maternal relation to the Son of God, what is to be attributed upto her in this sacred nativity, beside the immediate work of the power of the Highest, and the influence of the Holy Ghost. For we are here to remember again the most ancient form of this Article, briefly thus delivered, born of the Holy Ghost, and Virgin Mary; as also that the word bornt was not taken precisely for the nativity of our Saviour, but as comprehending in, it whatsoever belonged to his human generation; and when afterward the conception was attributed to the Spirit, the nativity to the Virgin; it was not so to be understood, as if the Spirit had conceived him, but the blessed Virgin, by the power and operation of the Spirit.

First therefore we must acknowledge a true, real, and proper conception, by which the Virgin did conceive of her own substance the true and real substance of our Saviour, according to the prediction of the prophet, “Behold a virgin shall conceive," "(Isa. vii. 14.) and the annunciation of the angel,

Behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb."S (Luke i. 31.) From whence our Saviour is expressly termed by Elizabeth “ the fruit || of her womb." (Luke i. 42.)

* Jacobus qui appellatur frater edendorum corporum susceptis origiDomini, cognomento Jastus, ut non- nibus impendunt.' S. Hilar. 1. x. de nulli existimant, Joseph ex alia uxo- Trinit. c. 15. re, ut autem mihi videtur, Mariæ § That is, by a proper conception, sororis Matris Domini, cujus Joan- ovilaßtiv èv yaotpi: the Syriac in one nes in libro suo meminit, filius., S. word 742 · ac si diceres, ventrescere." Hieron. in Catalogo Script. Eccles. So the LXX. translated the simple ni 4. col. 346. Sicut in sepulcro ubi 777 év yaorpi Nýtetai. As therefore positum est corpus Domini, nec εν γαστρί έχειν expresseth a proper antea nec postea mortuus jacuit: sic gravidation, so doth čv yaoTpi outlauterus Mariæ nec antea nec postea Beiv a proper conception. According quicquam mortale suscepit." S. Au- to that expression of Gregory Naziangust. in Ioan. Tract. 28.

Zen: θεϊκώς μεν, ότι χωρίς ανδρός άνη Γεννηθέντα.

θρωπικώς δε, ότι νόμω κυήσεως. Εp. i. * •Tantum ad nativitatem carnis ex ad Cledon. se dcdit, quantum ex se feminæ

.

פרי בטן .Heb |

Secondly, As she did at first really and properly conceive, so did she also nourish and increase the same body of our Saviour, once. conceived, by the true substance of her own: by which “she was found with child of the Holy Ghost," (Matt. i. 18.) and is described going with Joseph “to be taxed, being great with child,”* (Luke ii. 5.) and pronounced happy by that loud cry of the woman in the Gospel, " Blessed is the womb that bare thee." (Luke xi. 27.)+

Thirdly, When Christ was thus conceived, and grew in the womb of the blessed Virgin, she truly and really did bring forth a son, by a true and proper parturition; and Christ thereby was properly born, by a true nativity.I For as we read, " Elizabeth's full time came that she should be deliyered, and she brought forth a son;" (Luke i. 57.) so in the like simplicity of expression, and propriety of speech, the same evangelist speaks of Mary, "The days were accom . plished that she should be delivered, and she brought forth her first-born son." (Luke ii. 6, 7.)

Wherefore from these three, a true conception, nutrition, and parturition, we must acknowledge that the blessed Virgin was truly and properly the mother of our Saviour. And so is she frequently styled the mother of Jesus, in the language of the evangelists, and by Elizabeth particularly, the mother of her Lord, as also by the general consent of the Church (because he which was born of her was God)|| the Deipara; • Oύση εγκύω. .

stiniani. Whereas this was not the * Η κοιλία ή βαστάσασά σε. original, but the confirmation of that

1 Πεπληροφορημένους εις τον Κύριον title. • In hac Synodo Catholice est ημών αληθώς όντα, εκ γένους Δαβίδ κατά institutum, ut Beata Maria Semper σάρκα, υιόν θεού κατά θέλημα και δύνα- virgo θεοτόκος diceretur; quia. sicut: uly Deoû, xeyevvnuévov álnéūs ÉK Tap- catholica fides babet, non hominem Otvov. S. Ignat. Epist. ad Smyr. c. 1. solum, sed vere Deum et hominem,

$? Veri et proprii filii quis nisi ab- genuit.' Paul. Warnef. de Gest. Lonsurdissimus neget vere et proprie gobard. I. vi. c. 14. So speaketh he esse matrem?' Facundus !. i. c. 4. of the same Synod; and it is true, for * Hoc et ad credendum difficile, et di- the seventh Canon of the same runneth goum controversia videbatur, utrum thus: Ei mig xarà ảvapopåv À kataDeum illa Virgo genuerit, cæterum Xpnotiūç OEOTÓKOV Néyal try dyiav, quod vere et proprie genuerit, quic- ένδοξον, αειπαρθένου Μαρίαν-άλλα μη quid est ille quem genuit, nulli di- κυρίως και κατ' αλήθειαν θεοτόκον αυτήν gnum disceptationis apparet.' Ibid. ομολογεί-ο τοιούτος ανάθεμα έστω.

H Πώς γαρ ου θεοτόκος ή θεόν υιόν Otherwise in this Council was but conēxovoa ; Theod. Abucara, disp. 12. firmed what bad been determined and

I This name was first in use in the settled long before; and therefore Greek Church, which delighting in the Photius says thereof, epist. 1. Aőrnoj happy compositions of that language, Σύνοδος Νεστορίου πάλιν τα μιαρά παραcalled the blessed Virgin Θεοτόκον. φυόμενα δόγματα εις το παντελές εξεθέFrom whence the Latins in imitation proe' that it utterly cut off the heresy styled her · Virginem Deiparam et of Nestorius, which then began to Deigenitricem.' Meursius in his grow up again. Now part of the heGlossary, sets the original of this title resy of Nestorius, was the denial of in the time of Justinian: ‘Inditum this Ocotókoç, and the whole was noboc nomen est matri Domini ac Ser- thing else but the ground of that dovatoris nostri Jesu Christi a Synodo nial. . And therefore being he was V. Constantinopolitana tempore Ju- condemned for denying of it, that title

which being a compound title begun in the Greek Church, must be acknowledged authentic, θεοτόκον την Μαρίαν υπολαμβάνει, χωwhich he denied from the time of the ρίς έστι της θεότητος. Epist. 1. ad CleCouncil of Ephesus; in which those don, and in his first oration de Filio fathers, saith Photius, expressly: thy speaking of the difference of his gencπανάχραντον και αειπαρθένον (Χριστού) ration from that of others : Πού γάρ εν μητέρα κυρίως και αληθώς καλείσθαι και τοίς σοίς έγνως Θεοτόκον παρθένον; And άνευφημείσθαι Θεοτόκον παραδεδώκασι. St. Basil' asserteth: μη καταδέχεσθαι Epist. 1. And that it was so then is των φιλοχρίστων, την ακοήν, ότι ποτέ nanifest, because by the denial of this επαύσατο είναι παρθένος ή Θεοτόκος. the Nestorian heresy was first disco- Hom. in Sanct. Christ. Gen. 9.5. And vered, not in Nestorius himself, but that in the time of St. Basil and St. in his presbyter Anastasius, who first Gregory, this term was usual, appearin a sermon magisterially delivered : eth by the objection of Julian, who θεοτόκον την Μαρίαν καλείτο μηδείς. derided the Christians for thinking Socrat. Eccl. Hist. I. vii. c. 32. and God could be born of a woman : 080Liberat. Breviar. c. 4. as also Evagrius τόκον δε υμείς ού παύεσθε Μαρίαν καand Nicephorus. Upon which words AoûvteG. S. Cyril. Alex. c. Jul. I. vii. arising a tumult, Nestorius took his Before both these Eusebius speaketh presbyter's part, teaching the same of Helena, who built a church at Bethdoctrine constantly in the Church, και lehem: “Η βασιλις η θεοσεβεστάτη της πανταχού την λέξιν του θεοτόκος εκβάλ- θεοτόκου την κύησιν μνήμασι θαυμαστούς λων. And thereupon the tumult grew κατεκόσμει. De vita Const. 1. iii. c. 43. so great, that a general Council for And before Eusebius, Alexander bi. that reason was called by Theodosius shop of Alexandria:'Απαρχή γέγονεν junior, του Νεστορίου την αγίαν Μαρίαν ο Κύριος ημών Ιησούς Χριστός, σώμα είναι θεοτόκον αρνουμένου, as Justinian φορέσας αληθώς, και ου δοκήσει, έκ της. testibeth, Ep. ad V. Synodum. Ιη Θεοτόκου Μαρίας. Εp. ad Aler. apud which, when all things seemed clearly Thevd. I. i. c. 4. Before him Dionyto be carried against Nestorius and sius Alexand. calls our Saviour: rov his faction, he hoped to have recon- σαρκωθέντα εκ της αγίας παρθένου και ciled all by this feigned acknowledg- Θεοτόκου Μαρίας. Epist. ad Ρaulum meut: Λεγέσθω και θεοτόκος η Μαρία, Samosat. p. 276. 1. i. Biblioth. Patr. και παυσάσθω τα λυπηρά. Socrat. 1. Gr. Ρar. 1624. And speaking of the vii. c. 34. Liberat. Brev. c. 6. Jt is words of Isaiab, “a virgin shall conplain then, that the Council of Ephe- ceive:” Δείκνυσιν ότι η θεοτόκος τινά sus, which condemned Nestorius, con- συνέλαβεν, η παρθένος δηλονότι. Resp. firmed this title Ocotókos, I say, con- ad Quæst. 5. And in the answer to firmed it; for it is evident that it was the same question : Ilveúuarı áyiv before used in the Church, by the tu- ήδρασται, και σκέπεται τη δυνάμει του mult which arose at the first denial of υψίστου ή αείμνηστος σκηνή του θεού, it by Anastasius ; and so confirmed it Μαρία η θεοτόκος, και παρθένος. And as received before, because they ap- again: Ούτωσεί λέγει και περί του γενproved the epistles of St. Cyril, who νηθέντος εκ της Θεοτόκου, In answer proved it by the usage of those fathers to the seventh question: Διά τό φεύγειν which preceded him. Where by tlie εις Αίγυπτον τον Ιωσήφ άμα τη θεοτόway it is observable, that while St. κφ Μαρία εν αγκάλαις φερούση την καταCyril produceth nine several fathers φυγήν ημών. And so often. Nay, yet for the use of this word, and both be- before bim Origen did not only use, fore and after he produceth them, but expound at large the meaning of affirmath that they all did useit; there that title θεοτόκος, in his first tome on are but three of them who expressly : the Epistle to the Romans, as Socrates mention it, Athanasius, Antiochus, and Liberatus testify. Well therefore and Ammon, Epist. ad Reginas de did Antiochus, bishop of Antioch, Rect. Fid. p. 47. seqq. And it is urge the ancient fathers against Nessomething to be admired, that he torius, calling it: πρόσφορον όνομα και should so name the other six, and re- τετριμμένον πολλοίς των Πατέρων. And cite those places out of thein which again: Πολλοίς των Πατέρων και συνhad it not, when there were before τεθέν, και γραφέν, και ρηθέν. Τούτο γάρ him s0 many beside them that used το όνομα, says he, ουδείς των Εκκλησιit. As Gregory Nazianzen: Εί τις ου αστικών διδασκάλων παρύτηται· οί τε

was resolved into its parts by the Latins, and so the Virgin was plainly named the mother of God.*

The necessity of believing our Saviour thus to be born of the Virgin Mary, will appear both in respect of her who was the mother, and of him who was the son.

In respect of her it was therefore necessary, that we might perpetually preserve an esteem of her person proportionable to so high a dignity. It was her own prediction, “ From henceforth all generations shall call me blessed;" (Luke i. 48.)+ but the obligation is ours, to call her, to esteem her so.

c. 25.

γάρ χρησάμενοι αυτώ πολλοί και επίση- called the mother of God Θεοτόκος, , μοι, οι τε μη χρησάμενοι ουκ επελάβοντο wliereas he is said irst to call the Tūv xenoauévwv. Concil. Ephes. p. 1. Ocotókog mother of God, as appeareth

by the article added to the subject, * Although Ocotókos may be ex- not to the predicate. But if that be tended to signify as much as the mo- not sufficient, his meaning will appear ther of God, because tíktelv doth some- by another passage to the same purtimes denote as much as yevvậv, and pose, in his epistle ad Syncleticum: therefore it hats been translated Dei "Οτι μητέρα θεού πρώτον μεν η Ελισαβέτ' genitris, as well as Deipανα; yet ilhose ανείπεν, εν οις λέγει, Και πόθεν μου ancient Greeks which call the Virgin τούτο, ίνα ή μήτηρ του Κυρίου μου έλθη θεοτόκος, did not call her μητέρα του πρός με; Σαφέστερον δε των άλλων μετά. θεού. . But the Latins translating ταύτα την λέξιν πρώτος ο όσιος Λέων ο Θεοτόκος Dei genitris, and the Greeks Πάπας προήνεγκε. Therefore as he translating Dei genitrix DeoŨ uńrnp, took the Lord and God to be synonythey both at last called her plainly the mous; so. he thougbt Elizabeth first mother of God. The first which the styled Mary, the mother of God, beGreeks observed to style her so, was cause she called her the mother of Leo the Great, as was observed by her. Lord; and after Elizabeth, Leo Ephraim Patriarch of Theopolis, was the first who plainly styled her so, whose words have been very much that is, the mother of God. And that: mistaken by two learned men, Dio- we may be yet farther assured of his nysius Petavius and Leo Allatus, who mind, he produceth the words of Leo have produced them to prove that Leo the pope, in his epistle to Leo the, Magnus was the first man which ever emperor: 'Αναθεματιζέσθω Νεστόριος, used the word Θεοτόκος. A strange και την μακαρίαν και θεοτόκον Μαρίαν error this must needs appear in S0 ουχί του θεού, ανθρώπου δε μόνον, πι-' great a person as a patriarch, and that otevwv elva. unrépa. The sentence of the Greek Church; and indeed not which he translates is this : “Anatheimaginable, considering how well he matizetur ergo Nestorius, qui beatam was versed in those controversies, Virginem Mariam non Dei, sed hoand how he compared the words of minis tantummodo, credidit genitri- : Leo with those of the ancient Greek cem.' Epist. 97. c. 1. Where plainly fathers, and particularly of St. Cyril, genitrix Dei is translated uńrno Oco His words are these in his epistle ad and Ocotókoç is added by Ephraim out, Zenobium: IIpūToç ¿v åylois déwv ide- of custom in the subject, being otherKūç elnev avrais légeoiv, ús uńrno DeoŨ wise not at all in Leo's words. It is εστίν η αγία Θεοτόκος, των προ αυτού therefore certain that first in the Greek πατέρων διαπρυσίοις ρήμασι μη τούτο Church they termed the blessed Virgin. pauévwv, that is, ' Leo was the first Ocotókos, and the Latins from them. who in plain terms called the cotókos, Dei genitrix, and mater Dei, and the that is, Mary, the mother of God; Greeks from them again untnp Oou, whereas the fathers before him spake upon the authority of Leo, not taking not the same in express words.' Pe. notice of other Latins, who styled her tavius and Allatius have clearly mis- so before him. taken the proposition, making the † Non æquanda est mulieribus subject the predicate, and the predi- cunctis quæ genuit majestatem.' Aucate the subject, as if he had first ctor lib, de singular. Clericorum.

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