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Thirdly, It behoved us to take notice of the Roman governor in the expression of our Saviour's passion, that thereby we might understand how it came to pass that Christ should suffer according to the Scriptures. The prophets had foretold his death, but after such a manner as was not to be performed by the Jews, according to whose law and custom, no man among them ever so died. Being then so great a prophet could not die but in Jerusalem, being the death he was to suffer was not agreeable to the laws and customs of the Jews; it was necessary a Roman governor should condemn him, that so the counsel of the will of God might be fulfilled, by the malice of the one, and the customs of the other.
And now the advantage of this circumstance is discovered, every one may express the importance of it in this manner: I am fully persuaded of this truth as beyond all possibility of contradiction, that in “ the fulness of time” God sent his Son; and that the eternal son of God, so sent by him, did suffer for the sins of men, after the fifteenth year of Tiberius the Roman emperor, and before his death, in the time of Pontius Pilate the Cæsarean Procurator of Judea; who, to please the nation of the Jews, did condemn him whom he pronounced innocent, and delivered him, according to the custom of that empire, and in order to the fulfilling of the prophecies, to die a painful and shameful death upon the cross. And thus I believe in Christ, that suffeRED UNDER PONTUS PILATE.
From the general consideration of our Saviour's passion, we proceed to the most remarkable particular, his crucifixion, standing between his passion, which it concludeth, and his death, which it introduceth. For the explication whereof, it will be necessary, at first, To prove that the promised Messias was to be crucified, that he which was designed to die for our sins was to suffer on the cross; secondly, To shew that our Jesus, whom we worship, was certainly and truly crucified, and did suffer whatsoever was foretold, upon the cross; thirdly, To discover what is the nature of crucifixion, what peculiarities of suffering are contained in dying on the cross. ydo únouvňuara tà ÜTÒ IHárov apa- minus were adulterated, and filled χθέντα και την προθεσμίας περιέχει το with many blasphemies against our Πάσχα. ιστορείται γούν ότι τη προ οκτώ Saviour, as appears by Eusebius, καλανδών 'Απριλλίων έπαθεν ο Σωτήρ. Ηist. Eccl. 1. i. c. 9. Ουκούν σαφώς tom. 5. p. 942. These were also men- årelýleyrtal TÒ aláowa Tūv kard ToŨ tioned in the Acta S. Tarachi, Probί Σωτήρος ημών υπομνήματα χθές και et Andronici, C. 9. Praeses dixit, πρώην διαδεδωκότων" and: Πλασάμενοι Inique, non scis, quem invocas, oñra Nilárov kai toû Ewrspos nuūv Christum, hominem quidem fuisse υπομνήματα πάσης έμπλεα κατά του factum, sub custodia Pontii Pilati et Χριστού βλασφημίας, γνώμη του μείζονος punitum, cujus exstant Acta Passio- επί πάσαν διαπέμπονται την υπ' αυτόν nis?' These Acta in the time of Maxi- ápxñv. I. ix. c. 3.
That the Messias was to be crucified, appeareth both by types which did apparently foreshew it, and by the prophecies which did plainly foretell it. For, though all those representations and predictions which the forward zeal of some ancient fathers gathered out of the Law and the Prophets,* cannot be said to signify so much; yet in many types was the crucifixion of Christ represented, and by some prophecies foretold. This was the true and unremoveable“ stumbling-block to the Jews," nor could they ever be brought to confess the Messias should die that death upon a tree to which the curse of the
The ancient fathers, following the τριακοσιοστών στοιχείον, το δε Ιώτα και steps of the apostles, to prove all the to 'Hra touvopa onpaivelv td owrupov. particulars of our Saviour's death out Stromat. I. vi. c. 11. As also St. Am. of the Old Testament, have made use brose: ‘Nam et Abraham 318 duxit of those types and prophecies which ad bellum, et ex innumeris trophæa did really and truly foreshew it; but hostibus reportavit, signoque Domitogether with them, partly out of nicæ crucis et nominis,' &c. Prol. ad their own conceptions, partly out of 1. i. de Fide, s. 3. • Eos adsciscit too much credit to the translations, quos dignos numero fidelium judicahave urged those places which the vit, qui in Domini nostri Jesu Christi Jews may most easily evade, and we Passione crederent. Trecentos enim can produce but with small or no T Græca litera significat; decem et pretence. As for the extending of octo autem summum I H exprimit the hands of Moses, they conceive it nomen.' Id. de Abrah. 1. i. c. 3. §. 15. to be a perfect type; and Barnabas, And St. Augustin of another three Epist. c. 12. tells us, that the Spirit bundred: Quorum numerus, quia commanded Moses, that he should trecenti erant, signum insinuat Crucis, make the similitude of a cross : léyel propter literam T Græcam, qua iste eis Trv kapdiav Mwoj tò aveõua, 'iva numerus significatur.' Quæst. in Hept. troop rútov otavpoũ vai toŨ uéilovros 1. vii. q. 37. And Clemens AlexanTráo xelve but the text assures us no drinus again, of the three hundred more, than that Moses held up his cubits in the Ark : Eloi dè oà tous tplahands, which might be without any κοσίους πήχεις σύμβολον του Κυριακού similitude of a cross. And when both onpelov léyovoi. Strom. 1. 6. c. 11. were lifted up by Aaron and Hur, 'Sed sicut ille non multitudine nec the representation is not certain. And virtute legionum, sed jam tum in Sayet, after Barnabas, Justin tells us, cramento Crucis, cujus figura per that Moses represented the cross, tås literam Græcam T numero trecentoxeipas érarépas ÉKTETáoasDial. c. rum exprimitur, adversarios principes Tryph. p. 317. and Tertullian calls it debellavit: cujus mysterii virtute habitum crucis. adv. Marcion. l. iii. trecentis in longum texta cubitis suč. 18. In the same manner with the peravit Arca diluvium, ut nunc Ecstrange Indian statue, which is de- clesia boc seculum supernavigat.' S. scribed by Bardisanes, as : ávàpids Paulinus, Ep. ii. al. xxiv. Ş. 23. As εστώς ορθός, έχων τας χείρας ήπλωμένας unlikely a type did they make Jacob's Łv TÚTV Oravpoő. Porphyr. de Styge. ladder. Ego puto Crucem SalvatoWith less probability did they gather ris illam esse scalam quam Jacob viboth the name of Jesus, and the cross dit.' S. Hieron. Breviar. in Psal. 91. of Christ, from the three hundred and “Scala usque ad coelum attingens eighteen servants of Abraham. ''Iūta Crucis figuram babuit; Dominus indéka, 'Hra óktu, XELS 'Inooūv• ēri'dè nixus scalæ, Christus crucifixus os
Taupòs iv To Tépelev EXELV Thy zápiv, tenditur.'S. August. Serm. de Temp. Aéyei yåp tous tplacoolovs onlot oủv tòv 79. al. 11. §. 6. These, and many uèv'Inooõv šv rois dvoi ypáupao, kai év others, by the writers of the succeedévi töv oravpóv. Epist. Barn.
c. 9. As ing ages, were produced out of the if I H stood for Jesus, and T for the Old Testament as types of the cross, cross. And yet Clemens Alex. fol- and may in some sense be applied to lows him : paoiv oởv elvai toũ mèv Ku- it being otherwise proved, but prove ριακού σημείου τύπον κατά το σχήμα it not.
Law belonged :* and yet we need no other oracles than such as are committed to those Jews, to prove that Christ was so to suffer.
A clearer type can scarce be conceived of the Saviour of the world, in whom all the nations of the earth were to be blessed, than Isaac was: nor can God the Father, who gave his only-begotten Son, be better expressed than by that patriarch in his readiness to sacrifice his son,“ his only.son Isaac, whom he loved.” (Gen. xxii. 2.) Now when that grand act of obedience was to be performed, we find Isaac walking to the mountain of Moriah with the wood on his shoulders, and saying, “Here is the wood, but where is the sacrifice ?" while in the command of God, and the intention and resolution of Abraham, Isaac is the sacrifice, who bears the wood. And the Christ, who was to be the most perfect sacrifice, the person in whom all nations were perfectly to be blessed, could die no other death in which the wood was to be carried; and being to die upon the cross, was, by the formal custom used in that kind of death, certainly to carry it.+ Therefore Isaac bearing the wood, did signify Christ bearing the cross. I
When the fiery serpents bit the Israelites, and “much people died," Moses, by the command of God," made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived." (Numb. xxi. 9.) Now if there were no expresser promise of the Messias, than the “Seed of the woman, which should bruise the serpent's head;” (Gen. iii. 15.) if he were to perform that promise by the virtue of his death; if no death could be so perfectly represented by the hanging on the pole, as that of crucifixion; then was that: manifestly
Trypho the Jew, in the dialogue most express, Βαστάζειν τινά των with Justin Martyr, wlien lie had δαιμόνων χθονίων κακούργω μεν ιδόντι confessed many of the Christian doc- σταυρόν αυτό σημαίνει έoικε γάρ ο σταυtrines, would by no means be brought ρος θανάτω, και ο μέλλων προσηλούσθαι to this : Ει δε και ατίμως ούτως σταυ- πρότερον αυτόν βαστάζει. Artemid. pwynvai Tòv Xploròv ( subaud. idei), Oneirocr. I. ii. c. 61. Tý juèu cóparı απορούμεν: επικατάρατος γάρ ο σταυ- των κολαζομένων έκαστος των κακούργων ρούμενος εν τω νόμω λέγεται είναι ώστε εκφέρει τον αυτού σταυρόν. Ρlutarch. Tepòs ToĒTo å kuiv dvotelotws ēxw.p.317. de sera Numinis Vindicta, c. 9. So And afterwards granting his passion, these not long after our Saviour's urgeth him.to prove his crucifixion: death. And mach before it, Plautus in Ημείς γάρ ουδ' εις έννοιαν έλθεϊν δυνά- Carbonario, pesa. Ibid. So Tertullian describes · Patibulum ferat per urbem, deinde the Jews : ‘Negantes passionem Cru affigatur Cruci.' 'cis in Christum prædicatam, et argu I This is not only the observation mentantes insuper non esse creden- of the Christians, but the Jews themdum ut ad id genus mortis exposuerit selves have referred this type unto Deus Filium suum, quod ipse dixit, that custom: for upon Gen. xxii. 6. Maledictus omnis homo qui pependit “And Abraham took the wood of the in ligno.' Adv. Judæos, c. 10. burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac + This custom is very considerable his son,” the lesser Bereshith bath this
; : is to be therefore confirmed by the as a man carries his cross upon his testimonies of the ancients, which are shoulders.
כזה שטוען: צלובו בכתפו as to the explication of this type
foretold which Christ himself informed Nicodemus, “ As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up.” (John iii. 14.)*
The paschal lamb did plainly typify ihat Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world; and the preparing of it did not only represent the cross,+ but the command or ordinance of the passover did foretell as much. For while it is said, “ye shall not break a bone thereof,” (Exod. xii. 46.) it was thereby intimated, that the Saviour of the world should suffer that death to which the breaking of the bones belonged (and that, according to the constant custom, was the punishment of crucifixion), but only in that death should by the providence of God be so particularly preserved, as that not one bone of his should be touched. And thus the crucifixion of the Messias in several types was represented.
Nor was it only thus prefigured and involved in the typical resemblances, but also clearly spoken by the prophets in their particular and express predictions. Nor shall we need the accession of any lost or additional prophetical expressions, which some of the ancients have made use of:9 those
* The common phrase by which represented by Hesychius: Exólo4iv that death was expressedl. “In Cru- ως όπτησιν το γάρ παλαιών κακούργους cem tolli:' Paul. I. 5. Sentent. Tit. 22, åverkolónisov očúvovTes Eidov čià mans 23. 25. As in the Challee pippi páxsus, kai roũ vútov, kabátep TOùG by origination Elevatio, by use is pár- óttwuévous ixtus trì đßeniorwv. S. v. ticularly Crucifixio.
Σκόλοψιν. . t Justin Martyr shews how the | Although, indeed, it must be manner of the roasting the paschal confessed, that the crurifragium and lamb did represent the affixing of a the crucifixion were two several puman upon the cross, and thereby was nishments, and that they ordinarily a type of Christ: Tò vedevo bèv apó- made the cross a lingering death: yet βατον εκείνο όλον γίνεσθαι, του πάθους because the Law of Moses did not sufτου σταυρού, δι' ου πάσχειν έμελλεν ο fer the body of a man to hang upon Χριστός, σύμβολον ήν το γάρ όπτώμενον a tree in the night, therefore the Roapóßarov, oxnuariSóuevov quoiws rý mans, so far to comply with the Jews, σχήματι του σταυρού οπτάται. Είς γάρ did break the bones of those whom όρθιος οβελισκος διαπερονάται από των they crucifed in Judea constantly; ; κατωτάτων μερών μέχρι της κεφαλής, και whereas in otlier countries tliey did εις πάλιν κατά το μετάφρενον, ώ προσαρ- it but occasionally. τώνται και αι χείρες του προβάτου. Dial. § As Barnabas citos one of the cum Tryphone, p. 259. To which prophets whom we know not, Epist. Arnoldus Carnotensis alludeth: 'In c. 12. 'Ouoiws náluv Tepi ToŨ oravpoũ Veru Crucis boni odoris assatio exco- ορίζει ένα άλλο προφήτη λέγοντι, Και quat carnalium sensuam cruditatem;' πότε ταύτα συντελεσθήσεται, και λέγει De Cema Domini, commonly attri- Κύριος, "Όταν ξύλον κλιθή και αναστη, buted to St. Cyprian. Nor is the kai őrav čr Eólov alpa orášy' which roasting of this lamb any far-fetched words are not to be found in any of figure of the cross; for other roasting the prophets. Thus Justin Martyr, Irath heen thonght a proper resem- to prove, őri jetà tò oravpwoñvai Bablance of it: where the body of the oilfúvel Ò Xplotos, produceth a prothing roasted hath: limbs, as a lamb, phecy out of the 96th Psalm, in these there it bears the similitude of a pro- words: • Kúplog éßaoihevosv ÅTÒ TOŨ per cross, with an erect and trans- Eslov. p. 298. And Tertullian, who verse beam; where the roasted body advances all his conceptions: Age is only of length and uniform, as a nunc, si legisti penes Prophetam in fish, there the resemblance is of a Psalmis, Dominus regnavit a ligno ; straight and simple oravpós. As it is exspecto quid intelligas, ne forte li.
which are still preserved even among the Jews, will yield this truth sufficient testimonies.
When God foretells by the prophet Zachary, what he should suffer from the sons of men, he says expressly, “They shall look upon me whom they have pierced;" (Zech. xii. 10.)* and therefore shews that he speaks of the Son of God, which was to be the Son of man, and by our nature liable to vulneration; and withal foretells the piercing of his body: which being added to that prediction in the Psalms, “They pierced my hands and my feet,”+ (Psal. xxii. 16.) clearly representeth grarium aliquem regem significari pu- yet the plain construction of nx tetis, et non Christum qui exinde a W8, is nothing else but quem,relating passione Christi (lege crucis, for he to the person in the affix of the himself hath it ligni, Adv. Marcion. precedent 58, who, being the same 1. iii. c. 19.) superata morte regnavit.' with him who immediately before Adv. Jud. c. 10. And in the place promiseth to pour apon man the sited against Marcion: 'Etsi cnim Spirit of grace, must needs be God. mors ab Adam regnavit usque ad Which that the, Jews might avoid, Christum, cur Christus non regnasse they read it not bx but 158, not on dicatur a ligno, ex quo crucis ligno me, but on him, to distinguish him mortuus, regnum mortis exclusit?' whom they were to pierce, from him Thus they, and some after them, make who was to give the Spirit of grace. use of those words, årò túlov, a ligno, But this fraud is easily detected, bewhich are not to be found either in cause it is against the Hebrew copies, the Greek or Latin translation, from the Septuagint, and Chaldee parawhence they seem to produce them; phrase, the Syriac and Arabic transnor is there any thing like them in the lations. Nor can tbe Rabbins shift original, or any translation extant, nor this place, because it was anciently the least mention or footstep of them by the Jews interpreted of the Mesin the Catena Græcorum Patrum. sias, as themselves confess. So, R. Justin Martyr, indeed, accused the Solomon Jarchi upon the place,"519
: dov out of the text: 'ATÒ TOŰ ÉVEVNKO- masters' have expounded this of the στου πέμπτου ψαλμού των διά Δαβίδ λε- Messias the son of Joseph. That they χθέντων λόγων,λέξεις βραχείας αφείλοντo interpreted it therefore of the Mesταύτας, από του ξύλου ειρημένου γάρ τού sias, is granted by them; that any λόγου, Είπατε εν τοις έθνεσιν, ο Κύριος Messias was to be the son of Joseph, éßaoievoev ÅTÒ TOŨ Eúlov, åoñkav, Ei- is already denied and refuted: it πατε εν τοις έθνεσιν, ο Κύριος εβασίλευ- remaineth therefore that the ancient gev. p. 298. But, first, he doth not ac- Jews did interpret it of the true Mescuse them for rasing it out of the ori- sias, and that St. John did apply it to ginal Hebrew, for his discourse is only our Saviour according to the acknowto show that they abused the LXX. ledged exposition. And in the BeSecondly, though the Jews bad rased reshith Rabba, we are clearly taught it out of their own, it appeareth not thus much; for unto that question, how they should have gotten it out of "Who art thou, O great mountain ?" the Bibles in the Christians' hands, in (Zech. iv. 7.) be, answereth, y
, * These words of Zachary are clear mountain is the Messias the Son of
, . And he proves it from, 1777 WX although the LXX. bave “
Grace, grace unto it.” J 176 made another sense, įteßdépovrai Dura070? 177 because he giveth grace após ue, ávo ūv katwpxhoavto, by and supplications; as it is written, translating 08 x åva úv, eo Zech. xii. 10. quod; as also the Chaldee paraphrase + This translation seems something ng by with the Arabic version; and different from the Hebrew text as we the Syriac another yet, by 'rendering now read it, 527) y78 sicut leo, it per eum quem, as if they should manus meas et pedes meos. But it was look upon one, and pierce another: not always read as now it is. For R.