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by any tradition or custom of the Jews they were wont to punish malefactors with that death: but such as were punished with death according to the law or custom of the Jews, were for the enornity of their facts oftentimes after death exposed to the ignominy of a gibbet; and those who being dead were so hanged upon a tree, were accursed by the Law.* Now though Christ was not to die by the sentence of the Jews, who had lost the supreme power in causes capital, and so not. to be condemned to any death according to the Law of Moses; yet the providence of God did so dispose it, that he might suffer that death which did contain in it that ignominious particularity to which the legal curse belonged, which is, the hanging on a tree. For he which is crucified, as he is affixed to, so he hangeth on, the cross: and therefore true and formal crucifixion is often named by the general word suspension ;t and the Jews themselves do commonly call our blessed Saviour by that very name to which the curse is affixed by Moses ; # and generally have objected that he died a cursed death,
* Deut. xxi. 22. "If a man have vi. c. 17. Thus in the language of committed a sin worthy of death, and the Scriptures, els Tūv kpɛua odbvTWY be be put to death, and thou hang, kakoúpywv is one of the crucified thieves, him on a tree.” In which words Luke xxiii. 39. and the Jews are being put to death, precedeth being said to have slaiu our Saviour, «peuáhanged: but, I confess in our English oavtec Šri túlov, Acts v. 30. and x. translation, it bath another sense, 39. The Latins likewise often use " and he be put to death,” as if he the word suspendere for crucifigere, were to die by hanging. And so the As Ausonius, in the Idyllium, whose Vulgar Latin, Et adjudicatus morti title is Cupido cruci affixus, describes appensus fuerit patibulo, as if he were him thus, ver. 59. adjudged to be hanged, and so his ‘Hujus in excelso suspensum stipite. sentence were suspension. And the Amorcm.' Syriac yet more expressly, et appen- And when we read in Polybius, l. datur ligno atque interficiatur. "But viji. c. 18. that they did ávaoravpwoah there is no such seistence contained rò owua of Achæus; Ovid describes in the original as the Vulgar, nor fu- bis punishment thus, Ibis, 299. turition of death, as our English trans- "More vel intereas capti suspensus lation mentioneth. The Hebrew is Achæi, 712171 in Hophal, that is, interfectus, Qui miser aurifera teste pependit occisus, mori factus fuerit; or, as the aqua.' LXX. clearly translate jų, kai áno | The words of Moses are, Deut. Sávy, et . , maleoccisus fuerit.
dictio Dei suspensus ; and this word. + As we before noted on the words 757, which is of itself simply suspenof Seneca: thus the Greeks do often sus, (as 2 Sam. xviii, 10. I saw Abuse vpeyğv, for crucifigere. For Cur- salom 75x25 hanged on an oak) tias, speaking of the taking of Tyre is ordinarily attributed by the Jews by Alexander, says: “Duo millia to our Saviour, to signify that he was crucibus affixa per ingens litoris spa- crueifierk. Hence they term Christium pependerunt.' I. iv. c. 4. And tians 5707'1 cultores suspensi, Diodorus Siculus relating the same: and they call the crucifix"7777773 Τους δε νέους πάντας όντας ουκ ελάττους figuram suspensi. . τών δισχιλίων εκρέμασεν. 1. xvii. c. 46. § So Trypho the Jew objeeted to So the same Curtius testifies that Justin Martyr: Ούτος δε ο υμέτερος λεMusicianus was in crucem sublatus:' γόμενος Χριστός άτιμος και άδοξος γέI.. ix. c. 8. of whom Arianus speaks yovev, úg waż tỹ toxáty karápą Tŷ XV thus: τούτον κρεμάσαι 'Αλέξανδρος κε- τω νόμω του θεού περιπεσείν εσταυρώθη Ajet ke rõ auroũ rỡ. Erp. Alex. 1. Xáp. Dial. com Traph. P.249.
Secondly, It was necessary to express our faith in Christ crucified, that we might be assured that he hath "abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandinents;" (Eph. ii. 15.) which if he had not done, the strength and power of the whole Law had still remained : for all the people had said Amen to the curse upon every one that kept not the whole Law; (Deut. xxvii. 26.) “and entered into a curse and into an oath, to walk in God's law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the Lord their God, and his judgments and his statutes.” (Nehem. x. 29.) Which was in the nature of a bill, bond, or obligation, perpetually standing in force against them, ready to bring a forfeiture or penalty upon them, in case of nonperformance of the condition. But the strongest obligations may be cancelled; and one ancient custom of cancelling bonds was, by striking a nail through the writing: and thus God, by our crucified Saviour,“ blotted out the hand-writing of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross.” (Col. ii. 14.)
Thirdly, Herehy we are to testify the power of the death of Christ working in us after the manner of crucifixion.* For we are to be "planted in the likeness of his death;” (Rom. vi. 5.) and that we may be so, we must acknowledge, and cause it to appear, that “our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed;” (Ibid. 6.) we must confess, that “ they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts;" (Gal. v. 24.) and they which have not, are not his. We must not “glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ:" nor can we properly glory in that, except by it “the world be crucified unto us, and we unto the world.” (Gal. vi. 14.)
Fourthly, By the acerbity of this passion we are taught to meditate on that bitter cup which our Saviour drank : and while we think on those nails which pierced his hands and feet, and never left that torturing activity until by, their dolorous impressions they forced a most painful death, to acknowledge the bitterness of his sufferings for us, and to assure ourselves that by the worst of deaths he has overcome all kinds of death;t and with patience and cheerfulness to
* Ενόησα γάρ υμάς κατηρτισμένους 8. 9. Αναφερόμενοι εις τα ύψη διά της εν ακινήτων πίστει, ώσπερ καθηλωμένους μηχανής Ιησού Χριστού,δ' έστι σταυρός, εν τω σταυρό του Κυρίου Ιησού Χριστού σχοινίς χρώμενοι το πνεύματι τω αγίω. capki te kai iveúuari. S. Ign. Epist. ad S. Ign. Epist. ad Eph. §. 9. Smyr. Ş..1.' St. Augustin speaking of + Mori voluit pro nobis: parum the church: Mundatur, ut non ha- dicimus; crucifigi dignatus est, usque beat maculam; extenditur, ut non ad mortem .crucis obediens factus. habeat rugam. Ubi eam extendit Elegit extremum et pessimum genus fullo, nisi in ligno? Videmus quotidie mortis, qui omnem fuerat ablaturus a fullonibus tunicas quodammodo mortem; de morte pessimä occidit crucifigi. Crucifiguntur ut rugam omnem mortem. S. August. Tract. non habeapt.' Enarr. in Psal. cxxxii. 36. in Ioan. §. 4.
endure whatsoever he shall think fit to lay upon us, who with all readiness and desire suffered far more for us.
Fifthly, By the ignominy of this punishment, and universal infamy of that death, we are taught how far our Saviour descended for us, that while we were slaves and in bondage unto sin, he might redeem us by a servile death: for he “made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant; and so he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross;" (Phil. ii. 7,8.) teaching us the glorious doctrine of humility* and patience in the most vile and abject condition which can befal us in this world, and encouraging us to imitate him, “who for the joy that was set before him, endured the cross, despising the shame;" (Heb. xii. 2.) and withal deterring us from that fearful sin of falling from him, lest we should “ crucify unto ourselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame,” (Heb. vi. 6.) and so become worse than the Jews themselves, who crucified the Lord of life without the walls of Jerusalem, and for that unparalleled sin were delivered into the hands of the Romans, into whose hands they delivered him, and at the same walls in such multitudes were crucified, till there wanted room for crosses, and crosses for their bodies.t
Lastly, By the public visibility of this death, we are assured that our Saviour was truly dead, and that all his enemies were fully satisfied. He was crucified in the sight of all the Jews, who were made public witnesses that he gave up the ghost. There were many traditions among the heathen, of persons supposed for some time to be dead, to descend into hell, and afterwards to live again; but the death of these persons was never publicly seen or certainly known. It is easy for a man that liveth, to say that he hath been dead; and if he be of great authority, it is not difficult to persuadé some credulous persons to believe it. But that which would make his present life truly miraculous, must be the reality and certainty of his former death. The feigned histories of Pythagoras and Zamolxis, of Theseus and Hercules, of Orpheus and Protesilaus, made no certain mention of their deaths, and therefore were ridiculous in the assertion of their resurrection from death.f Christ, as he appeared to certain witnesses
• Humilitatis enim magister est expressed by Origen, who returneth Christus, qui humiliavit seipsum, fa- this answer to the objection made by ctus obediens usque ad mortem, mor- the Jews in Celsus, of those fabulous tem autem crucis.'S. August. in Ioan. returns from the dead : Dépe TapaTract. 51. §. 3.
στήσωμεν, ότι ου δύναται το κατά τον + Προσήλουν δ' οι στρατιώται δι' όρ- 'Ιησούν ιστορούμενον, εκ νεκρών έγηγέργήν και μίσος τους άλόντας, άλλον άλλο θαι, τούτους παραβάλλεσθαι. "Έκαστος σχήματι προς χλεύην, και διά το πλήθος μέν γάρ των λεγομένων κατά τους τόπους χώρα τε ενελείπετο τοίς σταυρούς, και ηρώων βουληθείς αν εδυνήθη εαυτόν σταυροί τοίς σώμασιν. Joseph. de Bell. υπεκκλέψαι της όψεως των ανθρώπων, Jud. 1. vi. c. 28.
και πάλιν κρίνας επανελθείν προς ούς 1 This is excellently observed and καταλέλοιπεν· 'Ιησού δε σταυρωθέντος
after his resurrection, so he died before his enemies visibly on the cross, and gave up the ghost conspicuously in the sight of the world.
And now we have made this discovery of the true manner and nature of the cross on wbich our Saviour suffered, every one may understand what it is he professeth when he declareth his faith, and saith, I believe in Christ crucified. For thereby he is understood and obliged to speak thus much: I am really persuaded, and fully satisfied, that the only-begotten and eternal Son of God, Christ Jesus, that he might cancel the hand-writing which was against us, and take off the curse which was due unto us, did take upon him the form of a servant, and in that form did willingly and cheerfully submit himself unto the false accusation of the Jews, and unjust sentence of Pilate, by which he was condemned, according to the Roman custom, to the cross; and upon that did suffer servile punishment of the greatest acerbity, enduring the pain; and of the greatest ignominy, despising the shame. And thus I believe in Christ CRUCIFIED.
THOUGH crucifixion of itself involveth not in it certain death, and he which is fastened to a cross is so leisurely to die, as that he being taken from the same may live; though when the insulting Jews in a malicious derision called to our Saviour to “ save himself, and come down from the cross;" (Mark xv. 30.) he might have come down from thence, and in saving himself have never saved us : yet it is certain that he felt the extremity of that punishment, and fulfilled the utmost intention of crucifixion; so that, as we acknowledge him crucified, we believe him dead.
For the illustration of which part of the Article, it will be necessary, first, To shew that the Messias was to die; that no sufferings, howsoever shameful and painful, were sufficiently satisfactory to the determination and predictions divine, without a full dissolution and proper death : secondly, To prove that our Jesus, whom we believe to be the true Messias, did not επί πάντων Ιουδαίων, και καθαιρεθέντος τούτ' αληθώς ήν αναστάς εκ νεκρών, χώαυτού του σώματος εν όψει του δήμου μας είχεν άν το υπονοηθέν περί των αυτών, πώς οϊονται παραπλήσιον πλά- ηρώων και περί τούτου λεχθήναι" μή σασθαι λέγειν αυτόν τοϊς ιστορουμένοις ποτ' ούν προς άλλοις αιτίους του σταυήρωσιν εις άδου καταβεβηκέναι, κακείθεν ρωθήναι τον Ιησούν και τούτο δύναται ανεληλυθέναι; φάμεν δ' ότι μήποτε προς συμβάλλεσθαι τω αυτόν επισήμως επί απολογίαν, του εσταυρώσθαι τον Ιησούν του σταυρού αποτεθνηκέναι, ίνα μηδείς και τοιούτον λέγοιτ' άν, μάλιστα διά τα έχω λέγειν, ότι εκών υπεξέστη της όψεως περί των ηρώων ιστορηθέντα των εις των ανθρώπων, και έδοξεν αποτεθνηάδου καταβεβηκέναι βιαζομένων. ότι εί κέναι, ουκ αποτέθνηκε δε ότ' έβουλήθη καθ' υπόθεσιν ο Ιησούς έτεθνήκει ασήμω πάλιν επιφανείς ετερατεύσατο την εκ θανάτω, ουκ ώστε δήλος είναι απαθανών νεκρών ανάστασιν. Adv. Celsum, 1. i. όλω τώ δήμω των Ιουδαίων, είτα μετά β. 56.
only suffer torments intolerable and inexpressible in this life, but upon and by the same did finish this life by a true and proper death: thirdly, To declare in what the nature and condition of the death of a person so totally singular did properly and peculiarly consist. And more than this cannot be necessary to shew we believe that Christ was dead.
First, then, we must consider what St. Paul" delivered" to the Corinthians “first of all," and what “also he received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures;' (1 Cor. xv. 3.) that the Messias was “ the Lamb slain from the foundations of the world,” (Rev. xiii. 8.) and that his death was 'severally represented and foretold. For though the sacrificing Isaac hath been acknowledged an express and lively type of the promised Messias, though, after he was bound and laid upon the wood, he was preserved from the fire, and rescued from the religious cruelty of his father's knife; though Abraham be said to have "offered up his-onlybegotten son,” (Heb. xi. 17.) when Isaac died not; though by all
this it might seem foretold that the true and great promised Seed, the Christ, should be made a sacrifice for sin, should be fastened to the cross, and offered up to the Father, but not suffer death: yet being " without effusion of blood there is no remission,” (Heb. ix. 22.) without death no sacrifice for sin; being the saving of Isaac alive doth not deny the death of the antitype, but rather suppose and assert it as presignifying his resurrection from the dead, “from whence Abraham received him in a figure:” (Heb. xi. 19.) we may safely affirm the ancient and legal types did represent a Christ who was to die.
It was an essential part of the paschal law, that the lamb should be slain: and in the sacrifices for sin, which présignified a Saviour to “sanctify the people with his own blood, the bodies of the beasts' were burnt without the camp,
and their blood brought into the sanctuary.” (Heb. xiii. 11, 12.)
Nor did the types only require, but the prophecies also foretell, his death. For “ he was brought (saith Isaiah) as'a lamb to the slaughter:" "he was cut off out of the land of the living” (saith the same prophet); and" made his soul an offering for sin.” (liii. 7, 8. 10.) Which are so plain and evident predictions, that the Jews shew not the least appearance of probability in their evasions.* * That this place of Isaiah must exposition, out of David, 723 )
, I of the text, and their own traditions. O9071870'ni '95 as if the land of Their objection particularly to these the living must be the land of Canaan, words, that the land of the living is because David professeth he will walk the land of Canaan. So'Solomon before the
Lord in the land of the living: , ' 5890 From the land of the living, than that he will serve God while he livthat is, the land of Israel. And D. eth. As Psal. xxvii. 13."I had fainted Kimchi endeavours to prove that unless Ibad believed to see the goodness
מארץ חיים כאשר גלה מארץ be understood of the Messias
, I have שנקראת ארץ. חיים כמו אתהלך already proved against the Jews out*