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And Buried.

When the most precious and immaculate soul of Christ was really separated from his flesh, and that union in which his natural life consisted was dissolved, his sacred body, as being truly dead, was laid up in the chambers of the grave : so that as we believe him dead, by the separation of his soul; we also believe him buried by the sepulture of his body.

And because there is nothing mysterious or difficult in this part of the Article, it will be sufficiently explicated when we have shewn, first, That the promised Messias was to be buried; and secondly, That our Jesus was so buried as the Messias was to be.

That the Messias was to be buried, could not possibly be denied by those who believed he was to die among the Jews; because it was the universal custom of that nation to bury their dead.* We read most frequently of the sepulchres of their fathers : and though those that were condemned by their supreme power were not buried in their fathers' graves, yet public sepulchres there were appointed even for them to lie in; and not only they, but all the instruments which were used in the punishment, were buried with them. And yet besides the general consequence of death among the Jews, there was a perfect type in the person of Jonas: for as that prophet “was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so was the Messias, or the Son of man, to be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” (Matt. xii. 40.)

Nor was his burial only represented typically but foretold prophetically, both by a suppositive intimation, and by an express prediction. The Psalmist intimated and supposed no less, when speaking in the person of the Christ, he said,

My flesh shall rest in hope, for thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.” (Psal. xvi. 9, 10.) That flesh is there supposed only

It is observed by Tacitus of the Πέρσης έθαψεν ο δε Ινδός υάλω περιJews, in opposition to the Roman χρίει·. ο δε Σκύθης κατεσθίει" ταριχεύει custom: , ' Corpora condere, quam & AlyúttlOS. Lucian. Tepà révovc, cremare, e more Ægyptio. Hist. 1. v. §. 21. Although therefore it be not C. 5. As of the Egyptians by others: true, that the Jews received their θάπτουσι δε Αιγύπτιοι μεν ταριχεύοντες, custom of burying their dead from Ρωμαίοι δέ καίοντες, Παίονες

δε εις τας the Egyptians, because Abraharm at Niuvas ÄLTTOŪVTES. Laert. Pyrrh. p. the first purchased a burying-place; 258. But the Jews received this yet it hath been observed, and is cercustom no more from the Egyptians tainly true, that their general custom than from the Persians, whom they was to inter, Philo, one of their may be rather said to follow, because writers: 'AvogÚTOLG Rai Trãot xepoalous they used not the Egyptian ταρίχευσις: οικειότατον ή φύσις χωρίον απένειμε γήν, neither were they more distinguished ου μόνον ζώσιν, αλλά και αποθανούσιν, from the Romans than from the Gre- ίν' η αυτή και την πρώτην υποδέχηται cians, who also burned the bodies of γένεσιν, και την έκ τού βίου τελευthe dead. ALEMójevou karå E9vn raíay ávalvov. 1. i. in Flaccum, ad τάς ταφάς, ο μεν "Έλλην έκαυσεν· ο δε .

such, that is, a body dead ;* and that body resting in the grave, the common habitation of the dead; yet resting there in hope that it should never see corruption, but rise from thence before that time in which bodies in their graves are wont to putrefy. Beside this intimation, there is yet a clear expression of the grave of the Messias in that eminent prediction of Isaiah, He was cut off out of the land of the living, and he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death." (liii. 8, 9.) For whatsoever the true interpretation of the prophecy be (of which we shall speak hereafter), it is certain that he who was to be cut off, was to have a grave: and being we have already, shewn that he who was to be cut off was the Messias ; it followeth, that by virtue of this prediction the promised Messias was to be buried.

Secondly, That our Jesus, whom we believe to be the true Messias, was thus buried, we shall also prove, although it seem repugnant to the manner of his death. For those who were sentenced by the Romans to die upon the cross, had not the favour of a sepulchre, but their bodies were exposed to the fowls of the air, and the beasts of the field;t or if they

So the Midrash Tillim anciently Tepi Step. Hymn. xi. 65. This pu.expounded it, My flesh shall rest in nishment did appear in the mythology hope na 85 after death; add- of Prometheus; who though he were ing obw, Bbw pabra prise '98 uurns, by others particularly he is

by some represented simply as denobis 709 12 that Rabbi Isaac described as åvegravpwuévos, espesaid, he taught by these words, that cially by Lucian, who delivers him the moth and worm should have no προσηλούμενον, κρεμάμενον, προσπατpower over him. Whence by the ar- talevójevov, ανασταυρούμενον, ανασκοgument of St. Peter, it must be under- qorišóuevov. And Tertullian speakstood not of David: for his flesh saw ing of Pontus, from whence Marcion corruption; nor of any other but the came: ‘Omnia torpent, omnia rigent: Messias. And although the Rabbins nihil illic nisi feritas calet, quæ faare wont to say, that the worms shall bulas scenis dedit, de sacrificiis Taunever eat the just, in opposition to rorum, et amoribus Colchorum, et the last words of Isaiah; yet they crucibus Caucasorum.' Adv. Marc. must confess there is no difference 1. i. c. 1. He touches the subject of in the grave: and therefore that three tragedies, Medæa, Iphigenia in worm must signify nothing else but Tauris, and Prometheus Vinctus, or the corruption of the body. Well rather Crucifixus. As therefore the therefore are those words paraphrased eagle there did feed upon his liver, so by Didymus : 'Er'aridi kateornvwgev were the bodies of crucified persons i odpć, dià riv evdéws toouévnv ává- left to the promiscuous rapacity of

carniyorous fowls. So true it was of + To this custom Horace alludes: them what Augustus once said: * Non hominem occidi. Non pasces

• Cuidam sepulturam petenti responin cruce corvos,' ;

dit, jam illam in volucrum esse poteEpist. 16. 1. i. ver. 48. state.' Suet. c. 13. Nor were they only * And Juvenal:

in the power of the fowls of the air, • Vultur, jumento et canibus cruci- 'as Prometheus was, whom they durst busque relictis,

not bang too low, Jest men should Ad foetus properat, partemque cada- succour hip: oőtɛ yùp TaTELVòv cái

veris affert.' Sat. xiv. 77.' : mpóoyelov čoravpão ai xpo), says Vulcan So Prudentius :

in Lucian for that reason, c. 1. but or- Crux illum tollat in auras, dinarily they bung so low upon the Viventesque oculos offerat alitibu's.'' cross, that the ravenous beasts might


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escaped their voracity, to the longer injury of the air and weather.* A guard was also usually set about them, lest any pitying hand should take the body from the accursed tree, and cover it with earth.

Under that custom of the Roman law was now the body of our Saviour on the cross, and the guard was set : there was "the centurion and they that were with him, watching Jesus." (Matt. xxvii. 54.) The centurion returned as soon as Christ was dead, and gave testimony unto Pilate of his death ; but reach them, as Apuleius describes : And which is farther thus expressed *Patibuli cruciatum, cum canes et by Valerius Maximus: Putres ejus vultures intima protrahunt viscera. artus, et tabido cruore manantia memde Aur. Asin. I. vi. ad fin.

bra, atque illam lævam, cui Neptunus * So the bodies were often left upon annulum manu piscatoris restituerat, the cross till the sun and rain bad situ marcidam, Samos lætis oculis putrefied and consumed them. As aspexit.' I. vi. C. 9. Thus were the when the daughter of Polycrates did bodies of the crucified left: ‘ut in see her father's face in a dream, to be sublimi putrescerent. Quid ? Cyrewashed by Jupiter, and to be anointed næum Theodorum Philosophum non by the sun, when he bung upon the ignobilem nonne miramur? cui cum cross, it was performed. Todukpárns Lysimachus Rex crucem minaretur, ávarpējáuevos étetélɛɛ mãoаv mnv Istis, quæso, inquit, ista horribilia miόψιν της θυγατρός έλούτο μεν γαρ υπό nitare purpuratis tuis: Theodori quiτου Διός όμως όοι, εχρίετο δε υπό του dem nihil interest, humile an sublime hlíov, åvitis autós és Toở ospatos ixuá- putrescat.' Cicero, 1. i. Tusc. Quæst. da. Herod. Thalia, c. 125. of which c. 43. And so they perislied, as the Tertullian, de Anim. c. 46. Ut cum Seythians generally did, according to Polycrati Samio filia crucem prospicit the description of Silius Italicus, 1. de Solis' unguine et lavacro Jovis.' xii. 485.

' At gente in Scythica suffixa cadavera truncis

Lenta dies sepelit, putri liquentia tabo.' Thus whether by the fowls or beasts, ried by his friends. Thus wben Cleoor by the injury of time or weather, menes was dead, his body was fasthe flesh of those that were crucified tened to a cross (another example of was consumed; as Artemidorus ob- the igpominy of this punishment), by served, who concluded from thence, the command of Ptolemy; 'O IIrothat it was bad for the rich to dream λεμαίος, ως έγνω ταύτα, προσέταξε, το of being crucifed: Τους δε πλουσίους μεν σώμα του Κλεομένους κρεμάσαι καταβλάπτει γυμνοί γάρ σταυρούνται, και βυρσώσαντας. Where κρεμάσαι is again τας σάρκας απολλύουσιν οι σταυρωθέν- to be observed as taken for ανασταυTEC. Oneirocr. I. ii. c. 58.

pñoar, for not long after in the same auif As appeareth by that relation in thor it follows: 'oliyaus de Gotepov ňuéPetronius Arbiter : * Imperator Pro- pais, oi to owua toŨ Keouévovs åveotavo vincia latrones jussit crucibus afhgi ρωμένον παραφυλάττοντες είδαν ευμεγέθη Proxima autem nocte, cum miles φαί δράκοντα τη κεφαλή περιπεπλεγμένον, cruces asseryabat, ne quis ad sepultu- kai átokpúttoVTA apóownov, ws unram corpora detraheret, &o. And dėv öpveov spintacdas capkopáyov. Pluwhen that soldier was absent: Itaque tarch. in vit. Cleom. c. 38. Where we cruciati unius parentes, ut viderunt see a guard set to keep him from bulaxatam custodiam,' detraxere nocte rial, and the yoracious fowls ready to pendentem, supremoque mandave- seize on him, had they not been kept runt officio. Satyr. c. 111. Where off by a serpent involving his head. we see the soldier set for a guard, and Thus were soldiers, upon the crucithe end of that custodia. (which the fixion of any person set as a guard, Greek lexicographers do not well con- τον ανεσταυρωμένον παραφυλάττοντες, , Fne to the στράτευμα των δεσμωτηρίω or τηρούντες, et crucem asservantes, ÉTuccijevov), to keep the body of him viz. ne quis ad sepulturam corpus dowhich was crucified from being bu- traheret.'

the watch continueth still. How then can the ancient predictions be fulfilled? How can this Jonas be conveyed into the belly of the whale? Where shall “ he make his grave with the wicked, or with the rich, in his death" (Isa. liii. 9.) of crucifixion ? By the providence of him who did foretell it, it shall be fulfilled. They who petitioned that he might be crucified, shall intercede that he may be interred. For the custom of the Jews required, that whosoever suffered by the sentence of their law, should be buried, and that the same day he suffered.* Particularly they could not but remember the express words of Moses, “If a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree; his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day.” (Deut. xxi. 22, 23.) Upon this general custom and particular law, especially considering the sanctity of the day approaching, "the Jews, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath-day, besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.(John xix. 31.) And this is the first step to the burial of our Saviour.

For though by the common rule of the Roman law, those that were condemned to the cross were to lose both soul and body on the tree, as not being permitted either sepulchre or mourning ;t yet it was in the power of the magistrate to indulge the leave of burial:1 and therefore Pilate, who crucified Christ because the Jews desired it, could not possibly deny him burial when they requested it; he that professed to find no fault in him while he lived, could make no pretence for an accession of cruelty after his death.

Now though the Jews had obtained their request of Pilate, though Christ had been thereby certainly buried; yet had not the prediction been fulfilled, which expressly mentioned the rich in his death." For, as he was crucified between two thieves, so had he been buried with them, because by the Jewş there was appointed a public place of burial for all such as suffered as malefactors, Wherefore to rescue the body of our blessed Saviour from

Consulis: Corpora corum qui capite mon. Tract. Sanhed. e. 15. So Jose- non sunt: et id se observasse etiam phus: Τοσαύτην Ιουδαίων περί τας τα

Divus Augustinus libro decimo de vita φάς πρόνοιαν ποιουμένων, ώστε και τους sua scribit. Hodie autem eorum in εκ καταδίκης ανασταυρουμένους προ δύ- φuos animadvertitur corpora non aliναντος ηλίου ανελεϊν τε και θάπτειν. 1er sepeliuntur, quam si fuerit petitum De Bell. Jud. 1. iv. c. 18.

et permissum; et ponnunquam non † 'Non solent autem lugeri(ut Ne- permittitur, maxime majestatis causa ratius ait) hostes, vel perduelliones damnatorum.' So Paulus, l. i. Sendanınati, nec suspendiosi, nec qui ma

tentiarum: * Corpora animadversorum nus sibi intulerunt, non tædio vitæ, quibuslibet petentibus ad sepulturam sed mala conscientia.' Digest. 1. iii. danda sunt, Obnoxios criminum ditit. 2. I. Liberorum.

gnosupplicio subjectos sepulturæ tradi I So Ulpianus, 1, ix. de Officio Pro- non vetamus.' Cod. 1. iii, tit. 43, 1. 11.

• מצות עשה לקבור את כל Mami- damnantur cognatis ipsorum neganda הרוגי בית דין ביום ההריגס

the malicious hands of those who caused his crucifixion, " there came a rich man of Arimathea, named Joseph, an honourable counsellor, a good man and a just; who also bimself waited for the kingdom of God, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews: this Joseph came and went in boldly unto Pilate, and besought him that he might take away the body of Jesus. And Pilate gave him leave, and commanded the body to be delivered: he came, therefore, and took the body of Jesus.” (Matt. xxvii. Mark xv. Luke xxiii. John xix.)

Beside,“ there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, a man of the Pharisees, a ruler of the Jews, a master of Israel:" this Nicodemus came" and brought 'a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a bundred pound weight. Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes, with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.". (John iii. 1. 10. xix. 39. 40.)

And thus was the burial of the Son of God performed, according to the custom of the people of God. For the understanding of which there are three things considerable; first, What was done to the body, to prepare it for the grave; secondly, How the sepulchre was prepared to receive the body; thirdly, How the persons were fitted by the interring of our Saviour to fulfil the prophecy.

As for fulfilling the custom of the Jews as to the preparation in respect of his body, we find the spices and the linen clothes. When “ there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard, very precious, and she brake the box, and poured it on his head;" Christ made this interpretation of that action, “She is come beforehand to anoint my body to the burying.” (Mark xiv. 3. 8.) When Christ was risen, “ Mary Magdalene and the other Mary brought the spices which they had prepared, that they might come and anoint him.” (Mark xvi. 1. Luke xxiv. 1.) Thus was there an interpreted and an intended unction of our Saviour, but really and actually he was interred with the spices which Nicodemus brought. The custom of wrapping in the clothes, we see in Lazarus rising from the grave; for “ he came forth bound band and foot, with grave-clothes, and his face was bound about with a napkin." (John xi. 44.) In the same manner when our Saviour was risen, " Simon Peter went into the sepulchre, and saw the linen clothes lie, and the napkin that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself.” (John xx. 6, 7.) Thus, according to the custom of the Jews, was the body of Christ bound in several linen 'clothes with an aromatical composition, and so prepared for the sepulchre.*

• There are four words in the Gos- οθόνια, κειρίαι, and σουδάριον. The pel expressing the linen clothes in Sivdwv is used by three evangelists, which the dead were buried, Evdwv, as what was brought by Josepb : Kai

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