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tians wholly abstained from consuming the dead bodies with fire, and followed the example of our Saviour's funeral,* making use of precious ointments for the dead, which they refused while they lived, and spending the spices of Arabia in their graves. The description of the persons who interred Christ, and the enumeration of their virtues, and the everlasting commendation of her who brake the box of precious ointment for his burial, have been thought sufficient grounds and encouragements for the careful and decent sepulture of Christians.† For as natural reason will teach us to give some kind of respect unto the bodies of men, though dead, in reference to the souls which formerly inhabited them ;I so, and much more, the followers of our Saviour, while they looked upon our bodies as living “ temples of the Holy Ghost,” (1 Cor. vi. 19.) and “bought” by Christ, (2 Pet. ii. 1.) to be made one day" like unto his glorious body,” (Phil. iii. 21.) they thought them no ways to be neglected after death, but carefully to Sime exurit, quos postmodum gulo. enm sepeliendum fecerit. Et laudaSissime nutrit, iisdem ignibus et pro- biliter commemorantur in Evangelio, merens et offendens. O pietatem de qui corpus ejus de cruce acceptum crudelitate, Judentem! sacrificet, an diligenter atque honorifice tegendum insultet, cum crematis cremat? Idem sepeliendumque curarunt. Verum ile Resur. Carn. c. 1.

istæ auctoritates non hoc admonent, * The heathens objected it to the quod insit ullus cadaveribus sensus: primitive Christians: Reservatis un- sed ad Dei providentiam, cui placent guenta funeribus.' Minutius Fel. c. etiam talia pietatis officia, corpora quo12. And Tertullian confesseth it: que mortuorum pertinere siguificant,

Thura plane non emimus. Si Ara- propter fidem resurrectionis adstruenbiæ queruntur, sciant Sabæi pluris et dam. S. August. de Civitate Dei, 1. i. cariores suas merces Christianis sepe- c. 13. liendis profligari, quam Diis fumi 1 Ουδέν δε λυπεί ημάς, ουδε το υπό gandis.' Apol. c. 42. And speaking 'Hpakdeirov deyójevov, őnep Kéloos, tapof spices, lib. de Idololat. c. 11. Etiam einpev, ótl vérvég cioi kotpiwv čxßinhominibus ad pigmenta medicinalia, τότεροι, καίτοιγε είπoι τις αν και περί nobis quoque insuper ad solatia sepul- τούτου, ότι τα μεν κόπρια έκβλητά έστιν, turæ usui sunt.' So Clemens Αlex. οι δ' εξ ανθρώπων νέκυες, διά την ενοιΜυρίζονται οι γάρ νεκροί and again: κήσασάν ψυχήν, και μάλιστα εάν η αΑι γάρ υπέρμετροι χρίσεις των μύρων στειοτέρα, ούκ έκβλητοι. Κατά γάρ τους κηδείας, ού συμβιώσεως αποπνέουσιν. αστειοτέρους των νόμων, μετά της ενδεPædag. 1. ii. c. 8.

χομένης ως προς τα τοιαύτα τιμής, ταφής + Ipse Dominus die tertio resurre- άξιούται" ίνα μή υβρίζωμεν τη δυνάμει cturus religiosae mulieris bonum opus την ενοικήσασαν ψυχήν απορριπτούντες, praedicat, predicandumque commen- μετά το εξελθείν αυτήν, το σώμα, ως και dat, quod unguentum pretiosum super rù rõvktnvūv cópara. Orig. adv. Celmembra ejus effuderit, atque hoc ad sum, l. v. §. 24.

Νεμεσσώμαι γε μεν

ουδέν
κλαίειν, ός κε θάνησι βροτών και πότμον επίσπη.
Τούτο νυ και γέρας οίον οϊζυροίσι βροτοίσι, :

Kelpaofai te kóunv, Baléelv 7' åtò dáxpu naperőv.-Odyss. A. 195. Ñ . Nec ideo tamen contemnenda carius est posteris, quanto erga paet abjicienda sunt corpora defuncto- rentes major exstitit affectus; nullo rum, maximeque justorum atque fide- modo ipsa spernenda sunt corpora, linm, quibus tanquam organis et vasis quæ utique multo familiarius atque ad omnia bona opera sanctus usus est conjunctius quam quælibet indumenSpiritus. Si enim paterna vestis, et ta gestamys. Hæc enim non ad ornaannulus, ac si quid hujusmodi tanto mentum vel adjutorium, quod adhibe

be laid up in the wardrobe of the grave, with such due respect as might become the honour of the dead, and comfort of the living. And the decent custom of the primitive Christians was so acceptable unto God, that by his providence it proved most effectual in the conversion of the heathens and propagation of the Gospel.*

Tbus I believe the only-begotten and eternal Son of God, for the confirmation of the truth of his death already past, and the verity of his resurrection from the dead suddenly to follow, had his body, according to the custom of the Jews, prepared for a funeral, bound up with linen clothes, and laid in spices; and after that accustomed preparation, deposited in a sepulchre hewn out of a rock, in which never man was laid before, and by rolling of a stone unto the door thereof, entombed there. Thus I believe that Christ WAS BURIED.

ARTICLE V.

των.

He descended into hell : the third day he rose again

from the dead. . The former part of this Article, of the descent into hell, hath not been so anciently in the CREED, or so universally, as the tar extrinsecus, sed ad ipsam natu- πομεν και μάλιστα την αθεότητα (so he ram hominis, pertinent.' S. August. calls Christianity, because they rejectde Civit. Dei, 1. i. c. 13. Ταύτα τελέσας, ed all the heathen gods) συνηύξησεν, ή ο ιεράρχης, αποτίθησιν εν οίκω τιμίω το περί τους ξένους φιλανθρωπία, και περί σώμα μεθ' ετέρων ομοταγών ιερών σωμά- τάς ταφάς των νεκρών προμήθεια, και η

Ει γάρ εν ψυχή και σώματι την πεπλασμένη σεμνότης κατά τον βίον; θεοφιλή ζωήν ο κεκοιμημένος έβίω, τίμιον ών έκαστον οίομαι χρήναι παρ' ημών έσται μετά της οσίας ψυχής και το συν- αληθώς επιτηδεύεσθαι.

Epist. 49. ad αθλήσαν, αυτή σώμα κατά τους ιερούς Arsacium. And as Julian observed ιδρώτας, ένθεν η θεία δικαιοσύνη και μετά the care of burial as a great encourageτου σφετέρου σώματος αυτή δωρείται τάς ment to the heathens to turn Christians, αμοιβαίας λήξεις, ώς oμoπoρεύτω και so. Gregory Nazianzen did observe the συμμετόχων της. οσίας ή της εναντίας same to the great dishonour of the swñs. Dionys. Eccl. Hierarch. c. 7. apostate, comparing his funeral with

Propter patrem militiam Christi de- his predecessors. . 'O mèv yap (that is seram, cui sepulturam Christi causa Constantius) παραπέμπεται πανδήμοις non debeo, quam etiam omnibus ejus ευφημίαις τε και πομπαίς, και τούτοις causa debeo? S. Hieron. Epist. 5. al.1. δε τοϊς ημετέροις σεμνοίς, ωδαίς παννύad Ηeliodorum, de Laud. Vit. Sol. c. 3. χοις και δαδουχίαις, αις Χριστιανοί τιμών

* This was observed by Julian the μετάστασιν ευσεβή νομίζομεν και γίνεapostate, who, writing to an idolatrous ται πανήγυρις μετά πάθους ή εκκομιδή high-priest, puts him

in mind of those του σώματος. Οrat, iv. on Jul. ii. p. 118. things by which he thought the Chris- But as for Julian: Μίμοι γελοίων ήγον tians gained upon the world, an re- αυτόν, και τους από της σκηνής αίσχεσιν commends them to the practice of the έπομπεύετο -έως η Ταρσέων αυτόν heathen priests. Of these he reckons υποδέχεται πόλις-- ένθα δε οι τέμενος three; the gravity of their carriage, άτιμον, και τάφος εξάγιστος και απόtheir kindness to strangers, and their πτυστος, και ουδέ θεατός ευσεβών όψεσι. care for the burial of the dead. Tí oớv Ibid. p. 119, 120. ημείς οιόμεθα ταύτα αρκεϊν, ουδ' αποβλέ + First, It is to be observed, that

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rest. The first place we find it used in, was the Church of Aquileia ; and the time we are sure it was used in the Creed of that church was less than 400 years after Christ. After that it came into the Roman Creed,* and otbers,+ and hath been acknowledged as a part of the Apostles' Creed ever since.

Indeed, the descent into hell hath always been accepted, the descent into hell was not in the nos, attributed to St. Augustio ; not ancient creeds or rules of faith. Some in that which is expounded by Maxitell us that it was not in the confes- mus Taurinensis, nor in that so often sion of Ignatius Epist. ad Magnes. interpreted by Petrus Chrysologus; But indeed there is no confession of [Yet in the 2d Homily of Maximus faith in that Epistle; for what is read De passione et cruce et sepultura Dethere was thrust in out of Clemens's mini, we read : ‘Post illam nativitaConstitutions. In like manner, in tem (scil. de utero Virg. Mariæ) ad vain is it objected that it was omitted inferos descenditur, post hanc (scil. by Polycarp, Clemens Romanus, and de sepulcro) remeatur ad coelos.' And Justin Martyr, because they have not in the 60th Sermon, or 4th in Symbopretended any rule of faith or Creed of lum Apostolorum, of Pet.Chrysologus: their times. But that which is mate- ‘Sepultum dicis, ut veram carnem rial in this cause, it is not to be found Christi, mortemque non perfunctoin the rules of faith delivered by Ire- riam probet confessio sepulturæ, mornæus, I. i. c. 2. by Origen, I. nepi tem suscepisse et vicisse, intrasse inåpxwv, in Procem. or by Tertullian, feros et rediisse, venisse in jura taradv. Praxeam, c. 2. De Virg. veland. tari, et tartari jura solvise, non est c. 1. De Præscript. adv. Hæret, c. 13. fragilitas, sed potestas.'_Ed. Theo. It is not expressed in those Creeds Raunaud. Lugd. 1633. Editor.] nor which were made by the Councils as in that of the Church of Antioch, delarger explications of the Apostles' livered by Cassianus, De Incarn. I. vi. Creed: not in the Nicene or Constan- c. 3. neither is it to be seen in the tinopolitan, not in that of Ephesus or MS. Creeds set forth by the learned Chalcedon; not in those confessions Archbishop of Armagh. Indeed, it made at Sardica, Antioch, Seleucia, is affirmed by Ruffinys, that in his Sirmium, &c. It is not mentioned in time it was neither in the Roman nor several confessions of faith delivered in the Oriental Creeds: 'Sciendum by particular persons: not in that of sane est, quod in Ecclesiæ Romanæ Eusebius Cæsariensis, presented to Symbolo non habetur additum, dethe Council of Nice, Theodoret. Hist. scendit ad inferna ; sed neque in OriEccles. I. i. c. 2. not in that of Mar. entis Ecclesiis habetur hic sermo." cellus, bishop of Ancyra, delivered to Ruff. in Exposit. Symboli, s. 20. It Pope Julius, S. Epiphan. Her. Ixxii. is certain therefore (nor can we disf. 11. not in that of Arius and Euzoius, prove it by any acknowledged evipresented to Constantine, Socrat. I. i. dence of antiquity) that the Article of c. 26. not in that of Acacius, bishop the descent into hell was not in the of Cæsarea, delivered in to the Synod Roman or any of the Oriental Creeds. of Seleucia, Socrat. I. ii. C. 40. not in • That the descent into hell came that of Eustathius, Theophilus, and afterwards into the Roman Creed apSilvanus, sent to Liberius, Socrat. I. peareth, not only because we find it iv. c. 12. There is no mention of it there of late, but because we find it in the Creed of St. Basil, Tract. de often in the Latin Church many ages Fide, in Asceticis, c. 4.; in the Creed since: as in that produced by Etheof Epiphanius, in Ancorato, s. 120. rius against Elipandus in the year Gelasius, in Biblioth. Patr. Lat. t. 6. 785, in the 15th al. 241st sermon, de par. 3. p. 669. Damasus, inter. Op. Tempore, falsely ascribed to St. AuS. Hieron. t. y. p. 122. Macarius, in gustin, where it is attributed to St. Hom. &c. It is not in the Creed ex- Thomas the apostle; and in the expounded by St. Cyril (though some position of the Creed falsely ascribed have produced that Creed to prove to St. Chrysostom. it), it is not in the Creed expounded + As in the Creed attributed to St. by St. Augustin, De Fide et Symbolo; Athanasius, which though we cannot not in that De Symbolo ad Catechume- say was his, yet we know was extant

but with a various exposition ;* and the Church of England at the Reformation, as it received the three Creeds, in two of which this Article is contained, so did it also make this one of the Articles of Religion, to which all who are admitted to any benefice, or received into holy orders, are obliged to subscribe, And at the first reception it was propounded with a certain explication, and thus delivered in the fourth year of King Edward the Sixth, with reference to an express place of Scripture interpreted of this descent: "That the body of Christ lay in the grave until his resurrection; but his spirit, which he gave up, was with the spirits which were detained in prison, or in hell, and preached to them, as the place in St. Peter (1 Ep. iii. 19.) testifieth.'+ So likewise after the same manner in the Creeb set forth in metre after the manner of a psalm, and still remaining at the end of the Psalms, the same exposition is delivered in this stave:

• And so he died in the flesh,
Bat quickened in the spirit:
His body then was buried,
As is our use and right.

His spirit did after this descend
Into the lower parts,
Of them that long in darkness were,

The true light of their hearts.' But in the Synod ten years after, in the days of Queen Elizabeth, the Articles, which continue still in force, deliver the same descent, but without any the least explication or reference to any particular place of Scripture, in these words: As Christ died for us and was buried, so also it is to be believed that he went down into hell.'! Wherefore being our Church bath not now imposed that interpretation of St. Peter's words, which before it intimated; being it hath not delivered that as the only place of Scripture to found the descent into hell upon; being it hath alleged no other place to ground it, and delivered no other explication to expound it: we may with the greater liberty pass on to find out the true meaning of this Article, and to give our particular judgment in it, so far as a matter of so much obscurity and variety will permit.

First, then, it is to be observed, that as this Article was first in the Aquileian Creed, so it was delivered there not in the express and formal term of hell, but in such a word as may be about the year 600, by the epistle of t Nam corpus usque ad resurreIsidorus Hispalensis ad Claudium ctionem in sepulcro jacuit; Spiritus Ducem. It was also inserted into the ab illo emissus cum spiritibus qui in Creed of the Council of Ariminum, carcere sive in inferno detinebantur Socrat. Hist. Eccl. 1. ii. c. 37. and of fuit, illisque prædicavit, ut testatur the fourtb Council of Toledo, held in Petri locus,' &c. Articuli ann. 1552. the year 633 : and of the sixteenth Which place was also made use of Council of the same Toledo, held in in the Exposition of the Creed conthe year 693.

tained in the Catechism set forth by Quis nisi infidelis negaverit fuisse the authority of King Edward, in the apud inferos Christum ? S. August. seventh year of his reign. Epist. 99. al, 164. 9, 3.

Article III, 1502.

capable of a greater latitude, descendit in inferna :' which words as they were continued in other Creeds,* so did they find a double interpretation among the Greeks; some translating'inferna,' hell; others, the lower parts:t the first with relation to St. Peter's words of Christ, “Thou wilt not leave my

oul in ell;" (Acts ii. 27.) the second referring to that of St. Paul, “He descended into the lower parts of the earth." (Eph. iv. 9.)

Secondly, I observe that in the Aquileian Creed, where this Article was first expressed, there was no mention of Christ's burial; but the words of their confession ran thus: crucified under Pontius Pilate, he descended in inferna.I From whence

* Descendit in inferna, or ad infer- cording to the Greek composition, is na, is the general writing in the an- nothing else but inox óvioi. Etym. cient MSS. as the learned Archbishop "Evepoi, oi vekpoi, ÅTÒ TOÕ v épą keitestifieth of those in the Benedictine σθαι, ό έστιν, εν τη γήand Suid. Eνέand Cottonian libraries; to which I ροις, νεκρούς, από του εν τη έρα κείσθαι. may add those in the library at West- 'Epa is anciently the earth, from minster: we see the same likewise in whence špasē, xauale, to the earth : that of Elipandus, Descendit ad in- žvepou then are in the earth, as they ferna. Which words are so recited supposed the manes or spirits of the in the Creed delivered in the Cate- dead to be; from whence Homer, chism set forth by the authority of Iliad. o. 188. Edward VI. An. Dom. 1553.

'Aΐδης ενέροισιν ανάσσων, + So the ancient MSS. in Bennet of Pluto; and Hesiod, Theog. 850. college library, Κατελθόντα εις τα κα- ΤρέσσΑΐδης ενέροισι καταφθιμένοισιν Túrara' and the confession made at ανάσσων Sirmium, εις τα καταχθόνια κατελθόν- and in imitation of them Eschylus in

Since that it is Descendit ad in- Persis, v. 635. ed. Blomf. feros, and kateldóyra eis çdov, or De Γήτε, και Ερμή, βασιλεύς τενέρων, scendit ad infernum, as Venantius Πέμψατ' ένερθεν ψυχαν εις φάος. Fortunatus. 1. xi. art. 1. in Biblioth. Thus žvepou are those which Æschylus Patr. Lat. t. vi. par. 2. p.382. For rà elsewhere calls tous yās véplev et tous κατώτατα is a ft interpretation, if we γής ένερθεν. And as ένεροι, the souls take inferna according to the vulgar of the dead in the earth, so are inferi etymology; as St. Augustin: 'Inferi, in the first acceptation; that is manes. eo quod infra sint, Latine appellantur.' Pomponius Mela, de Sit. Orb. 1. i. De Gen. ad lit. I. xii. c. 34. or as No- c. 9. Augylæ manes tantum Deos nius Marcellus, c. i. Ş. 221. ' Inferum putant; which Pliny delivers thus, ab imo dictum, unde inferi quibus Hist. Nat. I. v. c. 8. Augylæ inferos inferius nihil. Again, inferna may tantum colunt;'and Solinus, Polyhist. be well translated qdns, if it be taken c. 31. ‘Augylæ vero solos colunt inaccording to the true origination, feros.' Inferi were then first žvepot, which is from the Greek žvepoi, with the souls of men in the earth: and as the Æolic digamma, from which dia- manes is not only put for the souls belect'most of the Latin language came, low, but also for the place, as in the "Ev Fepos, inferni. Now ēvepoi, ac- poet; -Manesque profundi,

Virg. Georg. i. 243. and Hæc manes veniat mihi fama sub imos;

Æn. iv. 387. so inferi is most frequently used for I So are the words cited in Ruffithe place under ground where the nus: Crucifixus sub Pontio Pilato, souls departed are, and the inferna descendit in inferna.' §. 16. And his must then be those regions in which observation upon them is this : ' Scithey take up their habitations. And so 'endum sane est, quod in Ecclesiæ descendit ad inferna, karna@ev eis ądov, Romanæ Symbolo non habetur addiand descendit ad inferos, are the same. tum, descendit ad inferna : sed neque

τα.

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