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point: whereas there is nothing which they agree in more than this which I have already affirmed, the real descent of the soul of Christ unto the habitation of the souls departed. The persons to whom, and end for which, he descended, they differ in; but as to a local descent into the infernal parts, they all agree. Who were then in those parts, they could not certainly define; but whosoever were there, that Christ by the presence of his soul was with them, they all determined.
That this was the general opinion of the Church, will appear, not only by the testimonies of those ancient writers who lived successively,* and wrote in several ages, and delivered
* As Irenæus: "Cum enim Domi- fernum descenderit, apostolica dopus in medio umbræ mortis abierit, ctrina prædicat. Quandoquidem B. ubi animæ mortuorum erant, post de- Petrus ad hanc rem testimonium de inde corporaliter resurrexit-manife- Psalmis adhibet, Quoniam non derestum est, quia et discipulorum ejus, linques animam meam in inferno, nepropter quos et bæc operatus est Do- que dabis sanctum tuum videre corruminus, animæ abibunt in invisibilem ptionem. fllud de anima dictum est, Joeum definitum eis a Deo, &c.' I. v. quia ibi non est derelicta, unde tam c. 26. Clemens Alexandrinus was cito remeavit ; illud de corpore, quod 80 clearly of that opinion, that he in sepulcro corrumpi celeri resurrethought the soul of Christ preached ctione non potuit.' S. August. Epist. salvation to the soals of hell. Strom. 57. al. 187. ad Dardanum, c. 2. §. 5. 1. vi. c. 6. And Tertullian proves Καταβάς μέχρι και χθονός that the inferi are a cavity in the Επίδημος έφαμέρους, earth where the souls of dead men Κατέβας δ' υπό τάρταρα, , are, because the soul of Christ went Ψυχών όθε μυρία thither :'Quod si Christus Deus, quia θάνατος νεμεν έθνεα. . et bomo mortuus secundum Scri
Φρίξεν σε γέρων τότε pturas, et sepultus secundum easdem, 'Aΐδας και παλαιγενής, huic quoque legi satisfecit, forma Και λαοβόρος κύων humanæ mortis apud inferos fun 'Ανεχάσσατο βηλού. ctus, nec ante adscendit in sublimiora
Synes. Hymn. ix. 7. coelorum quam descendit in infe- Yux") DE 1. Jela, Thv apòs avròv Naxoñoa riora terrarum, ut illic Patriarchas συνδρομήν τε και ένωσιν, καταπεφοίτηκε et Prophetas compotes sui faceret; μεν εις άδου, θεοπρεπεί δε δυνάμει και habes et regionem inferum subterra- εξουσία χρωμένη, και τοις εκείσε πνεύμαneam credere, et illos cubito pellere, ou katepaivero. S. Cyril. Alex. Dial. de qui satis superbe non putent animas Incarn. t. v. par. i. p. 693. 'O Mèv fidelium inferis dignas.' De Anin. C. tápos autoŨ owpa jóvov ÚTEDETTO, 55. Γυμνή σώματος γενόμενος ψυχή ταϊς ψυχήν δε μόνην ο άδης, Anast. apud youvais owpátwy while yuxais. Orig. Euthym. Panopl, par. ji. tit. 17. Postcontra Celsum, l. ii. §. 43. * Ipsa ani- quam igitur, exaltatus est, id est, a ma, etsi fuit in abysso, jam non est, Judæis in cruce suspensus, et spiquia scriptum est, non derelinques ani- ritum reddidit, unita suæ Divinitati mam meam in inferno.' S. Ambros. de anima ad inferorum profunda deIncarn. c. 5. Si ergo secundum ho- scendit.' Auctor Serm. de tempore. minem, quem Verbum Deus suscepit, • Corpore in sepulcro seposito, Diputamus dictum esse, hodie mecum vinitas cum anima hominis ad inferna eris in Paradiso, non ex his verbis in descendens vocavit de locis suis.anicoelo existimandus est esse Paradisus. mas sanctorum.' Gaudentius Brit. Neque enim ipso die in coelo futurus Tract. 10. “In hoc Divinitas Christi erat homo Christus Jesus, sed in in- virtutem suæ impassibilitatis ostendit, ferno secundum animam, in sepulcro quæ ubique, semper et ineffabiliter autem secundum carnem, Et de præsens, et secundum animam suam carne quidem, quod eo die in sepul- in inferno sino doloribus fuit, et se
cro sit posita, manifestum est evan- cundum carnom suam in sepulcro • gelium. Quod vero illa anima in in- sino corruptione jacuit; quia : ncc
this exposition in such express terms as are not capable of any other interpretation, but also because it was generally used as an argument against the Apollinarian heresy: than which nothing can shew more the general opinion of the catholics and the heretics, and that not only of the present, but of the precedent ages. For it had been little less than ridiculous to have produced that for an argument to prove a point in controversy, which had not been clearer than that which was controverted, and had not been some way acknowledged as a truth by both. Now the error of Apollinarias was, That Christ had no proper intellectual or rational soul, but that the Word was to him in the place of a soul: and the argument produced by the fathers for the conviction of this error was, That Christ descended into hell,* which the Apolcarni suæ defuit, cum animam suam out of his book De Incarnatione in inferno dolere non sineret; nec Christi, written particularly against animam suam. in inferno deseruit, Apollinarius: Πείσθητε ούν, ότι ο έσωcum in sepulcro carnem suam a θεν ημών άνθρωπός έστιν η ψυχή τούτο corruptione servaret. Fulgent. ad και της πρώτης πλάσεως δεικνυούσης, Thrasimund. J. iii. c. 31.
και της δευτέρας διαλύσεως δηλούσης, ου What the Apollinarian heresy μόνον εφ' ημίν τούτων δεικνυμένων, αλwas, is certainly known; they denied λα και εν αυτώ τω θανάτω του Χριστού that Christ had a human soul, affirm- εδείκνυτο το μέντοι μέχρι τάφου φθάσαν, ing the Word was to him in the place ή δε μέχρι άδου διαβάσα: διαιρετών δε of a soul. Apollinaristas Apollina- όντων των τόπων πολλώ μέτρο και του rius instituit, qui de anima Christi a μεν τάφου σωματικής επιδεχομένου την catholicis dissenserunt, dicentes, sicut επίβασιν, εκείσε παρών το σώμα, του δε Ariani, Deum Christum carnem sine a dov ώματος: πώς εκεί παρών ο Κύριος anima suscepisse. In qua quaestione ασωμάτως, ως άνθρωπος ένομίσθη υπό testimoniis evangelicis victi, mentem, του θανάτου; ίνα ψυχαίς ταϊς εν δεσμούς qua rationalis est anima hominis, non κατεχομέναις, μορφήν ιδίας ψυχής ανεπιfuisse in anima Christi, sed pro hac δεκτόνως δεκτικήν των δεσμών του θανάipsum Verbum in ea fuisse, dixerunt.' του παραστήσας, παρούσας παρούσαις, S. August. de Heres. 55. Against διαρρήξη τα δεσμά ψυχών των έν άδου καthis heresy the catholics argued from rexouévwv. l. i. §. 13. Thus Euthymius, the descent into hell, as that which in his commentary upon the words of was acknowledged by them all, even the Psalmist, “ Thou shalt not leave by the Arians (with whom the Apold my soulin hell:” Τίθηση και της ελπίδος linarians in this agreed), as we have την αιτίαν. Και γάρ ουκ εγκαταλείψεις, shewn before by three several creeds φησί, την ψυχήν μου εις άδην, όπου των of theirs in which they expressed this τετελευτηκότων αι ψυχαί κατέχονται τόdescent. This is tlie argument of πος γάρ ο άδης υπό γήν αποκεκληρωμέAthanasius in his fourth dialogue De νος ταϊς των αποθνησκόντων ψυχαίς: Trinitate, which is particularly witlh που τοίνυν ο λήρος 'Απολλινάριος, και την an Apollinarian: "Ωσπερ ουκ ήδύνατο ο προσληφθείσαν σάρκα δογματίζων άψυθεός εν μνήματι και εν ταφή γενέσθαι, χον και άνουν; ώς ανόητος. And from ει μη είχεν το τιθέμενον σώμα ούτως ούκ hence we may understand the words αν ελέχθη κατακεχωρίσθαι του σώματος, ofTheodoret, who at the end of his exπανταχού ών και τα πάντα περιέχων, ει position of this Psalm thus concludes: μη είχε την χωριζομένην ψυχήν, μεθ' ης Ούτος ο ψαλμός και την 'Αρείου και την και τοίς εν άδου ευαγγελίσατο· διά γάρ Ευνομίου και Απολλιναρίου φρενοβλάαυτήν αναχωρείν του σώματος λέγεται βειαν ελέγχει. Which is in reference και έν άδου γεγενήσθαι' και τούτο εστι το to those words, “Thou shall not leave υπέρ ημών έν άδου γενέσθαι διά την ψυ- my soul in hell.” In the same manχήν και εν μνήματι τιθήναι διά το σώμα. ner, Leporius Presbyter ( quod male §. 7. But because these dialogues senserat de Incarnatione Christi, cormay be questioned as not genuine, rigens, as Gennadius observeth, 'Ilthe same argument may be produced lust. Vir. cat. 60. and particularly dis
linarians could not deny; and that this descent was not made by his Divinity, nor by his body, but by the motion and presence of his soul, and consequently, that he had a soul distinct both from his flesh and from the Word. Whereas if it could have then been answered by the heretics, as now it is by many, that his descent into hell had no relation to his soul, but to his body only, which descended to the grave; or that it was not a real, but only virtual, descent, by which his death extended to the destruction of the powers of hell; or that his soul was not bis intellectual spirit, or immortal soul, but his living soul, which descended into hell, that is, continued in the state of death: I say, if any of these senses could have been affixed to this Article, the Apollinarians' answer might have been sound, and the catholics' argument of no validity. But being those heretics did all acknowledge this Article; being the catholic fathers did urge the same to prove the real distinction of the soul of Christ both from his Divinity and from his body, because bis body was really in the grave when his soul was really present with the souls below; it followeth that it was the general doctrine of the Church, that Christ did descend into hellby a local motion of his soul, separated from his body, to the places below where the souls of men departed were.
Nor can it be reasonably objected, that the argument of avowing that of the Arians and Apol- sicut Petrus interpretatur apostolus, linarians, « Deum hominemque com- Non derelinques animam meam apud mixtum, et tali confusione carnis et inferos, neque dabis sanctum tuum viverbi quasi aliquod corpus effectum') dere corruptionem.' Epist. ad Hispan. does tbus express the reality and dis- p. 50. Lastly, The true doctrine of tinction of the soul and body of the the incarnation against all the enesame Christ: “Tam Christus filius Dei mies thereof, Apollinarians, Nestotunc mortąus jacuit in _sepulcro, rians, Eutychians, and the like, was quam idem Christus filius Dei ad in- generally expressed by declaring the ferna descendit ; sicut beatus aposto- verity of the soul of Christ really prelus dicit, Quod autem ascendit, quid est sent in hell, and the verity of his body nisi quod descendit primum in inferi- at the same time really present in the ores partes terræ? Ipse utique Do- grave; as it is excellently delivered minus et Deus noster Jesus Christus by Fulgentius: 'Humanitas vera Fi. nnicus Dei, qui cum anima ad inferna lii Dei nec tota in sepulcro fuit, nec descendit, ipse cum apima et corpore tota in inferno ; sed in sepulcro seascendit ad Colum.' Libel. Emenda- cundum veram carnem Christus mortionis, p. 23. And Capreolus, bishop tuus jacuit, et secundum animam ad of Carthage, writing against the Nes- infernum Christus descendit; et setoriąy heresy, proveth that the soul cundum eandem animam ab inferno of Christ was united to his Divinity ad carnem, quam in sepulcro reliquewhen it descended into hell, and fol- rat, rediit, secundum divinitatem vero lows that argument, urging it at large; suam, quæ nec loco tenetur nec fine in which discourse among the rest he concluditur, totus fuit in sepulcro hath this passage: “Tantum abest, cum carne, totus in inferno cum ani. Deum Dei filium, incommutabilem ma: ac pro hoc plenus fuit ubique atque incomprehensibilem, ab inferis Christus; quia non est Deus ab bumapotuisse concludi; ut nec ipsam ad- nitate quam susceperat separatus, qui sumptionis animam, apt exitiabiliter et in anima sua fuit, ut solutis inferni susceptam aut tenaciter derelictam: doloribus ab inferno victrix rediret, et sed nec carnem ejus credimus, conta- in carpe sua fuit, ut celeri' resurregione alicujus corruptionis infectam, ctione corrumpi non posset.' Ad ThraIpsius namque vox est in Psalmo, simund. I. jji. C. 34.
the fathers was of equal force against these heretics, if it be understood of the animal soul, as it would be if it were under stood of the rational; as if those heretics had equally deprived Christ of the rational and animal soul. For it is most certain that they did not equally deprive Christ of both; but most of the Apollinarians denied a human soul to Christ only in respect of the intellectual part, granting that the animal soul of Christ was of the same nature with the animal soul of other men.
If therefore the fathers had proved only that the animal soul of Christ had descended into hell, they had brought no argument at all to prove that Christ had a human intellectual soul. It is therefore certain that the catholic fathers in their opposition to the Apollinarian heretics did declare, that the intellectual and immortal soul of Christ descended into hell.
The only question which admitted any variety of discrepance among the ancients was, Who were the persons to whose souls the soul of Christ descended ? and that which dependeth on that question, What were the end and use of bis descent? In this indeed they differed much, according to their several apprehensions of the condition of the dead, and the nature of the place into which the souls before our Saviour's death were gathered; some looking on that name which we translate now hell, hades, or infernus, as the common receptacle of the souls of all men,t both the just and
* At first indeed the Apollinarians ani vero carnis tantummodo.' Facundid so speak, as if they denied the hu- dus, I. ix. c. 3. man soul in both acceptations; but † Some of the ancient fathers did afterwards they clearly affirmed the believe that the word ons in the yux), and denied the voûç alone. So Scriptures bad the same signification Socrates testifies of them: Ipórepov which it hath among the Greeks, as μεν έλεγον αναληφθήναι τον άνθρωπον comprehending εll the souls both of υπό του θεού Λόγου εν τη οικονομία της the wicked and the just; and so they. ενανθρωπήσεως ψυχής άνευ: είτα ώς εκ took infernus in the same latitude. μετανοίας επιδιορθούμενοι, προσέθηκαν As therefore the ancient Greeks did ψυχήν μεν ανειληφέναι, νούν δε ουκ assign one άδης for all which died, έχειν αυτήν, αλλ' είναι τον θεόν Λόγον Πάντας όμως θνητούς άΐδης δέχεται αντί νού εις τον αναληφθέντα άνθρωπον. and κοινόν άδην πάντες ήξουσιν βροτοί Hist. I. ii. c. 46. Nam et aliqui eo- as they made within that one aons rum fuisse in Christo animam negare two several receptacles, one for the non potuerunt. Videte absurditatem good and virtuous, the other for the et insaniam non ferendam. Animam wicked and unjust (according to that irrationalem eum habere voluerunt, of Diphilus, ap. Clem. Alex. Strom. rationalem negaverunt; dederunt ei v. c. 14. p. 721. animam pecoris, subtraxerunt ani- Kai yap kal’ödv dúo tpißous vouisquev, mam hominis.' S. August. Tract. 47. Mlav dikaiwv, xqrépav ågeßöv odóv• in Ioan. 9. 8. This was so properly and that of Plato, in Gorgia, p. 166, indeed the Apollinarian heresy, that Ούτοι ούν επειδάν τελευτήσωσι, δικάσουit was thereby distinguished from the ou év 746 Xelmwz év rõ rpiódy, it is Arian. Nam Apollinaristæ quidem pépetov TW 80, fuiy eis parapwv vý. carnis et animæ naturam sine mente cous, i dè eis ráprapou: and that of adsumpsisse Dominum credunt, Ari- Virgil, Æn. vi. 540.
Hic locus est, partes ubi se via findit in ambas:
unjust, thought the soul of Christ descended unto those which departed in the true faith and fear of God, the souls of the patriarchs and the prophets, and the people of God.
Hac iter Elysium nobis: at læva malorum
Exercet poenas, et ad impia Tartara mittit.) as they did send the best of men to happiness, (Τούτο δε όνομα κικλήσκομεν qons, there to be happy, and taught kólfov'ABpadpe) and the unjust on the rewards to be received there as well left to a place of misery. Ojros Ó. repe as punishments: (Λέγεται δε υπό του άδου λόγος, ενώ ψυχαί πάντων κατέμελικού Πινδάρου ταυτί περί των ευσε- χονται άχρι καιρού δν ο θεός ώρισεν. p. Béwv év adov,
923. Tertullian wrote a tract, De Toίσι λάμπει μένος αελίου
Paradiso, now not extant, in wbich Τάν ενθάδε νύκτα κάτω, ,
he expressed thus much: • Habes Φοινικορόδιαί τε λειμώνες
etiam de Paradiso a nobis libellum, Είσι προάστειον αυτών. .
quo constituimus omnem animam Plut. de Consolat. ad Apollon. apud Inferos sequestrari in diem Do
-Ώ τρισόλβιοι mini.' De Anima, c. 55. St. Jerome Κείνοι βροτών, οι ταύτα δερχθέντες τέλη on the third chapter of Ecclesiastes: Μόλωσ' ές άδου τοϊσδε γάρ μόνοις εκεί • Ante, adventum Christi omnia ad Ζην εστί, τοϊς δ' άλλοισι πάντ' εκεί κακά. inferos pariter dcebantur: unde et
Sophocl. ap. Plutarch. de Aud. Jacob ad inferos pariter descensurum
se dicit; et Job pios et impios in in80 did the Jews also before and after ferno queritur retentari: ct Evangeour Saviour's time. For Josephus lium, chaos magnum interpositum says, the soul of Samuel was brought apud inferos; et Abraham cum Laup de qdov, and delivers the opinion of zaro, et divitem in suppliciis, esse the Pharisees after this manner, Ant. testatur.' ad fin. And in his 25th, al. Jud. l. xviii. c. 2. 'Adávatóv te loxův 22nd, Epistle: ‘Perfacilis ad ista reriotis aŭrois, elvai kai ünÒ xSóvog dc sponsio est; Luxisse Jacob filium, καιώσεις τε και τιμάς οίς αρετής ή κακίας quem putabat occisum, ad quem et ÉmTýdevois-£v TÖ Biy yéyove' aud of the ipse erat ad inferos descensurus, diSadduceés after this manner: yuxñs cens, Descendan ad filium meum lu* τε την διαμονήν, και τας καθ' άδου τι- gens in infernum: quia necdum Ρauwpias kai tipàs åvaipoñou. Therefore radisi januam Christus effregerat, the Jews which thought the souls im- necdum flammeam illam romphæam mortal did believe that the just were et vertiginem præsidentium Cherubin rewarded, as well as the unjust pu- sanguis ejus exstinxerat. Unde et nished, 'trò xoovòs, or kam qdov. And Abraham, licet in loco refrigerii, taso did also most of the ancient fathers men apud inferos cum Lazaro fuisse of the Church. There was an an- scribitur.'col. 57. And again : 'Necient book written De Universi Na- queo satis Scripturæ laudare mystetura, which some attributed to Justin ria, et divinum sensum in verbis licet Martyr, some to Irenæus, others to simplicibus admirari: quod, Moyses Origen, or to Caius a presbyter of plangitur: et Jesus Nave, vir sanctus, the Roman Church in the time of sepultus fertur, et tamen fletus non Victor and Zephyrinus, a fragment esse scribitur. Nempe illud, quod in of which is set forth by David Hoes- Moyse, id est, in lege veteri, sub chelius in his Annotations upon Pho- peccato Adam omnes tenebantnr elotius, delivering the state of qons at gio, et ad inferos descendentes conselarge. Περί δε άδου, εν ω συνέχονται quenterlacryme prosequebanturψυχαί δικαίων τε και αδίκων, αναγκαίον In Jesu vero, id est, in. Evangelio, citiiv. Here then were the just and per quem Paradisus est apertus, morunjust in hades, but not in the same tem gaudia prosequuntur.' Ibid. “Tò place. Οι δε δίκαιοι εν τω άδη νύν μέν πρότερον ο θάνατος εις τον άδην κατησυνέχονται, αλλ' ού τω αυτω τόπων και γε' νυνι δε ο θάνατος προς τον Χριστόν oi adicou. Mía ydp eis TOŨTO TÒ xwplov Tapanéutel. S. Chrysost. Panegyr. ad ká odos, &c. There was but one pas- Sanctas Mart. Bern. et Prosdoc. &c. t. sage into the hades, saith he; but v. vrat. 65. And ini bis Tractate provwhen that gate was passed, the just jog that Christ is God, he makes this went on the right hand to a place of exposition of Isaiah, xlv. 2. Núnas xad