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the New Testament was penned, I perceive no such constant distinction in their deliveries of the CREED; and in the Hebrew language * of the Old, from which the Jewish and Christian Greeks received that phrase of believing in, it bath no such peculiar and accumulative signification. For it is sometimes attributed to God, the author and original cause; sometimes many of his are beyond the rest of prophetis ejus, et cuncta evenient the Schools), whatsoever is added by prospera :' yet the Septuagint acthe preposition to believe, appears not knowledyeth no necessity of receding to be a part of belief, but an act su from the original phrase: εμπιστεύσατε peradded to the act of faith.

έν κυρίω τω Θεώ υμών, και εμπιστε * For yox is sometimes joined θήσεσθε εμπιστεύσατε εν προφήταις αυwith 5, sometimes with 2: when τού, και ευοδωθήσεσθε. Νor is it only with 5, it answers properly, to tri attributed to Moses as joined with OTEÚELV Oeqē, credere Deo, is being God, and so taken as it were into the notbing else but a significator of the same phrase, but separately by himcase); when with 3 it corresponds self, as. Exod. xix. 9. • The Lord 1ο πιστεύειν εις τον θεόν, credere in said unto Moses, Lo I come unto Deum, ( being a preposition of the thee in a thick cloud, ihat the people same nature with eis or in). But yet may ,hear when I speak with thee, there is so little, or rather no diffe- obiy 13989 72 D.) and believe in rence in the Hebrew, that in the first thee for ever.” And therefore when place where it is used, and that of it was objected to St. Basil, that they the Father of the Faithful, even for did believe in Moses, as well as that the act of justifying faith, 1979 they were baptized into Moses, and 1717'2 Gen. xv. 6. it is translated by generally: Ý rigtig wuolóyntai von the LΧΧ. και επίστευσεν 'Αβράμ το και εις τους ανθρώπους γεγενήσθαι: the θεώ, not εις θεόν, and that translation Father duth not deny the language, warranted by St. Paul, Rom. iv. 3. but interprets it: ή εις αυτόν πίστις Gal. iii, 6. and St. James ii. 23. In

ŠTÈ Tòv kópiov åvapépetai. De Sp. S. the same manner, 2 Kings xvii. 14. c. 14. Neither is this only spoken of

Moses and the prophets, that the Isis translated by the LXX. (as that raelites believed in them, but of Datranslation is preserved in the Alex vid, not as a prophet, but as a bare andrian and Complutensian copies), relater of his own actions, 1 Sam. οι ουκ επίστευσαν κυρίω θεώ αυτών. . xxvii. 12. 772 WX 12") kai Besides, the same phrase is used in επιστεύθη Δαυίδ εν τω 'Αγχούς, LΧΧ. the same place both to God and to * Et credidit Acbis in David, Vulg. man, as Exod. xiv. 31. 933897 • Est ergo fides nostra primo quidem

and

omnium in Dominum nostrum Jelieved in God, and in his servant Mo sum Christum, consequenter vero etses; wbich the Chaldee paraphrase iam in onines sanctus Patriarchas, ,

vel Prophetas, vel Apostolos Christi.' VAT 70X321 7 2729 Orig. in Apol. Pamphil. p. 439. To try Jonathall, and Onkelos conclude, ibis general phrase of be) .in,

sometimes to the supreme author of the word of God, and in the pro our Faith, as to God; sometimies to phecy of Moses his servant. And the intervenient messengers, as the 2 Chron. xx. 20. 797) W387 Propbets; sometimes to the motives

)

of our Faith, Psal. Ixxviii. 32. 857 177178179 Believe in the Lord your

). . God, shall ye be established; believe επίστευσαν εν τοις Sαυμασίοις αυτού, in his prophets, so shall ye prosper. and they believed not in his wondrous For although the Vulgar Latin, which works; sometimes to the object of it, our Translation followeth, hath made or that which is believed, as Psal. that distinction which the Hebrew cxix. 66. naaxy Trip I have maketh not: ‘Credite in Domino believed in thy commandments, as Deo vestro, et securi eritis; credite Mark i. 15. A LOTEVETE {v TQ evayyelig.

-and they be ביהוה ובמשה עבדו

והימינו בשום ,explaineth thus

lieving it , is originally attributed ואימינו במימרא דיי ובנביאות

and they believed in משה עבדיה

אלהיכם ותאמנו האמינו בנביאיו

והצליחו

LXX . cut oie האמינו בנפלאתיו

to the prophets, the immediate revealers of the faith; some. times it is spoken of miracles, the motives to believe; sometimes of the Law of God, the material object of our faith. Among all which varieties of that phrase of speech, it is sufficiently apparent that in this confession of faith it is most proper to admit it in the last acceptation, by which it is attributed to the material object of belief. For the CREED. being nothing else but a brief comprehension of the most necessary matters of faith, whatsoever is contained in it beside the first word I believe, by which we make confession of our faith, can be nothing else but part of those verities to be believed, and the act of belief in respect to them nothing but an assent unto them as divinely credible and infallible truths. Neither can we conceive that the ancient Greek Fathers of the Church could have any farther meaning in it, who make the whole body of the CREED to be of the same nature, as so many truths to be believed, acknowledged, and confessed; insomuch as sometimes they use not believing in,* neither for the Father, Son, nor Holy Ghost; sometimes using it as to them, they continue the same to the following articles of, the Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints,† &c. and generally speak of the Creept as nothing but mere matter of faith, without any intimation of hope, love, or any such notion included in it. So that believing in, by virtue of the phrase

Πιστεύομεν ούν και ομολογούμεν μεν και εις εν πνεύμα άγιον, τούτων έκαένα μόνον αληθινών και αγαθόν θεών, στον είναι και υπάρχειν πιστεύοντες : και ένα τον μονογενή αυτού υιών, και εν signifying that every particular which μόνον πνεύμα άγιον. S. Basil. de Fide, he bad rohearsed he believed to be.

And that was all in the confession in+ Arius and Euzoius in their con tended. Alexander, bishop of Alexfession delivered to Constantine: IIl andria, after a long declaration of the στεύομεν εις ένα θεόν πατέρα, και εις ένα former articles concerning the Father κύριον Ιησούν, και εις το άγιον πνεύμα, and the Son, draws to a conclusion on και είς σαρικός άνάστασιν, και εις ζωήν the latter article hus: Προς δε τη ευτου μέλλοντος αιώνος, και εις βασιλείαν σεβεία (Ι. ευσεβεί) ταύτη περί πατρός και ουρανών, και εις μίαν καθολικήν εκκλη

υιού δόξη

-εν πνεύμα άγιον ομολοσίαν του θεού. Socrat. Ηist. Eccl. Ι. i. γούμεν----μίαν και μόνην καθολικήν c. 26. Sozomen. 1. ii. c. 27. Κατήχη την αποστολικήν εκκλησίαν -μετά σις των φωτιζομένων σχεδιασθείσα εις το τούτον (vel τούτο) εκ νεκρών ανάστασιν πνεύμα άγιον, και εις μίαν αγίαν καθο οίδαμεν. Τheolor. Ηist. Eccl. 1. i. c. 4. λικήν εκκλησίαν, και εις σαρκός άνάστα. So Tertull. de Præscript. adv. Hæret. σιν, και εις ζωήν αιώνιον. S. Cyril. c. 13. ' Regula est fidei illa qua creHierosol. Catecl. 18. Εις το πνεύμα ditur, Unum omnino Deum esse:’ and το άγιον, εις μίαν αγίαν καθολικήν και adv. Praxeam, c. 2. where he makes αποστολικήν εκκλησίαν. S. Epiphan. in another rehearsal of his Creed, he Anc. S. 120. And in a larger,confes begins with: . Unicum quidem Deum sion: Πιστεύομεν εις μίαν καθολικήν credimus.' και αποστολικήν εκκλησίαν, και εις εν § Non est amor Dei Articulus, βάπτισμα μετανοίας, και εις ανάστασιν neque etiam amor proximi; quia νεκρών, και εις βασιλείαν ουρανών, και eliamsi sint praecepta generalia acεις ζωήν αιώνιον. ξ. 121.

tiva, tamen cum actio contineatur, 1 Greg. Nyss. calls them ευσεβείς non oportet eum coustituere articuπερί θεού υπολήψεις. And Eusebius lum: sed ista sunt fidei dogmata, in' bis Confession exhibited to the quæ sunt columnæ et fundamenta council of Nice, concludes; Illoteúo legis divinæ.' Is. Abravanel de cap.

C. 4.

or manner of speech, whether we look upon the original use of it in the Hebrew, or the derivative in the Greek, or the sense of it in the first Christians in the Latin Church, can be of no farther real importance in the CREED in respect of God, who immediately follows, than to acknowledge and assert his being or existence. Nor ought this to be imagined a slender notion or small part of the first Article of our faith, when it really is the foundation of this and all the rest; that as the CREED is fundamental in respect of other truths, this is the foundation * even of the fundamentals: “for he that cometh to God must believe that he is." (Heb. xi. 6.) And this I take for a sufficient explanation of the phrase, I believe in God, that is, I believe that God is.

As for the matter or truth contained in these words so explained, it admits a threefold consideration, first, of the notion of God, what is here understood by that name; secondly, of the existence of God, how we know or believe that he is; thirdly, the unity of God, in that though “ there be gods many, and lords many,(1 Cor. viii. 5.) yet in our CREED we mention him as but one. When therefore we shall have clearly delivered what is the true notion of God in whom we believe, how and by what means we come to assure ourselves of the existence of such a Deity, and upon what grounds we apprehend him of such a transcendent nature that he can admit no competitor; then may we be conceived to have sufficiently explicated the former part of the first Article; then may every one understand what he says, and upon what ground he proceeds, when he professeth, I believe in God.

The name of God is attributed unto many, but here is to be understood of him who by way of eminency and excellency bears that name, and therefore is styled God of gods ; Lord our God is God of gods, and Lord of lords: (Deut. x. 17. Psalm cxxxvi. 2. Dan. ii. 47. xi. 36.) and in the same respect is called “the most high God,” (Gen. xiv. 18—20. 22.) (others being but inferior, or under him), and, “God over or above all.” (Rom. ix. 5. Ephes. iv. 6.) * This eminency and excellency, by which these titles become proper unto him, and incommunicable to any other, is grounded upon the Divine nature or essence, which all other who are called gods have not, and therefore are not by nature gods. “Then when ye knew not God (saith St. Paul), ye did

service to them

which by nature are not gods.” (Gal. iv. 8.) There is then a God by nature, and others which are called gods, but by nature are fidei, c. 11. Primus est deorum it giveth existence to every thing which cultus, deos credere.” Sen. Epist. is. Maimonides de Fundamen. Lexcv. p. 470.

gis, c. 1. $ * 'Imprimis necesse est concedatis.

esse aliquem sublimiorem Deum et 839-52 to the foundation of mancipem quendam divinitatis, qui foundations and pillar of wisdoms is to ex hominibus Deos fecerit.' Tertull. know, that the first Being is, and that adv. Gentes, c. 11.

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6 יסוד היסודות ועמוד החכמות לידע שיש שם מצוי ראשון והוא

not so: for either they have no power at all, because no being, but only in the false opinions of deceived men, as the gods of the heathen; or if they have any real power or authority, from whence some are called gods * in the Scripture, yet they have it not from themselves or of their own nature, but from him who “ only hath immortality,” (1 Tim. vi. 16.) and consequently only Divinity, and therefore is "the only true God.” (John xvii. 3.) So that the notion of a Deity doth at last expressly signify a Being or nature of infinite perfection; † and the infinite perfection of a nature or being consisteth in this, that it be absolutely and essentially necessary, an actual being of itself; and potential or causative of all beings beside itself, independent from any other, upon which all things else depend, and by which all things else are governed. It is true, indeed, that to give a perfect definition of God is impossible, neither can our finite reason hold any proportion with infinity; but yet a sense of this Divinity we have, and the first and common notion of it consists in these three particulars; that it is a Being of itself, and independent from any other; tbat it is that upon which all things which are made depend; that it governs all things. And this I conceive sufficient as to the first consideration, in reference to the notion of a God.

As for the existence of such a Being, how it comes to be known unto us, or by what means we are assured of it, is not so unanimously agreed upon, as that it is. For although some have imagined that the knowledge of a Deity is connatural to the soul of man, so that every man hath a connate inbred notion of a God; yet I rather conceive the soul of man to have no connatural knowledge at all, no particular notion of any thing in it from the beginning; but being we can have no assurance of its pre-existence, we may more rationally judge it to receive the first apprehensions of things by sense, and by them to make all rational collections. If then the soul of man be at the first like a fair smooth table, without any actual characters or knowledge imprinted in it; if all the knowledge which we have comes successively by sensation, instruction, and rational collection; then must we not refer the apprehension of a Deity to any connate notion or inbred opinion; at least we are assured God never charged us with the knowledge of him upon that account.

Again, although others do affirm, that the existence of God is a truth evident of itself, so as whosoever hears but these terms once named, that God is, cannot choose but acknowledge it for a certain and infallible truth upon the first apprehension: that as no man can deny that the whole is greater

'Ego dixi, Dii estis; sed in eo indulti nominis significatio est: et ubi refertur, ego dixi, loquentis est potius sermo quam rei nomen.' S. Hilar. de Trin, J. vii. c. 10.

+ Deus plenæ ac perfectæ divinitatis est nomen.' S. Hilar. de Trin. 1. xi. c. 48. “Deus substantiæ ipsius nomen, id est, divinitatis.' Tertull. adv. Herm. c. 3.

than any part, who knoweth only what is meant by whole, and what by part: so no man can possibly deny or doubt of the existence of God, who knows but what is meant by God, and what it is to be; yet can we not ground our knowledge of God's existence upon any such clear and immediate evidence: nor were it safe to lay it upon such a ground, because whosoever should deny it, could not by this means be convinced ; it being a very irrational way of instruction to tell a man that doubts of this truth, that he must believe it because it is evident unto him, when he knows that he therefore only doubts of it, because it is not evident unto him.

Although therefore that, God is, be of itself an immediate, certain, necessary truth, yet must it be * evidenced and made apparent unto us by its connexion to other truths; so that the being of a Creator may appear unto us by his creature, and the dependency of inferior entities may lead us to a clear acknowledgment of the supreme and independent Being. The wisdom of the Jews thought this method proper, “for by the greatness and beauty of the creatures, proportionably the Maker of them is seen:" (Wisd. of Sol. xiii. 5.) and not only they, but St. Paul hath taught us, that “ the invisible things of God, from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead.” (Rom. i. 20.) + For if Phidias could so

** Hæc propositio, Deus est, quan minum, præsertim vero Christi et tum in se est, per se nota est, quia Apostolorum ejus, operationes, conprædicatum est idem cum subjecto, specta fuisse.' In which explication Deus enim est suum esse. Sed quia there is nothing which is not forced nos non scimus de Deo quid est, non and distorted; for though his first obest nobis per se nota, sed indiget de servation seems plausible, yet there monstrari per ea quæ sunt magis nota is no validity in it. He bringeth only quoad nos, et minus nota quoad na for proof, Matt. xiii. 35. kekpupuéva turam, scilicet per effectus.' Aquin. από καταβολής κόσμου, which proves 1. p. q. 2. art. 2.

not at all that årò ctíoews has the same This place must be vindicated sense: and it is more probable that from the false gloss of Socinus, who it hath not, because that is usually contends, that it cannot be proved expressed by απ' αρχής κτίσεως, Mark from the creature that there is a God, x. 6. and xiii. 19. 2 Pct. iii. 4. never and therefore to this place of St. Paul by από κτίσεως. Besides tlie κεκρυμanswers thus: Sciendum est verba uéva in St. Matthew bears not that a creativne mundi debere conjungi analogy with ảópata which Socinus cum verbo invisibilia-ait igitur eo in pretends, signifying not things unloco Apostolus, æternam divinitatem seen or unknown till then, but only Dei, i. id quod nos Deus perpetuo fa obscure sayingsor parables; for which cere vult (Divinitus enim hoc sensu purpose those words were produced alibi quoque apud ipsum enunciatur, out of the Psalms by the Evangelist, ut Col. ii. 9.), æternamque potentiam, to prove that the Messias was to i. promissiones quæ nunquam inter speak in parables, in the original cident (quo sensu paulo superius pa 171 LXX. Tpoßdýuara dixerat Evangelium esse potentiam år" ápxñs, i. wise ancient sayings, Dei), bæc, inquam, quæ nunquam which were not unseen and unknown, postquam mundus creatus est ab bo for it immediately followeth, which minibus visa fuerant, i. non fuerant we have heard and known, and our faeis cognita, per opera, hoc est, per thers have told us, Psal. Ixxviii. 3. mirabiles ipsius Dei et divinorum ho-, And though he would make out this

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