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shew that the Messias, who was foretold both to die and to rise again, was not to rise before, and was to rise upon the third day after his death; and that in correspondence to these predictions, our Jesus, whom we believe to be the true Messias, did not rise from the dead until, and did rise from the dead upon, the third day.
The typical predictions of this truth were two, answering to our two considerations, one in reference to the distance, the other in respect of the day itself. The first is that of the prophet Jonas, who was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights,” and then by the special command of God he was rendered safe "upon the dry land," and sent a preacher of repentance to the great city of Nineveh. (Jonah i. 17, ii. 10. iii. 2.) This was an express type of the Messias then to come, who was to preach repentance and remission of sins to all nations; that “as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so should the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth :” (Matt. xii. 40.) and as he was restored alive unto the dry land again, so should the Messias, after three days, be taken out of the jaws of death, and restored unto the land of the living.
The type in respect of the day was the waved sheaf in the feast of the first-fruits, concerning which this was the law of God by Moses,
ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then shall ye bring a sheaf of the first-fruits of your harvest unto the priest: and he shall wave the sheaf before the Lord to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it. And ye shall offer that day when ye wave the sheaf, an he-lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt-offering unto the Lord.” (Lev. xxiii, 10–12.) For under the Levitical Law, all the fruits of the earth in the land of Canaan were profane; none might eat of them till they were consecrated, and that they were in the feast of the firstfruits. One sheaf was taken out of the field and brought to the priest, who lifted it up as it were in the name of all the rest, waving it before the Lord, and it was accepted for them, so that all the sheaves in the field were holy by the acceptation of that: “ For if the first-fruits be holy, the lump also is holy." (Rom. xi. 16.) And this was always done the day after the sabbath, that is, the paschal solemnity, after which the fulness of the harvest followed: by which thus much was foretold and represented, that as the sheaf was lifted up and waved, and the lamb was offered on that day by the priest to God, so the promised Messias, that immaculate Lamb which was to die, that priest which dying was to offer up himself to God, was upon this day to be lifted up and raised from the dead, or rather to shake and lift up and present bimself to God, and so to be accepted for us all, that so our dust might be sanctified, our corruption hallowed, our mortality consecrated to eternity. Thus was the resurrection of the Messias
after death typically represented both in the distance and the day.
And now in reference to both resemblances, we shall clearly shew, that our Jesus, whom we believe, and have already proved to be the true Messias, was so long and no longer dead, as to rise the third day; and did so order the time of his death, that the third day on which he rose, might be that very day, on which the sheaf was waved, the day after that sabbath mentioned in the Law.
As for the distance between the resurrection and the death of Christ, it is to be considered, First, generally in itself, as it is some space of time: Secondly, as it is that certain and determinate space of three days. Christ did not, would not, suddenly arise, lest any should doubt that he ever died. . It was as necessary for us that he should die, as that he should live; and we, which are to believe them both, were to be assured as well of the one as of the other. That therefore we may be ascertained of his death, he did some time continue it. He might have descended from the cross before he died; but he would not, because he had undertaken to die for us.* He might have revived himself upon the cross after he had given up the ghost,and before Joseph came to take him down; but he would not, lest as Pilate questioned whether he were already dead, so we might doubt whether he ever died. The reward of his resurrection was immediately due upon his passion, but he deferred the receiving of it, lest either of them being questioned, they both might lose their efficacy and intended operation. It was therefore necessary that some space should intercede between them.
Again, because Christ's exaltation was due unto bis humiliation, and the first step of that was his resurrection; because the apostles after his death were to preach repentance and remission of sins through his blood, who were no way qualified to preach any such doctrine till he rose again; because the Spirit could not be sent till he ascended, and he could not ascend into heaven till he rose from the grave: therefore the space between his resurrection and passion could not be long; nor can there be any reason assigned why it should any longer be deferred, when the verity of his death was once sufficiently proved. Lest therefore his disciples should be.long held in suspense, or any person after many days should doubt whether
* •De cruce' descendere poterat, roũ te Davárov kai tñs åvaorácEWS sed diferebat ut de sepulcro resur- άδηλον εγίνετο το περί της αφθαρσίας geret.' S. August. in Ioan. Tract. 12. kéos. "OJEV iva dexlý verpòv rò rūpa, §. 6.
και μίαν υπέμεινε μέσην ο Λόγος, και τρι+ Ηδύνατο μεν και παρ' αυτά του θα ταΐον τούτο πάσιν έδειξεν άφθαρτον. S. várov tò oõja duyčipai kai pálı deitai Athanas. de Incarn. Verb. Ş. 26. Kai ζών αλλά και τούτο καλώς προϊδών και τρεις δή ημέρας δια τούτο συνεχώρησεν, Σωτήρ ου πεποίηκε". Είπε γάρ άν τις μηδ' ίνα πιστευθή ότι απέθανεν, ου γαρ τη όλως αυτό τεθνηκέναι, ή μηδέ τέλειον σταυρό αυτό μόνον βεβαιούται, και τη αυτού τον θάνατον έψαυκέναι, ει παρ’ πάντων όψει, αλλά και τω χρόνω των Grà Thẻ ảoáợraơi sv #quotiẸac; Tá- huepox. 8. Chrysost: Homi. 43. R χα δε και έν ίσω του διαστήματος όντος Μatt.
he rose with the same body with which he died, or no; that he might shew himself alive while the soldiers were watching at the grave, and while his crucifixion was yet in the mouths of the people, he would not stay many days before he rose. Some distance then of time there was, but not great, between his crucifixion and his resurrection.
The particular length of this space is determined in the third day: but that expression being capable of some diversity of interpretation, it is not so easily concluded, how long our Saviour was dead or buried before he revived or rose again. It is written expressly in St. Matthew, that “as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so should the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” (xii. 40.) From whence it seemeth to follow, that Christ's body was for the space of three whole days and three whole nights in the grave, and after that space of time arose from thence. And hence some have conceived, that being our Saviour rose on the morning of the first day of the week, therefore it must necessarily follow, that he died and was buried on the fifth day of the week before, that is, on Thursday; otherwise it cannot be true, that he was in the grave three nights.
But this place, as express as it seems to be, must be considered with the rest, in which the same truth is delivered : as when our Saviour said, “ After three days I will rise again;" (Matt. xxvii. 63. Mark viii, 31.) and again, “ Destroy this temple, and in three days I will build it up;” (John ii. 19.) or, “ within three days I will build another made without hands.” (Mark xiv. 58.) But that which is most used, both in our Saviour's prediction before his death, and in the apostles' language after the resurrection, is, that he “rose from the dead the third day.”+ (Matt. xvi. 21. xvii. 23. xx. 19. Mark ix. 31. x. 34. Luke ix. 22. xviii. 33. xxiv. 7. 46. Acts x. 40. 1 Cor. xv. 4.) Now, according to the language of the Scriptures, if Christ were slain and rose the third day, the day in which he died is one, and the day on which he rose is another, and consequently there could be but one day and two nights between the day of his death and of his resurrection. As in the case of circumcision,
* "Ένεκα μεν ούν του δειχθήναι τον πον όντων των θανατωσάντων, και μαρθάνατον εν τω σώματι τριταίον ανέστησε τυρούντων περί του θανάτου του Κυριατούτο· ίνα δε μή επί πολύ διαμείναν και κού σώματος, αυτός ο τού θεού υιός εν φθαρέν τέλεoν ύστερον αναστήσας άπι- τριταίο διαστήματι το γενόμενον νεκρών στηθή, ώς ουκ αυτό άλλ' έτερον σώμα φέ- σώμα έδειξεν αθάνατον και άφθαρτον. pwv (ếpeale yap åv tig kaì di avròv S. Athanas. de Incarn. Verb. §. 26. χρόνον άπιστεϊν τη φαινομένων και επι + These several phrases are used; λανθάνεσθαι των γενομένων)· διά τούτο first, that Christ was in the heart of the ου πλείω των τριών ήνέσχετο, ουδε επί earth τρείς ημέρας, και τρεις νύκτας seπολύ τους ακούσαντας αυτού περί της condly, that he was to rise μετά τρείς αναστάσεως παρείλκυσεν· αλλ' έτι των ημέρας: thirdly, that he would rebuild ακοών αυτών έναυλον εχόντων τον λό- this temple έν τρισίν ημέραις, and, διά γον, και έτι των οφθαλμών αυτών εκδε- τριών ημερών" and lastly, that he rose χομένων, και της διανοίας αυτών ήρτη- τη τρίτη ημέρα, which is the most geμένης, και ζώντων επί γής έτι, και επί τό- neral and constant form of speech.
the male child eight days old was to be circumcised, in wbich the day on which the child was born was one, and the day on which he was circumcised was another, and so there were but six complete days between the day of his birth and the day of his circumcision. The day of Pentecost was the fiftieth day from the day of the wave-offering; but in the number of the fifty days was both the day of the wave-offering and of Pentecost included; as now among the Christians still it is, Whitsunday is now the day of Pentecost, and Easter-day the day of the resurrection, answering to that of the wave-offering; but both these must be reckoned to make the number of fifty days. Christ then, who rose upon the first day of the week (as is confessed by all), died upon the sixth day of the week before: for if he had died upon the fifth, he had risen not upon the third, but the fourth day, as Lazarus did. * Being then it is most certain that our Saviour rose on the third day;t being,
* Lazarus is said to be tetapraloc free from his disease: from whence four days dead, that is, counting the rapà piav and tpitairws is the same in day on which he died, and the day on the language of the physicians. This which his sister spake so to our Sa- is excellently expressed by Alexander viour at his sepulchre. And being be Aphrodisæus in that problematical was raised then, he rose τη τετάρτη question: Διά τί ο μεν τριταίος εκ θερημέρα, the fourth day. Our Saviour μού χυμού γιγνόμενος, και έχων μαστίrose τη τρίτη ημέρα, and therefore he ζουσαν και κατελαύνουσαν χολήν, παρά was τριταίος when he rose; and so the μίαν κινείται και δε αμφημερινός, έχων fathers call him, as you may observe πεδησαν το φλέγμα τη βαρύτητα και ψυin the words last cited out of Atha- χρότητι καθ' ημέραν" ο δε τεταρταίος διά nasius, p. 427.
dúo nuspūv uéowv, Probl. 10. 1. ii. The + As we read in Plutarch: Podeug Quotidian ague bath its accessions ο θεσπέσιος εξέθανε, και τριταίος ήδη περί καθ' ημέραν: the Tertian παρά μίαν Tåg rapàs aúrás ávýveyke. De sera Nu- (sub. ñuépav) after one day of perfect men. Vindict. c. 11. And of that spirit intermission; the Quartan dià dúo in a boy possessed, who hated all wo riuepūv péow. In the same manner men: Eπει η γυνή περίτην εύνηνύβρισε, he mentions the πεμπταίον, the εβδοτριταίου κειμένου γαμηθείσα ετέρω. Ρhi- μαϊoν, and ένναταιον: in all which this lostrat. de Vit. Apoll. Tyan. 1. iii
. e. 12. is constantly observable, that the days What this tpiratoç is, the Greek gram- of perfect intermission are fewer by marians will teach us. IIpòs MÈV TÒ TÓga two, than the number in the name of απαντά το τρία τυχόν ή τέσσαρα, προς δε the fever: for if the fever be a τριταίος, το πόστον το τρίτον ή τέταρτον επί τά- the day of intermission is but one, if ξεως, προς δε το ποσταϊoν το τριταίον ή τεταρταίος two, if πεμπταίος three, if τεταρταΐον· οίον προς το,ποσταίος απ' ου- εβδομαίος five,if ένναταίος seven. Thus ρανού πάρει και απαντήσει το τριταίος τυ- if our Saviour were one whole day in χον ή τεταρταίος, ήγουν τρίτην ημέραν the grave, and died the day before, exw å' od nápeipe teráprnv. Schol. and rose the day after, he did rise ipse Eurip. Hecuba, ver. 32. Totaiog then, raios: if be were two whole days in in respect of his coming to or from the grave, he rose tetapraios. So any place, is that person which is now Aristotle: Ald tí ó voktepovòs Bopéas the third day in or from that place; τριταίος λήγει; πότερον ότι από μικράς which cannot be better interpreted, as και ασθενούς αρχής; η τρίτη δε κρίσιμος. to the Greek language, than in the Problem. Sect. xxvi. prob. 15. Tý expression of a Tertian fever, called fpiry therefore and rptažoç is the so because the second accession is same. For from τρίτη comes τριταίος, upon the third day from the first, and and from terápty Tetapralos, in which the third from the second, &c. In juépe is always understood. Tetupwhich case there is but one day be- ταϊος, τετραήμερος. Suidas. Τριταίος tween, in which the patient is wholly then is tpiógepos' TUPETòs Touratos, did
according to the constant language of the Greeks and Hebrews, he cannot be said to rise to life on the third day, who died upon any other day, between which and the day of his resurrection there intervened any more than one day: therefore those other forms of speech which are far less frequent, must be so interpreted as to be reduced to this expression of the third day so often reiterated.
When therefore we read that after three days he would raise the temple of his body, we must not imagine that he would continue the space of three whole days dead, and then revive himself; but upon the third day he would rise again: as Joseph and his mother, “after three days found him in the temple,” (Luke ii. 46.) that is, the third day after he tarried behind in Jerusalem. And when we read, that he was three days and three nights in the heart of the earth, we must not look upon these nights as distinct from the days,* but as Moses spake, τρίτης” and τεταρταίος, διά τετάρτης. to speak of the critical days, gives Thas being Christ did certainly rise notice that by a day he understands Tŷ Tpiry quépą, he did rise according not that space of time, which is opto the Greeks tpiraios and according posed to the night, but that which to the same then he must also rise comprehendeth both the night and napà uiav, that is, one day only inter- the day: ‘Huépav dylovóti atap ÖRov TÒV ceding between the day of his death λόγον είρησομένοις, ουκ εκ της ημέρας and the day of his resurrection. αυτής μόνης συνεστωσαν, αλλά και της
* A night and a day in the Hebrew νυκτός χρόνου καθάπερ ούν, και τον language, not used to compositions, uñva sprárovra nuepwv elvai déyopev, is the same with the Greek νυχ- ου μόνον τούτον τον χρόνον, δν υπέρ της θήμερον or ήμερονύκτιον, SyTγής ο ήλιος φαίνεται, προσαγορεύοντες ΠΝ Ο) POT) “The evening and ημέραν, αλλά και τον της νυκτός αυτώ the morning were the first day.” For προστιθέντες, ούτως δε πως και τον ενιαυthough “ God called the light day, τον πέντε και εξήκοντα και τριακοσίων and the darkness he called night,” řpepūv čival papev. De Crisibus, I. ii. yet at the same time that day and c. 2. This is observed by St. Basil that night was called day. Gen. i. 6. to be also the custom of the ScripSo that the same word om in the tures, upon these words in Genesis : same verse signifeth both the natural Έγένετο ούν εσπέρα, εγένετο πρωί, το and artificial day. And the evening ήμερονύκτιον λέγει: ουκ έτι προσηγόρευand the morning are sometimes put σεν, ημέρα και νύξ, αλλά το επικρατούντι instead of the day; as Dan. viii. 14. mnv nãoаv mpoonyoplav årévelje. TavΠΙΝ 5η ΟΕΝ P5 5 την αν και εν πάση τη γραφή της συνή« Unto two thousand and three hun- θειαν εύροις, εν τή του χρόνου μετρήσει, dred days :" and verse 26, 12 yuépas ýpi@unuévas, ouxì dè kai vúktas 722712W which we translate, perd Tūv ruepāv. In Hexaem. Hom. 2.
the vision of the evening and the Now being generally in all compumorning,” but might be rather trans- tations of time, as St. Basil observeth, lated in reference to the former, the šv tỹ Toỗ xpóvov perphoét, a day was vision of the days, viz. the 2300 days taken for the whole space of day and before spoken of. Now though a day night; and as the evening and mornbe thus diversely taken, yet in the ing signifieth the same, that is a day: measuring of any time, which con- and 2300 evenings and mornings no taineth in it both days and nights, à more than so many days; and so day is always taken in that sense, in three days and three nights in the which it compreliendeth both day computation of time signifieth no and night. Thus Galen, who is very more than three days, (For "God punctual and exact in all his language, called the light day, and the darkness and full of expositions of the words he called night, and the evening and he uses, to prevent mistakes, being the morning were the first day, and