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“the evening and the morning," that is, the night and the day, “ were the first day;" (Gen. i. 5.) and as the saint spake unto Daniel, “ unto two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings,” (Dan. viii. 14.) intending thereby so many days: nor must we imagine that those three days were completed after our Saviour's death, and before he rose; hut that upon the first of those three days he died, and upon the last of those three days he rose. As we find that “eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child;" (Luke ii. 21.) and yet Christ was born upon the first, and circumcised upon the last of those eight days:* nor were there any more than six whole days between the day of his birth and the day of his circumcision; the one upon the 25th of December, the other upon the 1st of January. And as the Jews were wont to speak, the priests in their courses by the appointment of David were to minister before the Lord eight days, whereas every week a new course succeeded, and there were but seven days service for each course (the sabbath on which they began, and the sabbath on which they went off, being both reckoned in the eight days); so the day on which the Son of God was crucified, dead, and buried, and the day on which he revived and rose again, were included in the number of three days. And thus did our Saviour rise from the dead upon the third day properly, and was three days and three nights in the heart of the earth synecdochically. the evening and the morning were quomodo tres dies et tres noctes fuerit the second day,” &c.) being three in corde terræ. Quidam tapaokevijv; days in the language of the Scripture quando sole fugiente ab hora sexta are said to be fulfilled when the third usque ad horam nonam, nox succesday is come, though it be not wholly sit diei, in duos dies et poctes dividunt, passed over; it followeth, that to be et apponentes Sabbatum, tres dies three days dead, or to be three days et tres noctes æstimant supputandas: and three nights dead, in the Hebrew nos vero ovverdoxıūs totum intelligalanguage, cannot necessarily infer any mus a parte; ut ex eo quod šv namore, than that the person spoken of packevõ mortuus est, unam diem supdid continue dead till the third day. putemus et noctem, et Sabbati alle
* As we read of the circumcision of ram; tertiam vero noctem, quæ diei our Saviour, &ilnosnoav ņuépai óktú Dominicæ mancipatur, referamus ad Luke ji. 21. so of Zachary, ús én ☺- exordium diei alterius: nam et in σθησαν αι ημέραι της λειτουργίας αυτού• Genesi nox non praecedentis diei Luke i. 23. and though the number est, sed sequentis, id est; pripciÓctw were not expressed, yet it is to be pium futuri, non finis præteriti. To understood according to the language the same purpose St. Augustin : of the Scripture in other cases, and of 'Ipsuin autem triduum non totum Josephus particularly in this: Alétage et plenum fuisse Scriptura testis δε μίαν πατριάν διακονείσθαι τω θεώ επί est: sed primus dies a parte extrema quépaç örtù, ånd oaßßárov šti oáßßa- totus annumeratus est; dies vero tertov. Antiq. Jud. I. vii. c. 11.
tius a parte prima et ipse totus; me+ So St. Jerome on Jonas ii. 1.' Et diu autem inter eos, i. e, secundus erat Jonas in ventre piscis tribus diebus dies absolute totus viginti quatuor et tribus noctibus. Hujus loci my- boris suis, duodecim nocturnis, et sterium in Evangelio Dominus expo- duodecim diurnis. Crucifixus, est nit; et superfluum est, vel idipsum, vel enim primo Judæorum vocibus hora, aliud dicerc quam exposuit ipse qui tertia; cum esset dies sexta Sabbati. passus est.
Hoc solum quærimus, Deindc, in ipsa cruce suspensus est
This is sufficient for the clearing the precise distance of Christ's resurrection from his crucifixion, expressed in the determinate number of three days: the next consideration is, what day of the week that third day was, on which Christ did actually rise, and what belongeth to that day in relation to his resurrection. Two characters there are which will evidently prove the particularity of this third day; the first is the description of that day in respect of which this is called the third, after the manner already delivered and confirmed; the second is the evangelist's expression of the time on which Christ rose.
The character of the day in which our Saviour died is undeniable, for it is often expressly called the preparation ;* as. hora sexta, et spiritum reddidit liora κτα τη μετ' αυτήν ημέρα λογίζονται καθ' nona. Sepultus est autem cum jam ήν ουδενί θέμις έστιν ενεργών έχειν την sero factam esset: sic sese habent χείρα, αλλά τιμώντες διαφερόντως αυτήν verba evangelii, quod intelligitur in άγουσιν απραξίαν. This παρασκευή of fine diei. Unde libet ergo incipias, the Hebrews was answerable to the etiamsi alia ratio reddi potest, quo- cena pura of the Gentiles, as the old modo non sit contra evangelium Jo- glossary,Cena pura, a pogáßbatov: and hannis, ut hora tertia ligno suspensus in Gloss. Latino-Arabico, Parasccue intelligatur; totum diem primum non coena pura, id est, præparatio quæ fit comprehendis. Ergo a parte extrema pro sabbato.' From whence some of totus computabitur, sicut tertius a The fathers so interpret the eyes of parte prima. Nox enim usque ad the Jewish sabbaths, as Tertullian : dilaculum, quo Domini resurrectio de- 'Dies observatis et menses et temclarata est, ad tertium diem pertinet.' pora et annos et sabbata, ut opinor, De Trinit. 1. iv. c. 6. And after him et conas puras et jejunia et dies Leo the Great: “Ne turbatos Disci- magnos.' Adv. Marcion. I. v. c. 4. pulorum animos longa moestitudo • Acceleratam vult intelligi sepultucruciaret, denunciatam tridui moram ram, ne advesperasceret; quando jam tam mira celeritate breviavit, ut dum propter parasceuen, quam coenam puad integrum secundum diem pars ram Judæi Latine usitatius apud nos primi novissima et pars tertii prima vocant, facere tale quid not licebat.' concurrit, et aliquantum temporis S. August. Tract. 120. in Ioan. §. 5. spatio decideret, et nibil dierum nu- And the ancient translators of the mero deperiret.' De, Resur. Domini, Greek fathers did use the Latin cæna Serm. 1. c. 2. vid. Isidor., Pelus. I.i. pura for the Greek zapaokevý. As Epist. 114.
the interpreter of St. Chrysostom, Παρασκευή, 'Parasceue interpre- Serm. in Natalem Ioan. Bapt. 'Qua tatur præparatio,' saith St. Augustin; enim die conceptus est Dominus, eade consen. Evang. I. iii. Ş. 50. and in dem die et passus est: eadem ipsa die the Greek language it signifieth gene- coena pura fuit, in qua et luna quarta rally any preparation of wbat nature decima occurrit.' So likewise the soever: but in this case it signifieth old interpreter of Irenæus: Pararather the time in which preparation sceue, quæ dicitur coena para, id est, was made, as Luke xxiii. 54. Kai sexta feria, quam et Dominus ostennuépa ñv taparkevnand that prepa- dit passus in ea.' Iren. adv. Hæres. ration among the Jews for the sab- l. v. c. 23. • Mosen in sexta dic dixisbath, as St. Mark xv. 42. 'Etei hv se, quæ est coena pura.'l. i. c. 14. 5. 6. παρασκευή, δ' έστι προσάββατον" and in As therefore the caena pura among the the edict of Augustus Cæsar: 'Ey- Gentiles was that time in which they γύας τε μη ομολογείν εν σάββασιν ή prepared and sanctited themselves rõ mpò taúrns tapaokevõ årò üpas éve for their sacred solemnities, so the várns. Joseph. Jud. Ant. l. xvi. c. 10. Jews did make use of that word to which is well expressed by Synesius, signify their sanctification, and of the εφ. 4. Ημέρα μεν ούν ήν, ήντινα άγου- Greek παρασκευή το testify the prepaσιν οι Ιουδαίοι παρασκευήν, την δε νύ- ration of all things used on their holy
we read, they therefore laid Jesus in the garden, “because of the Jews preparation-day, for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.” (John xix. 42.) And “the next day that followed the preparation, the chief priests and pharisees asked a guard. (Matt. xxvii. 62.) Now this day of preparation was the day immediately before the sabbath or some other great feast of the Jews called by them the eve of the sabbath or the feast; and therefore called the preparation, because on that day they did prepare whatsoever was necessary for the celebration of the following festival, according to that command in the case of manna, “It shall come to pass that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in, and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.” (Exod. xvi.5.) This preparation being used both before the sabbath and other festivals, at this time it had both relations: for, first, it was the preparation to a sabbath, as appeareth by those words of St. Mark, « Now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath ; (xv. 42.) and those of St. Luke, “That day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on." (xxiii. 54.) Secondly, It was also the eve of a festival, even of the great day of the paschal solemnity, as appeareth by St. John, who saith, when Pilate sat down in the judgment-seat, “it was the preparation of the Passover.” (xix. 14.) And that the great paschal festivity did then fall upon the sabbath, so that the same day was then the preparation or eve of both, appeareth yet farther by the same evangelist, saying, “The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath-day, for that sabbath was a high day;" (Ibid. 31.) that is, not only an ordinary or weekly sabbath, but also a great festival, even a paschal sabbath. Now being the sabbath of the Jews was constant and fixed to the seventh day of the week, it followeth that the preparation or eve thereof must necessarily be the sixth day of days, upon the eve thereof, or day be the second, sabr the third, sny278 fore.
, fifth, est; sed isto verbo Græco libentius the eve, Xnaw the sabbath. Thus ia utuntur Judæi in hujusmodi observa- Hebrew xndiny, in Greek mapationibus, etiam qui magis Latine quam rkeun, in Latin coena pura, were used Græce loquuntur,' saith St. Augustin, by the Jews for the same day, the Tract. 117. in Ioan. §. 2. So that the Friday or sixth of the week; but not same father testifieth that the Jews, for that alone, but for the eve of any speaking Latin in his time, did some- great festival which answered to a times use parasceue, sometimes cæna sabbath ; so that they bad their jy pura, eve . , Otherwise in their own language they παρασκευή του σαββάτου, and παραcalled it in or Xnnny; by which reve) tog Háoyar And when a great generally they understood the sixth festival fell upon the sabbath, then as day of the week, the day before the sabe the festivities were both one day, so bath. For so they reckoned the days the eve to both was the same Friday. of the week in Bereshith Rabba, D And such was the day of preparation XnJw) the first of the week, 'n on which our Saviour was crucified.
the week; which, from the day and the infinite benefit accruing to us by the passion upon that day, we call Good Friday. And from that day being the sixth of one, the third must consequently be the eighth, or the first of the next week.*
The next character of this third day is the expression of the time of the resurrection in the evangelists. “When the sabbath was past," saith St. Mark, which was the day after the preparation on which he was buried, “Very early in the morning the first day of the week.” (xvi. 1, 2.) “In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn towards the first day of the week,” saith St. Matthew. (xxviii. 1.) “ Upon the first day of the week early in the morning," saith St. Luke. (xxiv. 1.) “The first day of the week early, when it was yet dark,” saith St. John. (xx. 1.) By all which indications it appeareth that the body of Christ being laid in the sepulchre on the day of the preparation, which was the eve of the sabbath, and continuing there the whole sabbath following, which was the conclusion of that week, and farther resting there still and remaining dead the night which followed. that sabbath, but belonged to the first day of the next week, about the end of that night early in the morning, was revived by the accession and union of his soul, and rose again out of the sepulchre.
Whereby it came to pass, that the obligation of the day, which was then the sabbath, died and was buried with him, but in a manner by a diurnal transmutation revived again at his resurrection. Well might that day, which carried with it. a remembrance of that great deliverance from the Egyptian servitude, resign all the sanctity or solemnity due unto it, when that morning once appeared, upon which a far greater redemption was confirmed. One day of seven was set apart by God
* Οράτε, πώς λέγει, ου τα νύν σάβ • Cuin in septimo die Sabbati nomen βατα έμοί δεκτά, αλλά & πεποίηκα, έν sit et bservantia constitute; tamen ή καταπαύσας τα πάντα αρχήν ημέρας nos in octava die, quae et ipsa prima ογδόης ποιήσω. δ' έστιν άλλου κόσμου est, perfecti Sabbati festivitate Izetaảoxývo òid kai äyouev tiiv ýpépav tnv mur.' S. Hilar. Com. in Psal. Prol. syồónv čiç xúdpocúinv. év ý kai ó 'In- §. 12. 'Hæc octava sententia, quæ σούς ανέστη εκ νεκρών, και φανερωθείς ad caput redit perfectumque homiåvéßn is tous, oúpavoús. Barnabæ nem declarat, significatur fortasse et Epist. c. 15. 'Huév oủv TūV Tvevpa- circumcisione octava die in veteri τικών ανάπαυσις εν κυριακη εν όγδοάδει Testamento, et Domini resurrectione ij kuplarr) óvouáetai. Theodorus, Epist. post Sabbatum, quod est utique oc1. Η δε εντολή της περιτομής κελεύουσα tavus idemque primus dies. S. Aurõ óyoóy nuépą tk TavTÒs trepitépvelv tà gust. de Serm. Dom. in monte, l. 1. §. γεννώμενα, τύπος ήν της αληθινής πε- 12. Και το έθος και το πρέπον ημάς ριτομής, ήν περιετμήθημεν από της πλά- απαιτεί πάσαν Κυριακήν τιμών και εν νης και πονηρίας, διά του από νεκρών ταύτη πανηγυρίζειν, επειδήπερ εν ταύτη αναστάντος εν μιά των σαββάτων ημέρα ο Κύριος ημών Ιησούς Χριστός την εκ Ιησού Χριστού του Κυριού ημών. Μία νεκρών ανάστασιν ημίν έπρυτάνευσε διο, γάρ τών σαββάτων πρώτη μένουσα των και εν ταις ιεραϊς γραφείς και πρώτη πασών ημερών κατά τον αριθμόν πάλιν κέκληται, ως αρχή ζωής ημών υπάρχουτων πασών ημερών της κυκλοφορίας, όγ- σα, και ογδόη, άτε υπερβεβηκυία τον δόη καλείται, και πρώτη ούσα μένει. Jus- των Ιουδαίων σαββατισμόν. Τheophilus tin, Mart. Dial. cum Tryphone, p. 260. Alexand. Edict.
in imitation of his rest upon the creation of the world, and that seventh day, which was sanctified to the Jews, was reckoned in relation to their deliverance from Egypt. At the second delivery of the Law we find this particular cause assigned, "Remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord, thy God brought thee out thence, through a mighty hand and by a stretched-out arm, therefore the Lord thy God commandeth thee to keep the sabbath-day.”(Deut. v. 15.) Now this could not be any special reason why the Jews. should observe a seventh day; first, Because in reference to their redemption, the number of seven had no more relation than any other number; secondly, Because the reason of a seventh day was before rendered in the body of the commandment itself. There was therefore a double reason rendered by God why the Jews should keep that sabbath which they did; one special, as to a seventh day, to shew they worshipped that God, who was the Creator of the World; the other individual, as to that seventh day, to signify their deliverance from the Egyptian bondage, from which that seventh day was dated.
Being then upon the resurrection of our Saviour a greater deliverance and far more plenteous redemption was wrought than that of Egypt, and therefore a greater observance was due unto it than to that, the individual determination of the day did pass upon a stronger reason to another day, always to be repeated by a seventh return upon the reference to the creation. As there was a change in the year at the coming out of Egypt, by the command of God; “ This month," the month of Abib, “shall be unto you the beginning of months, it shall be the first month of the year to you;” (Exod. xii. 2.) so at this time of a more eminent deliverance a change was wrought in the hebdomadal or weekly account, and the first day is made the seventh, or the seventh after that first is sanctified. The first day, because on that Christ rose from the dead; and the seventh day from that first for ever, because he who rose upon that day, was the same God who created the world and rested on the seventh day: "for by him all things were created that are in heaven and that are in the earth, all things were created by him and for him." (Col. i. 16.)
This day did the apostles from the beginning most religiously observe, by their meeting together for boly purposes, and to perform religious duties. The first observation was performed providentially, rather by the design of God than any such inclination or intention of their own: for “ the same day," saith the evangelist, that is the day on which Christ rose from the dead, “at evening, being the first day of the week, the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews.” (John xx. 19.) The second observation was performed voluntarily, " for after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them.” (John xx. 26.) The first day of the week.