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all the nations of the earth have made it; being God hath not only written himself in the lively characters of his creatures, but hath also made frequent patefactions of his Deity by most infallible predictions and supernatural operations: therefore I fully assent unto, freely acknowledge, and clearly profess, this truth, that there is a God.
Again, being a prime and independent Being supposeth all other to depend, and consequently no other to be God; being the entire fountain of all perfections is incapable of a double head, and the most perfect government of the Universe speaks the supreme dominion of one absolute Lord; hence do I acknowledge that God to be but one, and in this unity, or rather singularity of the Godhead, excluding all actual or possible multiplication of a Deity, I BELIEVE IN GOD.
I BELIEVE IN God the Father. After the confession of a Deity, and assertion of the divine unity, the next consideration is concerning God's paternity; for that “one God is Father of all," (Eph. iv. 6.) and “to us there is but one God, the Father.” (1 Cor. viii. 6.)
Now, although the Christian notion of the Divine paternity be some way peculiar to the evangelical patefaction; yet* wheresoever God hath been acknowledged, he hath been understood and worshipped as a Father: the very heathent poets so describe their gods, and their vulgar names did carry fathert in them, as the most popular and universal notion.
This name of Father is a relative; and the proper foundation of paternity, as of a relation, is generation. As therefore the phrase of generating is diversely attributed unto several acts of the same nature with generation properly taken, or by consequence attending on it; so the title of Father is given unto divers persons or things, and for several reasons unto the same. God." These are the generations of the heavens and the earth, when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and heavens,” (Gen. ii. 4.) saith
* Omnem Deum qui ab homine pene omnibus Diis nomen Paternum colitur, necesse est inter solennes additur, ut fiant venerabiliores :' And ritus et precationes Patrem nuncu before him Lucilius: pari ; non tantum honoris gratia, sed “Ut nemo sit nostrum, quin pater et rationis, et quod antiquior est ho : optimu' Divum, mine, et quod vitam, salutem, victum Ut Neptunu' Pater, Liber, Saturnu' præstat, ut pater. “ Itaque et Jupiter Pater, Mars, a precantibus Pater vocatur, et Sa- Janu', Quirinu' Pater nomen dicatur, turnus, et Janus, et Liber, et cæteri ad unum. Lactan. Ib. deinceps.' Lactan. de ver: Sap. I. iv. 1 As Jupiter, which is Jovis Pater, C. 3.
or Zevrátwp, otberwise Diespiter, or t. That so frequent in Homer, Aütátwp : and Marspiter, of whom πατήρ ανδρών τε θεών τε•. eundemque Servius, apud Pontifices Marspiter appellans dicit Ennius: Divumque dicitur,' Æneid. 1. iii. v. 35. So Sehominumqae pater rex.' Var. de mipater for Semo, and Eapdomátwp L.L. I. iv. p. 18. ed. 1581, As Ser for Sardus, the proper Deity of Sarvius observes of Virgil: "A poeta dinia. Ptolem.
Moses. So that the creation or production of any thing by which it is, and before was not, is a kind of generation, and consequently the creator or producer of it a kind of Father. “Hath the rain a Father? Or who hath begotten the drops of dew?" (Job xxxviii. 28.) by which words Job signifies, that as there is no other causé assignable of the rain but God, so inay he as the cause be called the Father of it, though not in the most proper sense, * as he is the Father of his Son: and so the tpbilosophers of old, who thought that God did make the world, called him expressly, as the Maker, so the Father of it. And thus “ to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things;” (1 Cor. viii. 6.) to which the words following in the CREED may seem to have relation, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth. But in this mass of creatures and body of the Universe, some works of the creation more properly call him Father, as being more rightly sons: such are all the rational and intellectual offspring of the Deity. Of merely natural beings and irrational agents he is | the creator; of rational, as so, the Father also: they are his creatures, these his sons. Hence he is styled the" Father of spirits,” (Heb. xii.9.) and the blessed angels, when he laid the foundations of the earth, his sons;
" When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy: (Job xxxviii. 7.) hence man, whom he created after his own image, is called his “offspring,” (Acts xvii. 28.) and Adam, the immediate work of his hands, “the son of God: ” (Luke iii. 38.) hence may we all cry out with the Israelites taught by the prophet so to speak, "Have we not all one Father? Hath not one God created us?” (Malac. ii. 10.) Thus the first and most universal notion of God's. paternity in a borrowed or metaphorical sepse is founded rather upon creation than procreation.
Unto this act of creation is, annexed that of conservation, by which God doth uphold and preserve in being that which
'Erépws yáp tis veroŨ marépa Ocòv pater, si Chrysippo credimus, is dicitur ákoúet; cai érépws vioū, Severus, Cat. qui eum consevit, quanquam e semine Patr. in Job. c. 26. p. 551.
deinde fruges nascantur: as the Latin ti Plutarch of Plato, calling God, translation most absurdly. Ibid. For narépa Távtwy kai mountiv, says: rõ there is neither corn, nor field, nor μεταφορά χρώμενος, ώσπερ είωθε, τον any seed belonging to them, in the αίτιον πατέρα του κόσμου κέκληκε. words of Plutarcb. But xóprov (not Platon. Quæst. ii. And Alcimus: xwpiov) is the secunda, the coat (or πατήρ δε εστι το αίτιος είναι πάντων. rather coats in the acceptation of I So Plutarch answers,
ques Chrysippus, and the language of those tinu, why, Plato terms God the times) in which the foetus is involved Maker and Father of all, things: in the mother's womb. Though "Η των μεν θεών των γεννητών και των therefore both the secunda. and the ανθρώπων πατήρ έστι ποιητής δε των fetus be made of the seed of the male álóywy kai álóxwv. Father of gods in the philosophy, of Chrysippus, yet and men, Maker of all things inani. he is not called the father of the mate and irrational. Oủ yèo xoplov, after-birth, but of the child; the one Anoi XpúOTTOS, marépa kadečodai töv being endued with life and reason, παρασχόντα το σπέρμα, καίπερ εκ τού and the other not. onéquatos yeyovóros. Non enim agri,
at first he made, and to which he gave its being. As therefore it is the duty of the parent to educate and preserve the child as that which had its being from him; so this paternal education doth give the name of * Father unto man, and conservation gives the same to God.
Again, redemption from a state of misery, by which a people hath become worse than nothing, unto a happy condition, is a kind of generation, which joined with love, care, and indulgence in the Redeemer, is sufficient to found a new paternity, and give him another title of a Father. Well might Moses tell the people of Israel, now brought out of the land of Egypt from their brick and straw, unto their quails and manna, unto their milk and honey, “Is not he thy Father that hath bought thee ? hath he not made thee, and established thee?” (Deut. Xxxii. 6.) Well might God speak unto the same people as to “ his son, even his first-born,” (Exod. iv. 22.) “ Thus saith the Lord thy Redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, Hearken unto me, 0 house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, which are by me from the belly, which are carried from the womb." (Isa. xliv. 24. xlvi. 3.) And just is the acknowledgment made by that people instructed by the prophet, “ Doubtless thou art our Father, though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not; thou, O Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer, from everlasting is thy name.” (Isa. lxiii. 16.) And thus another kind of paternal relation of God unto the sons of men is founded on a restitution or temporal redemption.
Besides, if to be born causeth relation to a father, then to be born again maketh an addition of another: and if to generate foundeth, then to regenerate addeth a paternity. Now though we cannot “ enter the second time into our mother's womb,” nor pass through the same door into the scene of life again; yet we believe and are persuaded that “ except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.” (John iii. 4.3.) A double birth there is, and the world t consists of two, the first and the second man. And though the incorruptible seed be the word of God, and the dispensers of it in some sense may say, as St. Paul spake unto the Corinthians, “I have begotten you through the Gospel:" (1 Cor. iv. 15.) yet he is the true Father, whose word it is, and that is God, even " the Father of lights, who of his own will begat us with the word of truth.” (James i. 17, 18.) Thus “ whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ, is born of God;": (1 John. v. 1.) which regeneration is as it were a second creation: “ for we are God's workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works.” (Ephes. ii. 10.) And he alone who did create us out
• So Eustathius observes out of + • Totum hominum genus quoan ingenious etymologist: llarg dammodo sunt homines duo, primus Θεός μεν, ώς το πάν τηρών άνθρωπος et secundus.' Prosp. lib. Sententiar. δε, ως τους παίδας τηρών. Μ.. θ. ex August. sent. 299..
of nothing, can beget us again, and make us of the new creation. When Rachel called to Jacob,“ Give me children, or else I die;" he answered her sufficiently with this question, “ Am I in God's stead?” (Gen. xxx. 1, 2.): And if he only openeth the womb, who else can make the soul * to bear? Hence hath he the name of Father, and they of sons, who are born of him; and so from that internal act of spiritual regeneration another title of paternity redoundeth unto the Divinity.
Nor is this the only second birth or sole regeneration in a Christian sense; the soul, which after its natural being requires a birth into the life of grace, is also after that born again into a life of glory. Our Saviour puts us in mind of “the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of bis glory.” (Matt. xix. 28.) The resurrection of our bodies is a kind of coming out of the womb of the earth, and entering upon immortality, a nativity into another life. For “ they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, are the sons of God, being the sons of the resurrection,” (Luke xx. 35, 36.) and then as sons, “ they become heirs, coheirs with Christ.” (Rom. viii. 17:) “receiving the promise and reward of eternal inheritance." (Heb. ix. 15. Col. iii. 24.) "Beloved, now are we the sons of God," saith St. John, even in this life by regeneration, " and it doth not yet appear, or, it hath not been yet made manifest, what we shall be; but we know, that if he appear, we shall be like him:” (1 John iii. 2.) the manifestation of the Father being a sufficient declaration of the condition of the sons, when the sonship itself consisteth in a similitude of the Father. And “ blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, whichi according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead; to an inheritance incorruptible and: undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for us.” (1 Pet. i. 3, 4.) Why may not then a second kind of regeneration be thought a fit addition of this paternal relation?
Neither is there only a natural, but also a voluntary and civil foundation of paternity; for the laws have found a way by which a man may become a father without procreation : and this imitation of nature f is called adoption, taken in the general signification. Although, therefore, many ways God be a Father; yet, lest any way might seem to exclude us from being his sons, he hath made us so also by adoption. Others
Ου γαρ αντί θεού εγώ είμι, του pon generavit.' Caii Inst, 1. tit. 5, μόνου δυναμένου τας ψυχών μήτρας' 5. 1. Τι έστιν υιοθεσία και νομίμη πράξις άνοιγνύναι, και σπείρειν εν αυταίς άρε- μιμουμένη την φύσιν προς παίδων πατας, και ποιείν εγκύμονας και τίκτουσας ραμυθίαν έπινενόημένη. Τheoph. Inst, tà calá. Philo de Alleg. l. iii. p. 1. t. 11. 122. ed. Mang. 1742.!
ΚΑΙ Η υιοθεσία Ρωμαϊκή φωνή λέγεται η + Και ούπω εφανερώθη.
αδοπτίων: αύτη, ούσα γενικόν όνομα εις I 'Adoptio naturæ similitudo est, δύω διαιρείται, εις άδρογάτίονα, και την ut aliquis filium habere possit, quem öncúvojov å daariova: Theoph. ibid,
are wont to fly to this, as to a comfort of their solitary.condition, when either nature had denied them, or death bereft them of their offspring.* Whereas God doth it not for his own, but for our sakes; nor is the advantage his, but ours. “Bebold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God;" (1 John iii, 1.) that we, the sons of disobedient and condemned Adam by natural generation, should be translated into the glorious liberty of the sons of God by adoption; that we, who were aliens, strangers, and enemies, should be assumed “ unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom all the family+ of heaven and earth is named,” (Eph. iii. 14, 15.) and be made partakers of “the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints.” (Eph. i. 18.) For as in the legal adoption, the father hath as full and absolute power over his adopted son as over his own issue ;I so in the spiritual, the adopted sons have a clear and undoubted right of inheritance. He, then, who hath“ predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself,” (Eph. i. 5.) hath thereby another kind of paternal relation, and so we receive the “ Spirit of adoption, whereby we'cry, Abba, Father.” (Rom. viii. 15.)
The necessity of this faith in God as our Father appeareth, first, in that it is the ground of all our filial fear, honour, and obedience due unto him upon this relation. “Honour thy father is the first commandment with promise, (Eph. vi. 2.) written in tables of stone with the finger of God; and, " children obey your parents in the Lord,” is an eyangelical precept, but founded upon principles of reason and justice; “ for this is right,” saith St. Paul. (Ephes. vi. 1.) And if there be such a rational and legal obligation of honour and obedience to the fathers of our flesh, how much more must we think ourselves obliged to him whom we believe to be our heavenly and everlasting Father?..“A'son honoureth his father, and a servant bis master. If then I be a father, where is my honour? and if I be a master, where is my fear?
**Spadones autem qui generare και μη εύπορον λαβείν παρά της φύσεως. . non possint, adoptare possunt; et, Leonis Novel. 27. licet filios generare non possint, quos t! In alienam familiam transitus,' adoptavcrunt filios habere possunt.' is the description in Agellius, I. 5. 19. Caii Inst. 1. tit. 5. §. 3. Hi qui ge ‘Cum in alienam familiam inque libenerare non possunt, velut spado, rorum locum extranei sumuntur, aut utroque modo possunt adoptare. - per prætorem fit, aut per populum: Idem juris est in coelibe.'. Ulp. tit. 9. quod per prætorem fit, adoptio dici8. 5. Τυχόν ουκ έχoι τις παϊδας διά το tur; quod per populum,arrogatio.'Ib. μη ελθείν επί γάμων, ή ελθείν μεν, μη As appears out of the form of παιδοποιήσαι δε, ή παιδοποιήσαι μεν, Rogation yet extant in this manner : αποβάλλεσθαι δε τούτους, το έκ της φύ Velitis, jubeatis, Quirites, uti Luσεως ελάττωμα ή το συμβάν δυστύχημα cius Valerius Lucio Titio, tam jure βουλόμενος επικουφίσαι, έλαβεν εις υιο legeque filius sibi siet, quam si ex eo Degiav flyá. Theoph. Inst. i. tit. 11. patre matreque familias ejus natus Τοίς άτυχούσιν άπαιδίαν λύειν βουλό esset, utique ei vitæ necisque in eo μενος το δυστύχημα νόμος υιοθετείσθαι potestas siet, uti patri endo filio est?' προστάσσει, και γνώμη εκείνος κτάσθαι, Ibid.