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both in the same degree, as the one, so the other; but only with this difference, the Father giveth it, and the Son receiveth it.* From whence he professeth of himself, “ that the living Father sent him, and that he liveth by the Father.” (John vi. 57.)+

We must not therefore so far endeavour to involve our-' selves in the darkness of this mystery, as to deny that glory which is clearly due unto the Father; whose pre-eminence undeniably consisteth in this, that he is God not of any other, but of bimself, and that there is no other person who is God, but is God of him. It is no diminution to the Son, to say, he is from another, for his very name imports as much; but it were a diminution to the Father to speak so of him: and there must be some pre-eminence, where there is place for derogation. What the Father is, I he is from none; what the


commutabilis est vita Filii, sicut et Patris, et tamen de Patre est: et inseparabilis est operatio Patris et Filii; sed tamen ita operari Filio de illo est de quo

ipse est, id est, de Patre.' Id. de Trin. I. ii. c. 1.

*Sicut habet, dedit; qualem habet, talem dedit; quantam habet, tantam dedit.' Id. contra Maxim. I. iii. c. 14. 'Ergo quod dicitur dedit Filio, tale est ac si diceretur, genuit Filium; generando enim dedit. Quomodo enim dedit ut esset, sic dedit ut vita esset, et sic dedit ut in semetipso vita esset.' Id. Tract. 22. in Ioan. 9. 10. Tali confessione oriigois suæ indiscretæ naturæ perfecta nativitas est. Quod enim in utroque vita est, id in utroque significatur essentia; et vita quæ generatur ex vita, id est, essentia quæ de essentia nascitur, dum non dissimilis nascitur, scilicet, quia vita ex vita est, tenet in se indissimilem naturam originis suæ, quia et natæ et gignentis essentiæ, id est, vitæ quæ habetur et data est, similitudo non discrepet.' S. Hilar. de Synod. advers. Arianos, c. 16.

• Quia ergo apparet vita Patris hoc esse quod ipse est; sicut habet vitam in se, sic dedit; sic dedit Filio habere vitam, id est, sic est Esse Filii, sicut Esse Patris. Vigil. Taps. Disput. in Biblioth. Patr. Lat. t. v. par. iii. p. 699. “In vita naturæ et essentiæ significatio est, quæ sicut habetur, ita data esse docetur ad habendum. S. Hilar. de Synod. c. 19.

+‘Propter Patrem vivit Filius, quod ex Patre Filius est: propter Patrem, quod eructatum est Verbum ex Patris corde, quod a Patre processit, quod ex paterno generatus est utero, quod

funs Pater Filii est, quod radix Pater Filii est.' S. Ambros. de Fide, I. iv. c. 5. fin.

I Pater de nullo Patre Filius de Deo Patre: Pater quod est, a nullo est; quod autem Pater est, propter Filium est. Filius vero et quod Filius est, propter Patrem est, et quod est, a Patre est.' S. August. Tract. 19. in Ioan. §. 13. 'Filium dicimus Deum de Deo; Patrem autem Deum tantum, non de Deo. Unde manifestum est, quod Filius babeat alium de quo sit, et cui Filius est; Pater autem non Filium de quo sit habeat, sed cui Pater sit. Omnis enim filius de patre est quod est, et patri filius est: nullus autem pater de filio est quod est.' Id. de Trin. l. ij. c. 1. Filius non hoc tantum habet nascendo, ut Filius sit, sed omnino ut sit.' Ibid. 1. v. c. 15. Filius non tantum ut sit Filius quod relative dicitur, sed omnino ut sit, ipsam substantiam nascendo habet. Ibid. c. 15. “Pater non habet Patrem de quo sit;

Filius antem de Patre est ut sit, atque ut illi coæternus sit.' Ibid. I. vi. c. 10. 'Ab ipso, inquit, sum ; quia Filius de Patre, et quicquid est filius, de illo est cujus est filius. IdeoDominum Jesum dicimus Deum de Deo, Patrem non dicimus Deum de Deo, sed tantum Deum; et dicimus Dominum Jesum lumen-de lumine, Patrem non dicimus lumen de lumine, sed tantum lumen. Ad hoc ergo pertinetquod dixit, Ab ipso sum. Id. Tract. 31. in Ioan. §. 4. Pater non est si non habeat Filium, et Filius non est si non babeat Patrem: sed tamen Filius Deus de Pa. tre, Pater autem Deus, sed non de Fi

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Son is, he is from him: what the first is, he giveth; what the second is, he receiveth. The first is a Father indeed by reason of his Son, but he is not God by reason of him; whereas the Son is not so only in regard of the Father, but also God by reason of the same.

Upon this pre-eminence (as I conceive) may safely be grounded the congruity of the divine mission, We often read that Christ was sent, from whence he bears the name of an " Apostle” (Heb. iii. 1.) himself, as well as those whom he therefore named so, because as the “ Father sent him, so sent he them:” (John xx. 21.) the Holy Ghost is also said to be sent, sometimes by the Father, sometimes by the Son : but we never read that the Father was sent at all,* there being an authority in that name which seems inconsistent with this mission. In the parable," a certain householder which planted a vineyard, first sent his servants to the husbandmen, and again other servants, but last of all he sent unto them his son:” (Matt. xxi. 33, &c.) it had been inconsistent even with the literal sense of an historical parable, as not at all consonant to the rational customs of men, to have said, that last of all the son sent his father to them. So God, placing man in the vineyard of his Church, first sent his servants the prophets, by whom he “spake at sundry times and in divers manners, but in the last days he sent his Son:" (Heb. i. 1, 2.) and it were as incongruous I and inconsistent with the divine generation, that the Son should send the Father into the world. “As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father,” (John vi. 57.) saith our Saviour; intimating, that by whom he lived, by him he was sent, and therefore sent by bim, because he lived by him, laying his generation as the proper ground of his mission. Thus he which begetteth sendeth, and he which is begotten is sent. « For I am from lio: Pater Filii, non Deus de Filio;ille genitus sit, vel a quo procedat. Et autein Filius Patris, et Deus de Patre.' ideo non propter naturæ diversitatem, Id. Tract. 29. in Ioan. 9.5. Hoc ta sed propter ipsam auctoritatem, solus men inter Patrem et Filium interest, Pater non dicitur missus: non enim quia Pater a nullo hoc accepit, Filius splendor aut fervor ignem, sed ignis autem per generationem 'omnia Pa mittit sive splendorem sive fervorem.' tris accepit.'S. Ambros. in Epist. ad. S. August. Serm. contra Arian. c. 4. Eph. c. 2. • Est ergo Deus Pater om • Qui mittit, potestatem suam in eo nium, institutor, et creator, solus ori quod mittit, ostendit.' S. Hilar, de ginem nesciens. Novat. de Trinit. c. Trin. I. viii. c. 19. 31. whereas he speaks after of the + 'Si voluisset Deus Pater


subSon: 'Est ergo Deus, sed in hoc ipsum jectam creaturam visibiliter apparere, genitus, ut esset Deus. “Pater est absurdissime tamen auta Filio, quem Deus de quo Filius est Deus, de quo genuit, aut a Spiritu Sancto, qui de autem Pater nullus est Deus.' S. Au illo procedit, missus diceretur.' S. gust. Epist. 66. al. 170.

August. de Trin. lib. iv. cap. ult. • Pater enim solus nusquam le § ‘Filius est igitur a Patre missus, gitur missus.' S. August. 1. ii. de non Pater a Filio; quia Filius est a Trin, c. 5.

Patre natus, non Pater a Filio.' Ful'Solus Pater non legitur missus, gent. fragm. I. viii, contra Fabianum, quia solus non habet auctorem a quo in Collect. Theodul. de S. S. Quis

him, and he hath sent me," (John vii. 29.) saith the Son : from whom I received my essence by communication, from him also received I this commission. As therefore it is more worthy to give than to receive, to send than to be sent; so in respect of the Sonship there is some priority in the divine paternity : from whence divers of the ancients* read that place of St. John with this addition, “the Father (which sent me) is greater than I.” (John xiv. 28.) He then is that God who “sent forth bis Son, made of a woman, that God who hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father.” (Gal. iv. 4. 6.) So that the authority of sending is in the Father: which therefore ought to be acknowledged, because upon this mission is founded the highest testimony of his love to man; for “herein is love (saith St. John), not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.” (1 John iv. 10.)

Again, the dignity of the Father will farther yet appear from the order of the persons in the blessed Trinity, of which he is undoubtedly the first. For although in some passages of the apostolical discourses the Son may first be named (as in that of St. Paul, “ the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be with you all;" (2 Cor. xiii. 14.) the latter part of which is nothing but an addition unto his constant benediction); and in others the Holy Ghost precedes the Son (as “Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit; and there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord; and there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all:" 1 Cor. xii. 4–6.) yet where the three Persons are barely enumerated, and delivered unto us as the rule of faith,t there that order is observed which is proper to them; witness the form of baptism, In the name of the Faautem Christianus ignorat quod Pa λίου κακώς ερμηνεύοντες, ότι ο αποστείter miserit, missusque sit Filius? Non λας με πατήρ μείζων μου έστι, saith enim genitorem ab eo quem genuit, Epiphanius of the Arians; and ansed genitum a genitore mitti oporte swering, grants in these words which bat.' S. August. contra Maximin. lib. follow : και πρώτον μεν ο αποστείλας iii. c. 14. Ubi audis, Ipse me misit, με πατήρ, φάσκει, και ουχ, ο κτίσας με. noli intelligere naturæ dissimilitudi Hæres. Ixix. §. 53. To the same purnem, sed generantis auetoritatem.' pose Athanasius de Hum. Nat. susc. Id. Tract. 31. in Ioan. §. 4. 'Ev §. 4. and Cyril Thesaur. Jog. xi. p. 85, ταύθα ούν και αποστείλας και ο αποστελ. ed. Aubert. 1638. read it, ó réuvas ue λόμενος, ίνα δείξη των πάντων αγαθών Tarno And St. Basil makes Eunoμίαν είναι την πηγήν, τουτέστι τον πα mius read it so, in his first book tipa. S. Epiphan. Hæres. Ixix. §. 54. against him, c. 21. and with that ad. Hence the language of the Schools: dition answers it. So the second • Missio importat processionem ori confession of the council of Sirmium, ginis;' as Thom. Aquin. 10. q. 43. both in the Latin original, and Greek art. 1. ad prim. or: auctoritatem translation. S. Hilar. de Syn. §. 11. S. Principii :' as Durand. I. j. dist. 15. Athanas. de Synod. Ş. 28. et Socrat.

1. ii. c. 30. Λέγουσι γάρ το ρητόν του Ευαγγε + Παραδιδούς ο κύριος την σωτήριον

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ther, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost : which order hath been perpetuated in all confessions of faith, and is for ever inviolably to be observed.* For that which is not instituted or invented by the will or design of man, but founded in the nature of things themselves,+ is not to be altered at the pleasure of man. Now this priority doth properly and naturally result from the divine paternity; so that the Son must necessarily be second unto the Father, from whom he receiveth his origination, and the Holy Ghost unto the Son, Neither can we be thought to want a sufficient foundation for this priority of the first person of the Trinity, if we look upon the numerous testimonies of the ancient doctors of the Church, who have not stuck to call the Father the origin,s the

πίστιν τους μαθητευομένοις τώ λόγω, prodit ex aliquo, secundum sit ejus τω πατρί και τώ υιώ συνάπτει το πνεύ necesse est de quo prodit, non tamen μα το άγιον. S. Basil. Epist. 80. est separatum. Secundus autem ubi

* 'Ακίνητον και απαρεγχείρητον φυ est, duo sunt; et tertius ubi est, tres λάσσειν προσήκει την ακολουθίαν, ήν εξ sunt: tertius enim est Spiritus a Deo αυτής του κυρίου της φωνής παρελάβο et Filio. Tertull. advers. Praxeam, μεν, είπόντος, Πορευθέντες μαθητεύσατε 6. 8. Sic alium a se Paracletum, πάντα, &c. S. Basil. Epist. 78. quomodo et nos a Patre alium Fili

+ "Έστι τάξεως είδος ουκ εκ της παρ' um; ut tertium gradum ostenderet ημών θέσεως συνιστάμενον, αλλ' αυτή in Paracleto, sicut nos secundum in τη κατά φύσιν ακολουθία συμβαίνον, ώς

Filio.' Ibid. c. 9. · Hic interim acτω πυρί προς το φώς εστί το εξ αυτού εν ceptum a Patre munus effudit Spiriτούτοις γάρ πρότερον το αίτιον λέγομεν, tum Sanetum, tertium numen diviδεύτερον δε το εξ αυτού. πώς, ούν εύλο nitatis, et tertium nomen majestatis.' γον αρνείσθαι την τάξιν εφ' ών εστί Ibid. c. 30. “ο εξ αιτίου γεγονώς υιός, πρότερον και δεύτερον, ου κατά την δεύτερος ου εστίν υιός καλέστηκε, παρά ημετέραν θέσιν, άλλ' έκ τής κατά φύσιν του πατρός και το είναι και τοιόσδε είναι αυτοίς ενυπαρχούσης ακολουθίας; S. ειληφώς. Εuseb. Dem. Evang. 1. iv. Basil. advers. Eunom. 1. i. 5. 20. c. 3. •Et quidem confessione com

1 Δευτερεύει μεν ο υιός του πατρός τώ muni secunda quidem ab auctore naαιτίω δευτερεύει δε και το πνεύμα του υιού tivitas est, quia ex Deo est; non taκατά τον της αιτίας λόγον. S. Basil. men separabilis ab auctore, quia ia apud Georg. Pachym. Hist.). 7.'129uè quantum sensus noster intelligentiam γάρ υιός τάξει μεν δεύτερος του πατρός, tentabit excedere, in tantum necessę ότι απ' εκείνου, και αξιώματι, ότι αρχή est etiam generatio excedat.' S. Hiκαι αιτία του είναι αυτού ο πατήρ, και ότι lar. de Trinit. l. xii. c. 51, Tua δι' αυτού η πρόοδος και προσαγωγή προς enim res est, et unigenitus tuus est τον θεόν πατέρα, φύσει δε ουκέτιδεύτερος, filius, ex te Deo Patre Deus verus, διότι η θεότης εν εκατέρω μία ούτω δη et a te in naturæ tuæ unitate geniλονότι και το πνεύμα το άγιον, ει και tus, post te ita confitendus, ut teυποβέβηκε τον υιόν τη τε τάξει και το eum, quia æternæ originis suæ es αξιώματι, ουκέτ' αν είκότως ώς άλλο auctor æternus. Nam dum ex te est, τρίας υπάρχον φύσεως. S. Basil. contra secundus a te est. Ibid. c. 54. This Eunom. I. iii. §. 1. "Si unum Deum by the Schools is ealled ordo naturæ, singulariter nominamus, excludentes ordo originis, ordo naturalis præsupvocabulum secundæ personæ, furo- positionis. Which being so generem ejus hæresis approbamus quæ ip rally acknowledged by the fathers, sum asserit Patrem passum.'Phæbad, when we read in the Athanasian contra Arian. p. 111. "Illi cui est in Creed, “In this Trinity none is afore Filio secunda persona, est et tertia in or after other,' we must understand it Spiritu Sancto.' Ibid. p. 112. “Sic alius of the priority of perfection or time. a Filio Spiritus, sicut a Patre Filius: και Μικρών γάρ αν είη και αναξίων sic tertia in Spiritu, ut in Filio se αρχή, μάλλον δε μικρώς τε και αναξίως, cunda persona,' Ibid. "Omne quod μη θεότητος ών αρχή και αγαθότητος

cause,* the author,f the root, I the fountain, and the head of the Son,ll or the whole Divinity. της εν υιό και πνεύματι θεωρουμένης. Hierocles de provid. p. 8. ed. Lond. S. Greg. Naz. Orat. 1. et 29. Mì 1655. And the Latins attributing χρονικήν άρχήν του υιού καταδέξη τινός the term principium to the Son, do it λέγοντος, αλλά άχρονον άρχήν γίνωσκε with the addition of de or ex prinτον πατέρα αρχή γάρ υιού άχρονος, cipio, Pater principium non de ακατάληπτος. S. Cyril. Hier. Catech. principio, Filius principium de prin11. 'Αρχή μεν ούν πατρός ουδεμία, cipio.' S. August. contra Maxim. 1.3. αρχή δε του υιού ο πατήρ. S. Basil. c. 17. 'Principium ex principio et contra Eunom. 1. ii. 8. 12. Φαίνεται unum est, et initio caret. Faustus λοιπόν ο μακάριος ευαγγελιστής σαφέ- Rheg. Epist. 16. Er ore, inquit, στερον ημίν ερμηνεύων το της αρχής όνο (Eccl. ii. 4.) Altissimi prodivi; hæc μα" ουδέν γάρ έτερον, ως εικός, την άρ est enim nativitas perfecta sermonis, χήν είναι φησιν, ή αυτόν τον Πατέρα, hoc est principium sine principio; hic αφ' ούπερ και ζών έλαμψε Λόγος, καθάπερ est ortus habens initium in nativitate, εξ ηλίου το φώς. ουκούν αρχή το Υιό in statu non habens. Phoebad. conΠατήρ. S. Cyril. Aler. Thesaur. C. tra Arian. p. 94. 'Sicut in creaturis 32. • Cum dixisset, quem mittet invenitur principium primum et prinPatex, addidit, in nomine meo : non cipium secundum; ita in personis tamen dixit, quem mittet Pater a me, divinis invenitur principium non de quemadmodum dixit, quem ego mit principio, quod est Pater, et princitam vobis a Patre; viz. ostendens pium a principio, quod est Filius.' quod totius Divinitatis, vel, si melius Tho. Aquin. 1. q. 33. art. 4. And to dicitur, Deitatis, principium Pater this all the Schoolmen writing on his est.' S. August. de Trin. I. 4. c. 20. Sums agree, as all upon the Sen“Unum principium ad creaturam di tences. 1. Dist. 29. citur Deus, non duo vel tria principia. Αιτία εστίν ή του θεού φύσις, και του Ad se autem invicem in Trinitate, υιού, και του αγίου πνεύματος, και της, si gignens ad id quod giguitur prin- κτίσεως πάσης. S. Athanas. Dissert. cipium est, Pater ad Filium princi- Orthod. et Anom. Dial. ii. 3. 23. Αλλά pium est, quia gignit eum.' S. Au τις έστι δύναμις αγεννήτως και ανάρχως gust. de Trin. 1. 5. c. 14. “Pater ergo ύφεστώσα, ήτις εστίν αιτία της απάντων principium Deitatis.' Gennad. de Éc όντων αιτίας εκ γάρ του πατρός ο υιός, cles. Dogmat. c. 1. In this sense the δι' ου τα πάντα. S. Basil. Epist. 43. Greek fathers used άναρχος as proper And upon that place, “ this day have to the Father (in the same notion Ibegotten thee:” 'Αλλά το μεν, γεγένwith αγέννητος, with relation to the νηκα, την αιτίαν αφ' ής έχει αρχήν principium productionis'), and de του είναι σημαίνει. Ιd. contra Eunom. nied it to the Son : “Ο δε υιός, εάν μεν

Ι. ii. 5. 17. Πώς ουδεμίαν διαφοράν καταως αίτιον τον πατέρα λαμβάνης, ουκ λείπει, ουδε την εν αιτίοις προς τα έξ άναρχος, αρχή γάρ υιού ο πατήρ ώς αί αυτών ενυπάρχουσαν; Ιd. 1. i. 5. 23. τιος εάν δε την από χρόνου νοής αρχήν, Πρός το, ότι εγώ ήλθον εν τω ονόματι και άναρχος. S. Greg. Νaz. Οrat. 29. του πατρός μου, ειδέναι χρή, ότι αρχήν Εί τις αγέννητον και άναρχον λέγοι τον εαυτού και αιτίαν επιγραφόμενος τον υιόν ως δύο άναρχα, και δύο αγέννητα πατέρα ταύτα λέγει. Ιd. Epist. 64. λέγων, και δύο ποιών θεούς, ανάθεμα Διαφοράν των υποστάσεων έν μόναις έστω. Synod. Sim. Conf. prim. thus ταϊς τρισίν ιδιότησι, τη αναιτίφ και first translated into Latin: “Si quis πατρική, και αιτιατη υιϊκή, και τη αιτιατή innascibilem et sine initio dicat Fi και εκπορευτή, επιγιγνώσκομεν.Damasc. lium, tanquam duo sine principio, et 1. 4. C. 5. Τον πατέρα του λόγου και duo innascibilia, et duo innata dicens, της σοφίας, και προβολέα του πνεύματος duos faciat deos, Anathema sit.' S. του αγίου, την πρώτην αιτίαν και αρχήν Hilar. de Synod. art. xxvi. In which φαμεν της θεότητος είναι. Zachar. sense the Platonists did understand Mitylen. p. 215. ed. Barth. 1655. αγέννητος οf God: "Ώστε ουκ αγαθών And although Thomas Aquinas, and τη λεγομένη ύλη το κοσμείσθαι, είπερ Eugenius bishop of Rome in the deαγέννητος είη μη από χρόνου μόνον, finition of the Council of Florence, αλλά και το από αιτιών, καθ' δ σημαι have observed that the Greeks in νόμενον και τον θεόν αγέννητονλέγομεν. this case do use the term causa, but

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