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For by these titles it appeareth clearly, First, That they made a considerable difference between the person of the the Latins only principium: yet the quem genuit auctor ostenditur.' De very Latin fathers in the twenty-fifth Trin. l. 4. c.9. •Cum potius honor session of the same Council have these Filii dignitas sit paterna, et gloriosus words: μίαν γινώσκομεν τον πατέρα auctor sit ex quo is, qui tali gloria αιτίαν, και ρίζαν, και πηγήν της θεότη sit dignus, exstiterit.' Ibid. c. 10. Tog' and we have before cited Vic • Aliud est sine auctore esse semper torinus Afer, p. 68. col. 2. who says: æternum, aliud quod Patri, id est, 'Pater causa est ipsi Filio ut sit.' So auctori, est coæternum. Ubi enim St. Hilary: 'Deum nasci, non est ali Pater auctor, ibi et nativitas est. At ud quam in ea natura esse qua Deus vero ubi auctor æternus est, ibi et est; quia nasci cum causam nativi nativitas æterna est: quia sicut natatis ostendat, non disproficit tamen tivitas ab auctore est, ita ab æterno in genere auctoris exsistere.' De auctore æterna nativitas est.' Ibid. Trin. 1. 11. c. 11. 'Ex Spiritu enim 1. 12. c. 21. ' Quod vero ex æterno Spiritus nascens, licet de proprietate natum est, id si non æternum natum Spiritus, per quam et ipse Spiritus est, jam non erit et Pater auctor est, nascatur, non tamen alia ei præ æternus. Si quid igitur ei qui ab terquam perfectarum atque indemu æterno Patre natus est ex æternitate tabilium causarum ad id quod na defuerit, id ipsum auctori non est scitur causa est; et ex causa, licet ambiguum defuisse.' Ibid. “Natum perfecta atque indemutabili nascens, non post aliquid, sed ante omnia; ut necesse est ex causa in causæ ipsius nativitas tantum testetur auctorem, proprietate nascatur.' Id. I. 12. c. 8. non præposterum aliquid in se au

Qui ex eo qui est patus est, intelligi ctore significet.' Ibid. c. 51. “Natus non potest ex eo quod non fuit natus autem ita, ut nihil aliud quam te sibi esse, quia ejus qui est ad id quod est significet auctorem.' Ibid. c. 52. 'Ipcausa est, non etiam id quod non est sius tamen auctor est Pater generando origo nascendi est.' Ibid.c. 17. ‘Deus sine initio. Ruff. in Symb. §. 9. “Si omnium quæ sunt causa est. Quod propterea Deum Patrem Deo Filio autem rerum omnium causa est, et dicis auctorem, quia ille genuit, geiam sapientiæ suæ causa est, nec un nitus est iste, quia iste de illo est, quam Deus sine sapientia sua. Igitur non ille de isto; fateor et concedo. sempiternæ suæ sapientiæ causa est S. August. contra Maxim. ). 3. c. 14. sempiterna. S. August. lib. de div. I'Nec dubitaverim Filium dicere Quæst. Ixxxiii. quæst. 16. And as et radicis fruticem, et fontis fluvium, they called the Father the cause of et solis radium. Tertull. adv. Prathe Son, so they accounted it the xeam, c. 8. Nec frutex tamen a propriety of the Father to be with radice, nec fluvius a fonte, nec radius out à cause; as appears out of Alex a sole discernitur; sicut nec a Deo ander the bishop of Alexandria's Sermo.' Ibid. "Eoti pèv ydp ò matng Epistle before produced.

τέλειον έχων το είναι και ανενδεές, ρίζα + We have cited Phoebadias speak- και πηγή του υιού και του αγίου πνεύing so before, p. 69. col. 1. to which paros. S. Basil. Homil. 26. “Dominus may be added: 'Si quis igitur adhuc Pater, quia radix est Filii.'S. Ambros. et de Apostolo requirit dominicum in Luc. 1. 10. c. 1. ut et de Fide, 1. 4. statum, id est, singularis substantiæ c. 5. St. Cyril of Alexandria speakdualitatem, quæ per naturam auctori ing of the baptismal institution: Try suo jungitur:' p. 110. et paulo post : Mèv ydp åvwrátw pisav, os ÉnéKELVA TÒ 'Sed cum refertur ex ipso, certe ad σύμπαν ουδέν, έννοήσεις τον πατέρα Patrem, ut ad rerum omnium respici τον δέ γε της ανωτάτω ρίζης εκπεφυκότα tur auctorem.' St. Hilary is known to και γεγεννημένον παραδέξη τον υιόν. De speak frequently of the authority of S. Trin. Dial. 2. the Father, as of the author of his Son; και "Αναρχος ο πατήρ πηγή του της and several places bave been already δικαιοσύνης ποταμού, του μονογενούς και collected, especially by Petavius, to maríp. S. Cyril. Hieros. Catech. 11. which these may be added, besides 'In hac ergo natura filius est, et in hoc what have been already produced.. originis fonte subsistens processit ex • In ipso quod Pater dicitur, ejus sapiente sapientia, ex forti virtus, ex

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Father, “ of whom are all things,” and the person of the Son, “ by whom are all things.” (1 Cor. viii. 6.) Secondly, That the difference consisteth properly in this, that as the branch is from the root, and river from the fountain, and by their origination from them receive that being which they have; whereas the root receiveth nothing from the branch, or fountain from the river: so the Son is from the Father, receiving his subsistence by generation from him; the Father is not from the Son, as being what he is from none.

Some indeed of the ancients may seem to have made yet a farther difference between the persons of the Father and the Son, laying upon that relation terms of greater opposition. As if, because the Son hath not his essence from himself, the Father * had; because he was not begotten of himself, the Father t had been so; because he is not the cause of himself, the Father I were. Whereas, if we speak properly, God the Father hath neither his being from another, nor from himlumine splendor.'Vigil. Taps. Disp. p. Orthodox by St. Hilary: ' Caput 702. Ως πνεύμα θεού και εξ αυτού πεφη enim omnium Filius, sed caput Filii νός,αίτιον αυτόν έχον, ως πηγήν εαυτού, Deus. de Synod c. 60.

Cum ipse kçikei@ev anyázov. Basil. Homil. 28. sit omnium caput, ipsius tamen caΛέγει περί του υιού ή θεία γραφή, Κλίνει, put est Pater.' Ruff. in Symb. §. 9. φησίν, επ' αυτούς ως ποταμός ειρήνης" Tu capitis primique caput, tu fontis εκπορευόμενος δηλονότι εκ της αληθούς origo,' S. Hilar. ad Leonem, v. 9. OŐT& πηγής της ζωής, της του πατρός θεότη δύο εισίν αρχαι, αλλά κεφαλή του υιού ο roc. Act. Concil. Nic. 1. ii. c. 22. Tatyp, uia ý ápxń. S. Cyril. Hieros. And St. Cyril of Alexandria, who Catech. ll. 'Caput Filii Pater est, et often useth this expression, gives us caput Spiritus Sancti Filius, quia de the foll signification of it in these ipso accepit. S. August. Quest. Vet. words, upon the first chapter of St. Test.9. St. Chrysostom is so elearly Jolin, p. 12. 'Αδικήσει δε όλως ουδέν τό, of the opinion that 1 Cor. xi. 3. is to ως εν πηγή, τώ πατρί τον υιόν υπάρχειν be understood of Christ as God, that εννοείν μόνον γάρ το εξ ου το της from thence he proves him to have the πηγής εν τούτοις όνομα σημαίνει. Ρa same essence with God: Bi ydp kepatrem quidem non genitum, non crea λή γυναικός ο ανήρ, ομοούσιος δε η κεφαtum, sed ingenitum profitemur; ipse λή τω σώματι κεφαλή δε του υιού ο θεός, enim a nullo originem ducit, ex quo ομοούσιος ο υιός τω πατρί. So likewise et Filius nativitatem, et Spiritus Theodoret upon the same place, t. iii. Sanctus processionem accepit, Fops. p. 171. Η δε γυνή ου ποίημα του ανο ergo ipse et origo est totius divini δρός, αλλ' εκ της ουσίας του ανδρός. ουδε tatis.' Concil. Tolet, can. 11. "Quanto ο υιός άρα ποίημα του θεού, αλλ' εκ της magis Dei vocem credendum est et ojoias Toll JEOV. So St. Cyril: Kepal, manere in æternum, et sensu ac vir του Χριστού ο θεός, ότι εξ αυτού κατά tute comitari, quam de Deo Patre φύσιν" γεγέννηται γάρ ο λόγος εκ τού tanquam rivus de fonte traduxit ?! Decī kai tarpós. Ad Regin. Ep. 1. Lactan. de ver. Sap. 1. 4. c. 8. et * Lactan. 1. i. c. 8. S. Hilar. 1. ii. rursus, c. 29. Cum igitur et Pater Zach. Mitylen. p. 214. seqq. Filium faciat, et Filius Patrem, una + Lactan, ib. Synes. Hymn. utrique mens, unus spiritus, una IS. Hieron. in c. 3. ad Eph. substantia est; sed ille quasi exube και "Αναρχος ούν ο πατήρ, ου γαρ ετέraps fons est, hic tanquam defluens pwɛv avto, ovdè rap' lavtoũ tò elval. ex eo rivus; ille tanquam sol, bic S. Greg. Naz. Orat. 30. 'O ảyévvntOS tanquam radius a sole porrectus.' yeyévvntal, očl'id' avtoũ, ovo' ip

N* Caput, quod est principium om: ÉTépov. 8. Athan. “Si rursum quod nium, Filias: caput autem, quod est a semetipso sit accipias, nemo sibi principium Christi, Deus. Concil. ipse et munerator et munus est.' S. Sirm, aceopted and expounded as Thilar, de Trin. I. 2. c. 7. 'Qui putant

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self; nor from another, that were repugnant to his paternity; not from himself, that were a contradiction in itself. And therefore those expressions are not to be understood positively and affirmatively, but negatively * and exclusively, Deam ejus potentiæ esse ut seipsum the Godhead : because all the attriipse genuerit, eo plus errant, quod butes of God are really the same, not non solum Deus ita non est, sed ne only with themselves, but with the que corporalis neque spiritualis crea essence. But in what sense it ought tura. Nulla enim omnino res est to be understood, when thus used by quæ seipsam gignat ut sit. Et ideo the fathers, it will be necessary to innon est credendum, vel dicendum, quire, lest it be so attributed to the quod Deus genuit se.' S. August. Son, as it prove derogatory to the

This appeareth by those exposi Father. St. Basil, I confess, may tions which have been given of such seem to speak, as if the Son were words as seem to bear the affirmation; therefore αυτοζωή, because he bath as αυτογένεθλος, αυτοφυής, αυτόγονος, life of himself, not from the Father αυτογενής, &c. Αυτογενής, αυτογένε- (and consequently lhe may be termed θλος, ούκ έκ τινος γεννώμενος. Ηesych. αυτόθεος, as God of himself, not from And Aυτολόχευτος, θεός αγέννητος, αυ the Father), for he denieth those τογέννητος. Ιdem. And after him Sui words, “I live by the Father,” (John las: Αυτολόχευτος, αυτογέννητος, ο vi. 58.) to be spoken of Christ accordθεός ο αγέννητος. And if αυτογέννη ing to his divine nature, and that τος be not αυτόθεν γεννητός, no more only for this reason, that if it were so is αυτόθεος to be taken for αυτόθεν, or understood he could not be called εξ εαυτού θεός. Eusebius in his Ρa αυτοζωή: Ει διά τον πατέρα ο υιός ζη, negyrical Oration gives this title to δι' έτερον και ου δι' εαυτόν ζη, ο δε δι' the Son : οία του καθόλου θεού παϊδα έτερον ζών αυτοζωή είναι ου δύναται γνήσιον και αυτόθεον προσκυνείσθαι. from whence he concludeth: 'eis triv Ηist. 1. x. C. 4. And in his Evange ενανθρώπησιν ούν και ουκ εις τήν θεόlical Demonstration calls him: aŭro

τητα, το ειρημένον νοείν δεϊ. contra νούν, και αυτολόγον, και αυτοσοφίαν, Eunom. 1. 4. p. 290. But because the και έτι δε αυτόκαλον και αυτοάγαθον. authority of that book is questioned, 1. iv. c. 2. and in the thirteenth chap I shall produce the same author upon ter of the same book with relation to the same Scripture, speaking to the the former words: του θεού λόγος αυ same purpose, in bis 141st epistle, τοζωή τυγχάνων, και αυτοφώς νοερόν, και al. 8th, S. 4. which is unquestionόσα άλλα προκατείλεκται. Τheodoret ably genuine: Ένταύθα δε το ρητόν terms him: αυτοδύναμον και αυτοζωήν ουκ αυτήν προαιώνιον, ως αίμαι, ζωής και αυτοσοφίαν. contra Anathem. 4. ονομάζει πάν γάρ το δι' έτερον ζών αυCyrilli. St. Basil: aŭrośwnv, in Psal. τοζωή είναι ου δύναται. Το which tesxlviji. et de Spiritu Sancto, c. 8. and timonies I answer, first, that those αυτοδικαιοσύνην, Ep. 141. St. Chry words of his, ως οίμαι (as I think) sostom: αυτοαθανασίαν, αυτομακαριότη

shew that he doth not absolutely deny St. Athanasius gives him them, these words of Christ to be underand many more to the same purpose. stood of his Divinity, of which the And before all these Origen: “Ον μεν rest of the fathers quoted before did νομίζομεν και πεπεισμεθα αρχήθεν είναι understand it; and not only they, but θεόν, και υιον Θεού, ούτος ο αυτολόγος St. Basil bimself, in his book de Spiέστι, και η αυτοσοφία, και η αυτοαλήθεια. ritu Sancto, c. 8. 9. 19. hath delivered c. Cels. I. iii. §. 41. And again : Tis a clear resolution of this point accordμάλλον της Ιησού ψυχής, ή κάν παρα ing to that interpretation, wholly con-. πλησίως κεκόλληται τω Κυρίω, τώ αυτο sonant to his doctrine of the Trinity λόγω, και αυτοσοφία και αυτοαληθεία και in other parts of his works : "Ouws αυτοδικαιοσύνη; 1. vi. 3. 47. Eικών μεν μέντοι, ίνα μήποτε εκ του μεγέθους των του θεού και πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεώς ενεργουμένων περισπασθώμεν εις το φανέστιν ο αυτολόγος, και η αυτοαλήθεια, τασθήναι άναρχον είναι τον κύριον, τί έτι δε και η αυτοσοφία. Ιbid. δ. 63. And φησίν ή αυτοζωή; Εγώ ζω διά τον παcertainly in the same sense that αυτός τέρα. και η τού θεού δύναμις; Ού δύναis joined with one attribute, it may ται ο υιός ποιείν αφ' εαυτού ουδέν. και η be joined with any other, and with αυτοτελής σοφία; 'Εντολήν έλαβον, τί

τα.

that he hath his essence from none, that he is not begotten of any, nor hath he any cause of his existence. So that the proper notion of the Father in whom we believe is this, that he is a person subsisting eternally in the one infinite essence of the Godhead; which essence or subsistence he hath received

είπω και τι λαλήσω; Christ therefore μα, και ουχ έτερουσία" and Origen himas αυτοζωή spake those words, “Ilive self upon St. John: η αυτοδικαιοσύνη by the Father,” and by them shewed η ουσιώδης Χριστός έστι, as also ή αυhis origination from him, from whom τοαλήθεια η ουσιώδης, και ίν' ούτως he received his life, power, and wis είπω, πρωτότυπος της εν ταις λογικαίς dom, as receiving his Essence, which ψυχαίς αληθείας. Το conclude, there is the same with them: wherefore is a catholic sense in which the Son those former passages are to be looked is termed αυτόθεος, αυτοσοφία, &c. upon, as if aŭtos in composition did by the ancient fathers; and another not deny origination, but participa sense there is in which these terms tion, or receiving by way of affection. are so proper and peculiar to the FaAnd that he understood it so, appears ther, that they are denied to the Son. out of the places themselves: for in Indeed αυτόθεος, in the highest sense, the first, after ο δι' έτερον ζών αυτοζωή αφ' εαυτού θεός, positively taken, beείναι ου δύναται, immediately follow longeth neither to the Son nor to the eth, ουδέ γάρ ο κατά χάριν άγιος αυτοά Father, as implying a manifest conγιος: and in the second, after πάν το tradiction; because nothing can have δι' έτερον ζών αυτοζωή είναι ου δύναται, its being actually from itself, as comfolloweth likewise, ώς ουδε το υφ' ετέρου municated to itself, and that by itself: θερμανθεν αυτοθερμότης είναι. The but in a negative way of interpretameaning then of St. Basil must be tion, by which that is said to be of itself, this, that he which receiveth life from which is and yet is not of or from ananother merely as a grace or favour, other, avródeos belongs properly to as the saints receive their sanctity, the Father, neither generated by, por Cannot properly be termed αυτοζωή, proceeding from another; and in that no more than they αυτοάγιοι: or if he sense it is denied to the Son, because receive it by derivation or participa he is generated by the Father, as: ék tion, as water receiveth heat from fire, θεού θεός,έκ σοφού σοφία, εκ λογικού λόhe deserveth the same name no more γος,και εκ πατρός υιός, saith St. Athanathan water heated to be called αυτο sius cont. Ar. Or. iv. §. 1. from whence θερμότης. And this is fully consonant he thus proceeds: εκτός ει μη, άν τις to the expressions of the rest of the είπoι αυτοσοφίαν είναι και αυτολόγον τον ancients: as particularly Athanasius, θεόν, αλλ' εί τούτο είη αν αυτός εαυτού contr. Gent. S. 46. Ού κατά μετοχών πατήρ και υιός. Ιbid. S. 2. And again: ταύτα ών,ουδέ έξωθεν επιγινομένων τού ει δε αυτοσοφία ο θεός, και το εκ τούτου των αυτώ κατά τους αυτού μετέχοντας, άτοπον είρηται παρά Σαβελλίφ. Lastly, και σοφιζομένους δι' αυτού, και δυνα in another sense in which αυτος in τους και λογικούς εν αυτώ γινομένους composition is taken not in obliquo, αλλ' αυτοσοφία, αυτολόγος, αυτοδύνα but in recto, αυτόθεος, that is, αυτός ο μις ιδία του πατρός έστιν, αυτοφώς, αυ θεός, God himself, and αυτοζωή, αυτή τοαλήθεια, αυτοδικαιοσύνη, αυτοαρετή. η ζωή, life itself': so all these terms And to the same purpose: "Οτι ου μεθ are attributed to the Son as truly, εκτής έχει την δωρεάν, αλλ' αυτοπηγή really and essentially, as to the Faκαι αυτόρριζα πάντων εστί των αγαθών, ther. And that the Fathers took it αυτοζωή, και αυτοφώς, και αυτοαλήθεια so appears, because they did somein the MS. Catena in the King of times resolve the composition: as France's Library. Petav. de Trin. I. when Eusebius calleth Christ αυτόθεvi. c. 11. All therefore wbich these ov, in the Panegyric before cited, precompositions signify, is either a nega sently after he speaketh thus, l. x. . tion of a derivative participation, or 4. p. 469. Τί γάρ και έμελλε του παμan affirmation of a reality and identity βασιλέως και πανηγεμόνος και αυτού of substance, as yet farther appears θεού λόγου ένστήσεσθαι το πνεύματι; by St. Epiphanius: αυτοουσία εστίν ο where αυτού θεού is the same with αυ . θεός πατήρ και ο υιός, και το άγιον πνεύ

τοθέου.

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from no other person, but hath communicated the same essence, in which himself subsisteth, by generation to another person, who by that generation is the Son.

Howsoever, it is most reasonable to assert that there is but one Person who is from none; and the very generation of the Son and procession of the Holy Ghost undeniably prove, that neither of those two can be that Person. For whosoever is generated is from him which is the genitor, and whosoever proceedeth is from him from whom he proceedeth, whatsoever the nature of the generation or procession be. It followeth therefore that this Person is the Father, which name speaks nothing of dependence, nor supposeth any kind of priority in another.

From hence it is observed that the name of God, taken absolutely,* is often in the Scriptures spoken of the Father; as when we read of “God sending his own Son;” (Rom. viii. 3.) of “the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God;" (2 Cor. xiii. 14.) and generally wheresoever Christ is called the Son of God, or the Word of God, the name of God is to be taken particularly for the Father, because he is no Son but of the Father. From hence he is styled “one God," (1 Cor. viii. 6. Eph. iv. 6.) “ the true God,(1 Thess. i. 9.) «s the only true God," (John xvii. 3.) “ the God + and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.” (2 Cor. i. 3. Eph. i. 3.)

Which, as it is most true, and so fit to be believed, is also a most necessary truth, and therefore to be acknowledged, for the avoiding multiplication and plurality of gods. For if

: "Οθεν οι απόστολοι, και πάσα σχεδόν Cyril of Jerusalem, Catech. xi. θεός ο η αγία γραφή, όταν είπη, ο θεός, ούτως γεννήσας, θεός και γεννηθείς θεός μεν απολύτως και απροσδιορίστως, και ως των πάντων, θεόν δε εαυτού τον πατέρα επίπαν συν άρθρω, και χωρίς ιδιώματος επιγραφόμενος. υποστατικού, τον πατέρα δηλοί. Theod. 1 Μή μου είπατε, δύο θεούς κηρύττει, Abucara Opusc. 42.

πολυθείαν καταγγέλλει, ου δύο θεοί, ού+ Unxit te Deus, Deus tuus. Id δε γάρ δύο πατέρες ο μεν αρχάς εισάenim quod ait, tuus, ad nativitatem γων δύο, δύο κηρύττει θεούς. S. Basil. refertur; cæterum non perimit natu Homil. 26. •In duobus ingenitis di.

Et idcirco Deus ejus est, qui versa divinitas invenitur ; in uno auex Deo natus in Deum est. Non ta tem genito ex uno ingenito naturalis men per id quod Pater Deus est, non unitas demonstratur.' Fulgen. Resp. et Filius Deus est. Unxit enim te contra Arian. ad Obj. 5. “Si quis inDeus, Deus tuus ; designata videlicet nascibilem et sine initio dicat Filium, et auctoris sui et ex eo geniti signifi tanquam duo sine principio, et duo catione, uno eodemque dicto utrum innascibilia,et duoinnata dicens, duos que illum in naturæ ejusdem et di faciat Deos, Anathema sit.' Concil. gnitatis nuncupatione constituit.' S. Sirm. [Vid. p.74.col.1.] Deus utique Hilar. de Trin. l. 4. c. 35. 'Deo enim procedens ex Deo secundam persoex quo omnia sunt Deus nullus est, nam efficiens, sed non eripiens illud qui sine initio æternus est. Filio au Patri quod unus est Deus. Si enim tem Deus Pater est, ex eo enim Deus natus non fuisset, innatus comparatus natus est.' Ibid. c.37. Cum autem ex cum eo qui esset innatus, æquatione Deo Deus est, per id Deus Pater Deo in utroque ostensa, duos faceret inFilio et nativitatis ejus Deus est, et natos, et ideo duos faceret Deos. Si naturæ Pater, quia Dei nativitas et non genitus esset, collatus cum eo qui ex Deo est, et in ea generis est natura genitus non esset, et æquales inventi, qua Deus est. Id. l. xi. c. 11. So St. duos Deos merito reddidissent non

ram.

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