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of operative and active power (concerning which I shall have occasion to express my faith hereafter), but also in regard of power authoritative, in which I must acknowledge his antecedent and eternal right of making what, and when, and how he pleased, of possessing whatsoever he maketh by direct dominion, of using and disposing as he pleaseth all things which he so possesseth. This dominion I believe most absolute in respect of its independency, both in the original, and the use or exercise thereof; this I acknowledge infinite for amplitude or extension, as being a power over all things without exception; for plenitude or perfection, as being all power over every thing without limitation; for continuance or duration, as being eternal without end or conclusion. Thus I BELIEVE IN GOD THE FATHER ALMIGHTY.
Maker of Heaven and Earth. Although this last part of the first Article were not expressed in the ancient CREEDS,* yet the sense thereof was delivered in the first rules of faith,+ and at last these particular words in
* For we find it not mentioned by formal words, but with an (id est) by St. Augustin de Fide et Symbolo; way of explication: Regula exigit neither hath Ruffinus expounded it in veritatis ut primo omnium credamus the Aquileian, or noted it to be found in Deum Patrem et Dominum Omniin the Roman or Oriental Creeds. potentem, id est, rerum omnium perLeo, reciting the three first articles in fectissimum conditorem, qui coelum his epistle to Flavianus, maketh no alta sublimitate suspenderit, terram mention of it. Epist. 10. Maximus dejecta mole solidavit, maria soluto Taurinensis bath it not in Traditione liquore diffudit, et hæc omnia propriis Symboli, nor Petrus Chrysologus in his et condignis instrumentis et ornata et Sermons, amongst six several exposi- plena digessit.' De Trin. c. i. It was tions. It is not in the Homilies of also observed by Origen, that the Eusebius Gallicanus, or the exposition Christians were wont most frequently of Venantius Fortunatus. Marcellas to mention God under that as the most bishop of Ancyra left it not at Rome common title: "Η γάρ αορίστως ομολοwith Julius; nor did Αrius in his ca- γούσι το, κοινόν όνομα, ο θεός, ή και μεtholic confession unto Constantine ac- τα προσθήκης της, και δημιουργός των knowledge it. Neither are the words όλων, ο ποιητής ουρανού και γης. Adυ. to be found in the Latin or Greek copy Celsum, I. i. §. 25. Eusebius delivered of the Creed, written about the begin- the first Article thus in his Confession ning of the eighth century, and pub- to the Nicene Council, Socrat. I. i. c. lished out of the MSS. by the most re- 8. IIlotevouev eis &va Jedv marépa ravverend and learned Archbishop of Ar- τοκράτορα, τον των απάντων ορατών τε magh; or in that which Etherius and kaì dopátwv Tonthve and that CounBeatus produced against Elipandus cil expressed the same without alteraarchbishop of Toledo, towards the end tion in their Creed. But after the Niof the seventh century.
cene Council we find added molntTv + As in that delivered by Irenæus: ovpavoő kai yñs, by St. Cyril of JeruEls éva Jedv Tarépa Tavrokpáropa, ròv salem, in bis Catechism, cat. 9. and #TETONCÓTa Tòv oúpavov kai Tiv yñv kai St. Epiphanius in Ancorato, s. 120.: τας θαλάσσας, και πάντα τα εν αυτοίς. which addition was received, conAdver. Hær. I. i. c. 2. And that by firmed, and transmitted to us by the Tertullian:“Unum omnino Deum esse, Council of Constantinople. By which nec alium præter mundi conditorem, means at last we find this Article thus qui universa de nibilo produxerit. De expressed in the western Confessions: præscr. adv. Hær. c. 13. And that Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, under the name of Novatian, not in creatorem coeli et terra.
serted both in the Greek and Latin confessions. And indeed the work of creation most properly followeth the attribute of omnipotency, as being the foundation of the first, and the demonstration of the second explication of it. As then we believe there is a God, and that God Almighty; as we acknowledge that same God to be the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in him of us : so we also confess,
that the same God the Father made both heaven and earth. For the full explication of which operation, it will be sufficient, first, to declare the latitude of the object, what is comprehended under the terms of heaven and earth; secondly, to express the nature of the action, the true notion of creation, by which they were made; and thirdly, to demonstrate the Person to whom this operation is ascribed.
For the first, I suppose it cannot be denied as the sense of the CREED, that under the terms of heaven and earth are comprehended all things: because the first rules of faith did so express it; and the most ancient Creeds had either, instead of these words, or together with them, the Maker of all things visible and invisible, which being terms of immediate contradiction, must consequently be of universal comprehension; nor is there any thing imaginable which is not visible, or invisible. Being then these were the words of the Nicene Creed; being the addition of heaven and earth in the Constantinopolitan could be no diminution to the former, which they still retained together with them, saying, I believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible; it followeth, that they which in the Latin Church made use only of this last addition, could not choose but take it in the full latitude of the first expression.
And well may this be taken as the undoubted sense of the CREED, because it is the known language of the sacred Scriptures. “ In six days (saith Moses) the Lord made heaven and earth :” (Exod. xxxi. 17.) in the same time, saith God himself, “the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is." (Exod. xx. 11.) So that all things by those two must be understood which are contained in them; and we know no being which is made or placed without them. When God would call a general rendezvous, and make up a universal auditory, the prophet cries out, “ Hear, O heavens, and give ear, 0 earth.” (Isa. i. 2.) When he would express the full splendour of his majesty, and utmost extent of his actual dominion, “ Thus saith the Lord, the heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool.” (Isa. lxvi. 1.) When he would challenge unto himself those glorious attributes of immensity and omnipresence, “Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord.” (Jer. xxiii. 24.) These two then taken together signify the Universe, or that which is called
the World. St. Paul hath given a clear. exposition of these words in his explication of the Athenian altar: “ God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands." (Acts xvii. 24.) For being God is necessarily the Lord of all things which he made the right of his direct dominion being clearly grounded upon the first creation), except we should conceive the apostle to exempt some creature from the authoritative power of God, and so take some work of his hand out of the reach of his arm; we must confess that heaven and earth are of as large extent and ample signification as the world and all things therein. Where it is yet farther observable, that the apostle hath conjoined the speech of both Testaments together. For the ancient Hebrews seem to have had no word in use among them which singly of itself did signify the world, as the Greeks had, in whose language St. Paul did speak; and therefore they used in conjunction the heaven and earth, as the grand extremities within which all things are contained.* Nay, if we take the exposition of the later writers in that language, those two words will not only as extremities comprehend between them, but in the extension of their own significations contain all things in them. For when they divide the Universe into three worlds, the inferior, the superior, and the middle world; the lower is wholly contained in the name of earth, the other two under the name of heaven. Nor do the Hebrews only use this manner of expression, but even the Greeks themselves; and that not only before, but after I Pythagoras ş had accustomed them to one name.
As therefore under the single name of * Καλώς δε πάντες σχεδόν εξεδέξαντο wit, this globe of earth on which we τοϊς άκροις, ουρανό τε και γή, τα μέσα live. This they divide into three ouue tépteindéval oroixeia. Tās dè åxpa parts; o' the sea, lakes and rivers, onui ; 71 yñ uły rò kévtpov mavros fu- 7272 the desert, solitary and upinhaTepisianpe kai žoti kárwlev uèv ápx” bitable places, 210997 ya pinn far πάντων ή γή, πέρας δε τούτων και πάντα from the habitations of men, and » περιέχων ουρανός τούμπαλιν δε άνωθεν, την οικουμένην, the earth inhabited. αρχή μέν ο ουρανός, πέρας δε πάντων ή The second is called 25η opy γή" μετά δε ουρανού και της γης τα λοι- the middle or inmost world; Ό5ην NY Tà Tpia repeil natal Otoczeła. Jo. Phi- obabant this is the world of the lop. 'de Mundi Creat, I. i. c. 5. Tų spheres, containing the aerial region uły oúpaviq oớuari (ů púois) Tò mépig an the starry heavens. The third is, Toll Favros ámévelue, Tuš dè tepeycią, to 75 yow the superior world; X1 Kévtpovév od opaloq alws Mèv to kév- D385237 puy this is the world of Tpov ápxò, axws de o roll tepléxoytos angels, Dubx, of God, niva of opos. Hierocl
. in Aur. Carm. v. 52. p. souls, mobiy the spiritual world. 245. + For the Rabbins usually divide things imaginable; being the first is
Now being these three comprehend all the whole frame of things into w sufficiently expressed in pox the
, ; , the depressed and lowest world ; 897 of the Hebrews, heaven and earth sigSwy 11 that is this world, say they, to nify all things.
the שמים earth , and the two last in עולם ,three worlds
the first עולמות heaven ; it followeth that , in the sense עולם השפל the inferior
, or התחתון
World or Universe,* so also under the conjunctive expression of heaven and earth, are contained all things material and immaterial, visible and invisible.
But as the apostle hath taught us to reason, “ When he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted which did put all things under him :" (1 Cor. xv. 27.) so when we say, all things were made by God, it is as manifest that he is excepted who made all things. And then the proposition is clearly thus delivered: All beings whatsoever beside God were made. As we read in St. John concerning the Word, that “the world was made by him;" (John i. 10.) and in more plain and express words before, “ All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.” (John i. 3.) Which is yet farther illustrated by St. Paul: "For by him were all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by him.” (Col. i. 16.) If then there be nothing imaginable which is not either in heaven or in earth, nothing which is not either visible or invisible, then is there nothing beside God which was not made by God.
This then is the unquestionable doctrine of the Christian faith, That the vast capacious frame of the World, and every thing any way contained and existing in it, hath not its essence from or of itself, nor is of existence absolutely necessary; but what it is, it hath not been, and that being which it hath was made, framed, and constituted by another. And
every house is builded by some man;" (Heb. iii. 4.) for we see the earth bears no such creature of itself; stones do not grow into a wall, or first hew and square, then unite and fasten themselves together in their generation; trees sprout not cross like dry and sapless beams, nor do spars and tiles spring with a natural uniformity into a roof, and that out of stone and mortar: these are not the works of nature, but su. perstructions and additions to her, as the supplies of art, and the testimonies of the understanding of man, the great artificer on earth: so, if the World itself be but a house, t if the earth,
1 Εις ταϊς αληθείαισιν, εις εστίν θεός, land. c. 4. Φασί δε οι σοφοί και ουρανόν "Ος ουρανός τέτευχε και γαίαν μα- και γήν και θεούς και ανθρώπους την κράν.
κοινωνίαν συνέχειν, και φιλίαν, και κοEx incert. Trag. Sophocl. Frag. guiórnta, kai-ow posúvnv, kai oikaiórn
LI. ed. Brunck. τα" και το όλον τούτο διά ταύτα κόσμον καIlvgayópas mpūros úvóuage Tıydowolv. Iambl. Protrept. but the words Tūv wv Teploxov, kóquov, tk rñs £v are Plato's in Gorgia, p. 132. ed. Biavrõ rážews. Plutarch. de Plac. Philo- pont. soph. I. ii. c. 1.
+ Ο αισθητός ουτοσί κόσμος ουδέν άρα • Si Mundum dixeris, illic erit et ärlo totiv ñ olcos geoữ. Philo de Incælum, et quæ in eo, sol, et luna, et somn. p. 648. Koouos eủTPETYS kai sidera, et astra, et terra, et freta, et toluos, aio Intòg Olkos toŨ 0£oâ. Id. de omnis census elementorum. Omnia Plant. Noe, p. 337. Ocióv ti péyɛdos o dixeris, cum id dixeris, quod ex om- kóquos, kai olkoç Degū aioOprós. Id. de nibus constat.' Tertull. de Virg. Ve- Mündi Incorr. p. 509.
which “hangeth upon nothing," (Job xxvi. 7.) be the foundation, and the glorious spheres of heaven the roof (which hath been delivered as the most universal hypothesis), if this be the babitation of an infinite intelligence, the temple of God ;* then must we acknowledge the world was built by him, and consequently, that “ he which built all things is God.” (Heb. iii. 4.)
From hence appears the truth of that distinction, Whatsoever hath any being, is either made or not made: whatsoever is not made, is God; whatsoever is not God, is made. One uncreated and independent Essence; all other depending on it, and created by it. One of eternal and necessary existence; all other indifferent, in respect of actual existing, either to be or not to be, and that indifferency determined only by the free and voluntary act of the first Cause.
Now because to be thus made includes some imperfection, and among the parts of the world, some are more glorious than others; if those which are most perfect presuppose a Maker, then can we not doubt of a creation where we find far less perfection. This house of God, though uniform, yet is not all of the same materials, the footstool and the throne are not of the same mould; there is a vast difference between the heavenly expansions. This first aerial heaven, where God setteth up his pavilion, where “ he maketh the clouds his chariot, and walketh upon the wings of the wind,” (Psal. civ. 3.) is not so far inferior in place as it is in glory to the next, the seat of the sun and moon, the two great lights, and stars innumerable, far greater than the one of them. And yet that second heaven is not so far above the first as beneath the “ third,” (2 Cor. xii. 2.) into which St. Paul was caught. The brightness of the sun doth not so far surpass the blackness of a wandering cloud, as the glory of that heaven of presence surmounts the fading beauty of the starry firmament. For in this great temple of the World, in which the Son of God is the high-priest, the heaven which we see is but the veil, and that which is above, the Holy of Holies. This veil indeed is rich and glorious, but one day to be rent, and then to admit us into a far greater glory, even to the Mercy-seat and Cherubim. For this third heaven is the “proper habitation”+ (Jude ver. 6.) of the blessed angels, which constantly attend upon the throne. And if those most glorious and happy spirits, those“ morning stars which sang together, those sons of God which shouted for joy when the foundations of the earth were laid,” (Job xxxviii. 7. 4.) if they and their habitation were made ; then can we no ways doubt of the production of all other creatures so much inferior unto them.
• Lucretius calls the heavens : mavra xer) kóquov elvau. Philo de MoMundi magnum et versatile tem- narch. l. ii. init. plum. 1. v. v. 1435. Tò åywrátw kai + "Ιδιον οικητήριον. πρός αλήθειαν ιερόν θεού νομίζειν σύμ