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there dissolving all the power by which they were detained below, translated 'them into a far more glorious place, and estated them in a condition far more happy in the heavens above.
Others of them understood no such translation of place, or alteration of condition there, conceiving that the souls of all men are detained below still,* and shall not enter into heaven μυστήριον του πάθους, και συν τη ψυχή fectus autem omnis erit sicut magiκατελθείν εις τα καταχθόνια, επί το έρ- ster ejus. Quomodo ergo Imagister γάσασθαι την έκεϊ τών προκεκοιμημένων noster non statim evolans abiit, sed σωτηρίαν, φημί των αγίων πατριαρχών. sustinens debnitum a Patre resurre.Translatus erat Enoch, raptus Elias: ctionis suæ tempus,(quod et per Jonam sed non est servus supra Dominum. manifestum est) post triduum resurNullus enim ascendit in cælum, nisi qui gens assumptus est; sic et nos sustidescendit de cælo. Nam et Moysen, nere debemus definitum a Deo resurlicet corpus ejus non apparuerit in rectionis nostræ tenípus prænunciaterris, nusquam tamen in gloria coe- tum a Prophetis, et sic resurgentes lesti legimus, nisi postquam Dominus assumi, quotquot Dominus hoc dignos suæ resurrectionis pignore vincula sol- habuerit. Adv. Hæres. I. v. c. 26. vit inferni, et piorum animas elevavit.' Tertullian followeth Irenæus in this S. Ambros. I. iv. de Fide ad Gratia- particular: ‘Habes et regionem innum, c. 1.
• Qui in eo loco detine- feram subterraneam credere et illos bantur sancti, vinculorum solutionem cubito pellere, qui satis superbe non in Christi adventu sperabant. Nemo putent aninias fidelium inferis dignas, enim ab inferni sedibus liberatur nisi servi super Dominum et discipuli super Christi gratiam. Eo igitur post per magistrum, aspernati si forte in mortem Christus descendit. Ut An- Abrahæ sinu exspectandæ resurrectigelus in caminum . Babylonis ad tres onis solatium carpere.' De Anim. c.55. pueros liberandos descendit, ita Chri- 'Nulli patet coelum, terra adhuc salva, stus ad fornacem descendit inferni, in ne dixerim clausa. Cum transactione quo clausæ justorum animæ teneban- enim mundi reserabuntur regna coetur. Postquam eo descendit, infero- lorum.' Ibid. Eam itaque regionem rum claustra perfodit, diripuit, vasta- sinum dico Abrahæ, etsi non coelevit, spoliavit, vinctas inde animas li- stem, sublimiorem tamen inferis, inberando.' S. Hier. in Ecclesiasten. terim refrigerium præbituram anima
* Justin Martyr in his Dialogue bus justorum, donec consummatio with Trypho first begins: 'Allà pěv rerum resurrectionem omnium pleniουδέ αποθνήσκειν φημί πάσας τας ψυχάς tude mercedis expungat? Adυ. Μaršywo (gualov yào nv wg åknows toig ka- cion. I. iv. c. 34. • Omnes ergo anikors). åld ti; ràs uěv eugeBūv tv kpeit- mæ penes inferos? Inquis. Velis et τονί που χώρα μένειν, τάς δε αδίκους και nolis, et supplicia jam illic et refrigeTovnpås &v xelpovi, ròv rñs xpioews ÉK- ria habes, pauperem et divitem. Čur dexouévas xpóvov róte. p. 223. After enim non putes animam et puniri et bim Irenæus: ‘Cum Dominus in me- foveri in inferis, interim sub exspedio umbræ mortis abierit, ubi animi ctatione utriusque judicii in quadam mortuorum erant, post deinde corpo- usurpatione et candida ejus ? De raliter resurrexit, et post resurrectio- Anima, c. 58. St. Hilary, in his Comnem assumptus est; manifestum est mentary upon these words of the quia et discipulorum ejus, propter Psalm, ' Dominus custodiet et introiquos et hæc operatus est Dominus, tum tuum et exitum tuum ex hoc et usanimæ abibunt in invisibilem locum que in seculum: Non enim temporis definitum eis a Deo, et ibi usque ad hujus et seculi est ista custodia, non resurrectionem commorabuntur, sus- aduri sole atque luna, et ab omni malo tinentes resurrectionem; post reci- conservari; sed futuri boni exspectapientes corpora et perfecte resurgen- tio est, cum exeuntes de corpore ad tes, hoc est, corporaliter, quemadmo- introitum illum regni coelestis per dum et Dominus resurrexit, sic veni- custodiam Domini fideles omnes reent in conspectum Dei. Nemo enim servabuntur, in sinu scilicet interim est discipulus super magistrum : per- Abrahæ collocati, quo adire impios
until the general resurrection. They made no such distinction at the death of Christ, as if those which believed in a Saviour to come should be kept out of heaven till he came, and those which now believe in the same Saviour already come, should be admitted thither immediately upon their expiration.
But such as thought the place in which the souls of the patriarchs did reside could not in propriety of speech be called hell, nor was ever so named in the Scriptures, conceived, that as our Saviour went to those who were included in the proper hell, or place of torment, so the end of his descent was to deliver souls from those miseries which they felt, and to translate them to a place of happiness and a glorious condi. tion. They which did think that hell was wholly emptied, that every soul was presently released from all the pains which before it suffered, were branded with the name of heretics :* interjectum Chaos inbibet, quousqne And though he gives the heresy withintroeuvdi rursum in regnum coelo- out a name, as he found it in Philarum tempus adveniat. Custodit ergo strius, yet we find the opinion was not Dominus exitum, dum de corpore ex- very singular. For Euodius propoundeuntes secreti ab impiis interjecto ed it to St. Augustin as a question in Chao quiescunt. Custodit et introi- which he desired satisfaction: 'An tum, dum nos in æternum illud et bea- descendens Christus omnibus evantum regnum introducit.' Tract. in gelizavit, omnesque a tenebris et poePsal. cxx. §. 16. And at the end nis per gratiam liberavit, ut a temof the second Psalm ; • Judicii enim pore resurrectionis Domini judicium dics vel beatitudinis retributio est exspectetur exinanitis inferis ? Ep. æterna, vel poenæ: tempus vero mortis 98. al. 163. ad S. August. And in bis habet unumquemque suis legibus, answer to that question, he looks not dum ad judicium unumquemque aut upon the affirmative part as a heresy, Abraham reservat aut pæna.' ş. 48, but as a doubtful proposition. His reTous Gregory Nyssen still leaves the solution, first, is, that it did not conpatriarchs in Abraham's bosom, in cern the prophets and the patriarchs, expectation of admittance into hea- because he could not see how they ven: Kai ydp oi Tepi Tòv'ABpady natpi- should be thought to be in hell, and άρχαι του μεν ιδείν τα αγαθά την επι- s0 capable of a deliverance from Oupiav žoxov, kai ovk åvñkavéŠNTOūv- thence: 'Addunt quidam hoc bene, τες την επουράνιον πατρίδα καθώς φησιν fcium antiquis etiam Sanctis fuisse Ó'ATÓotolog åXXà duūs év tað éA TIČELN concessum, Abel, Seth, Noe, et domui fri Tiiv xápiv cloi, toữ OeoŨ kpɛirtóv ejus, Abraham, Isaac, et Jacob, aliis, τι περί ημών προβλεψαμένου, κατά την que patriarchis et prophetis, ut cum του Παύλου φωνήν, ίνα μή, φησί, χωρίς Dominus in infernum venisset, illis quõv medewõol. De Hominis Opificio, doloribus solverentur. Sed quonam c. 22. These therefore, which con- modo intelligatur Abraham, in cujus ceived that the souls of the godly now sinum pius etiam pauper ille susceafter Christ's ascension do ge unto ptus est, in illis fuisse doloribus, ego the bosom of Abraham, where the quidem non video: explicant fortasse patriarchs and prophets were and are, qui possunt.' Epist. 99. al. 164. ad Euand that both, remain together till the odium, §. 6, 7. Et paulo post : «Unde general resurrection, did not believe illis justis, qui in sinu Abrahæ erant that Christ did therefore descend into cum ille in inferna descenderet, nonhell, that he might, translate the pa- dum quid contulisset inveni, a quibus triarchs from thence into heaven. : eum secundum beatificam præsenti
* St. Augustin in bis book De He- am suæ Divinitatis nunquam video resibus reckons this as the seventy- recessisse.' §. 8. And yet in another ninth heresy : ‘Alia, descendente ad be will not blame them that believed infernos Christo credidisse incredulos, the contrary, por did he think their et omnes inde existimat liberatos,' opinion absurd : Si enim non ab
but to believe that many were delivered, was both by them and many others counted orthodox..
The means by which they did conceive that Christ did free the souls of men from hell, was the application of his death unto them, which was propounded unto those souls by preaching of the Gospel there :* that as he revealed here on earth the
surde credi videtur, antiquos etiam hoc possimus ostendere? Ibid. §. 3, 4. Sanctos, qui venturi Christi tenuerunt Thus the opinion of St. Augustin is fidem, locis quidem a tormentis im- clear, that those which departed in the piorum remotissimis, sed apud infe- faith of Christ were before in happiros, fuisse, donec eos inde sanguis ness and the beatifical presence of Christi ad ea loca descensus erueret, God, and so needed no translation by &c.' De Civitate Dei, l. xx.c. 15. His the death of Christ; and of those second resolution was, that Christ did which were kept in the pains of hell, by bis descent relieve some out of the some were loosed and delivered from pains of hell, taking hell in the worst them, some were not; and this was sense: “Quia evidentia testimonia et the proper end or effect of Christ's deinfernum commemorant et dolores, scent into hell. Thus Capreolus: nulla causa occurrit, cur illo credatur Ipse in homine est visitare inferorum venisse Salvator, nisi ut ab ejus dolo- dignatus abstrusa, et præpositos morribus salvos faceret.' Epist. 99. al. 164. tis præsentia invictæ majestatis exter§. 8. Quamobrem teneamus firmis. ruit, et propter liberandos quos voluit, sime quod fides babet fundatissima inferorum portas reserari præcepit. auctoritate firmata, quia Christus Epist. ad Hispanos, p. 49. St. Ammortuus est secundum Scripturas, et brose: Ipse autem inter mortuos quia sepultus est, et quia resurrexit liber remissionem in inferno positis, tertia die secundum Scripturas; et soluta mortis lege, donabat.' De Incætera quæ de illo testatissima veri- carn. c. 5. "Olov ydp xúbùs okvlevoas tate conscripta sunt. In quibus etiam τον άδην, και τας αφύκτους τοίς των κεhoc est, quod apud inferos fuit, solutis colunuévwv zveúpaolv åvaretáoas túeorum doloribus, quibus eum erat im- λας, έρημόν τε και μόνον αφείς εκείσε τον possible teneri; a quibus etiam recte diábolov åvéotn.' S. Cyril. Homil. intelligitur solvisse et liberasse quos Pasch. 7. t. v. par. 2. p. 91. Who voluit.' Ibid. §. 14. His third resolu- speaks full as high as those words of tion was, that how many these were Euodius, or that beretic, whosoever which were delivered out of hell was it was, which is mentioned, though not uncertain, and therefore temerarious named, by Philastrius, lib. de Hares. to define: 'Sed utrum omnes quos in 74. For ēpnuos kai jóvos diáßolos, iş as eis invenit, an quosdam quos illo be- much as, inferi exinaniti ; and KevúraS neficio dignos judicavit, adhuc requi- roở Savárov uvxov (which he useth in ro. Ibid. §. 8. . Hoc scilicet quod another homily) is the same. scriptum est, Solutis doloribus inferni, * This preaching of the Gospel to non in omnibus, sed in quibusdam ac- the dead, was the general opinion of cipi potest, quos ille dignos ista libe. the fathers, as the end of his descent, ratione judicabat: ut neque frustra or means, by which that good was illic descendisse existimetur, nulli wrought for the souls below, which eorum profuturus qui ibi tenebantur was 'effected by his death. Eapro- .. inclusi; nec tamen sit consequens, ut pter Dominum in ea quæ sub terra dequod Divina quibusdam misericordia scendisse, evangelizantem et illis adjustitiaque concessit, omnibus con- ventum suum, remissam peccatorum cessum esse putandum sit. Ibid. §. 5. exsistentem his qui credunt in eum. * Potest et sic, ut eos dolores eum Crediderunt autem in eum omnes qui solvisse credamus quibus teneri ipse sperabant in eum, id est, qui advennon poterat, sed quibus alii teneban- tum ejus prænunciaverunt, et dispotur quos ille noverat liberandos. Ve- sítionibus ejus servierunt, Justi, et rum quidam isti sunt temerarium est Prophetæ, et Patriarchæ, quibus sidefinire. Si euim omnes omnino di- militer ut nobis remisit peccata.'. Irexerimus tunc esse liberatos qui illuc næus, adv. Hær. I. iv. c. 45. : 'Evepyet inventi sunt, quis non gratuletur, si yap, olyat, kai ở Swrne, éri rò CÁCER
will of God unto the sons of men, and propounded himself as the object of their faith, to the end that whosoever believed in him should never die ; so after his death he shewed himself unto the souls departed, that whosoever of them would yet accept of and acknowledge him should pass from death to life.
Thus did they think the soul of Christ descended into hell to preach the Gospel to the spirits there, that they might res, ceive him who before believed in him, or that they might believe in him who before rejected him. But this cannot be re-. ceived as the end, or way to effect the end, of Christ's descent: nor can I look upon it as an illustration of this Article, for many reasons. For, first, I have already shewn that the place of St. Peter, so often mentioned for it, is not capable of that sense, nor hath it any relation to our Saviour after death; secondly, The ancients seem upon no other reason to have interpreted this place of St. Peter in that manner, but because other Apocryphal Writings led them to that interpretation, upon the authority whereof this opinion only can rely._A place of the prophet Jeremy was first produced,* that “The
έργον αυτού όπερ ούν και πεποίηκεν, with Trypho the Jew: Και από των τους εις αυτόν πιστεύσαι βεβουλημένους λόγων του.αυτού Ιερεμίου ομοίως ταύτα, διά του κηρύγματος, όπου ποτ' έτυχον , περιέκοψαν, Έμνήσθη δε Κύριος ο Θεός γεγονότες, έλκύσας εις σωτηρίαν. Ει μεν από Ισραήλ των νεκρών αυτού των κεούν ο Κύριος δι' ουδέν έτερον εις άδου κατ- κοιμημένων εις γην χώματος, και κατέβη ήλθεν, ή διά το ευαγγελίσασθαι, ώσπερ προς αυτούς ευαγγελίσασθαι αυτούς το κατήλθεν,ήτοι πάντας ευαγγελίσασθαι, ή σωτήριον αυτού. p. 298. This place is μόνους Εβραίους. Ει μεν ούν πάντας, first brought by Ireneus, to prove that σωθήσονται πάντες οι πιστεύσαντες, κάν he which died for us was not only εξ εθνών όντες τύχωσιν, εξομολογησάμε- man but God: Et quoniam non 80νοι ήδη εκεί. Clem. Aler. Strom. 1. vi. Ium homo erat qui moriebatur pro C. 6. Τριήμερος γάρ ανεβίω κηρύξας και, nobis, ait Esaias, Et commemoratus. τοίς εν φυλακή πνεύμασι. Πληρεστάτη est Dominus Sanctus Israel mortuorum . γάρ ούτως ή της φιλανθρωπίας επίδειξις εuorum, quia (leg. φui) dormierant in. ήν, τω μή μόνον ανασώσαι φημί, τους έτι terra sepultionis, et descendit ad eos, ζώντας επί της γης, αλλά και τους ήδη evangelicare salutem que est ab eo, με κατoιχομένοις, και εν τοίς της αβύσσου, salvaret eos.' Ado. Heres. 1. iii. C. μυχούς καθημένοις εν σκότω, κατά το γε- 23. Only he names Isaiah instead γραμμένον, διακηρύξαι την άφεσιν. S. of Jeremiah, whom he rightly names Cyril. Alex. in Ioan. I. xi. c. 2. p. 933. again : ‘Sicut Hieremias ait, RecomΠολλαχού διαμαρτύρεται η γραφή, δν memoratus est Dominus Sanctus Israel τρόπον τοίς τηνικάδε ζώσι, τον αυτόν και mortuorum, &c. 1. iv. c. 39. And as, τοίς εν άδου διά Χριστού την απολύτρωσιν. there, s0 more plainly, 1. ν. c. 26. apπαραγενέσθαι. Λέγει γάρ ό των μαθητών plies it to the soul of Christ while it κορυφαίος, Εις τούτο γάρ άπέθανε και ανέ- was absent from his body: Nanc στη, ίνα και νεκρών και ζώντων κυριεύση", autem tribus diebus conversatus est, και πάλιν, Τοίς εν φυλακή πορευθείς εκή- ubi erant mortui, quemadmodum proρυξε πνεύμασιν, ίνα κριθώσι μεν σαρκί, phetia ait de eo, Commemoratus est. ζώσι δε πνεύματι τουτέστιν, όπως οι μέν Dominus Sanctorum (lege, Sanctus άπιστοι, και διά τούτο αμαρτωλοί, μεμε- Israel) mortuorum guorum, eorum qui νηκότες κατακριθώσιν, άτε δη ολοκλήρως αnte dormierunt in terra stipulationis, σάρξ γεγονότες, και διχοτομηθέντες τού (lege, sepultionis), et descendit ad eos, πνεύματος όσοι δε καν έν άδου Χριστώ extrahere eos, et salvare eos.'. Thus. τη δικαιοσύνη πεπιστεύκασι, της πνευ- did Ireneus make use of this verse, ματικής ευφροσύνης απολαύωσι. Jobius to shew Christ preached unto the apnd Photium, l. ix, cap. 38. dead, rather than that of St. Peter ;
• Justin Martyr in his Dialogue and yet there is no authority in it.
Lord God of Israel remembered his dead, which slept in the land of the grave, and descended unto them, to preach unto them his salvation. But being there is no such verse extant in that prophet or any other, it was also delivered that it was once in the translation of the Septuagint, but rased out from thence by the Jews, which as it can scarcely be conceived true, so if it were, it would be yet of doubtful authority, as being never yet found in the Hebrew text. And Hermes, in his book called the Pastor, was thought to give sufficient strength to this opinion;* whereas the book itself is of no good authority, and in this particular is most extravagant: for he taught that not only the soul of Christ, but also the souls of the apostles, preached to the spirits below; that as they followed his steps here, so did they also after their death, and therefore descended to preach in hell.
Nor is this only to be suspected in reference to those pretended authorities which first induced men to believe it, and to make forced interpretations of Scripture to maintain it; but also to be rejected in itself, as false and inconsistent with the nature, scope, and end, of the Gospel (which is to be preached with such commands and ordinances as can concern those only which are in this life), and as incongruous to the state and condition of those souls to whom Christ is supposed to preach. For if we look upon the patriarchs and prophets, and all saints before departed, it is certain they were never disobedient in the days of Noah; nor could they need the publication of the Gospel after the death of Christ, who by virtue of that death For it is not to be found in the He- which he threre proved: boys the authobrew text, and Justin Martyr charges rity of his book called Pastor, and atthe Jews only of rasing it out of the tributed to Hermes'; 'O 'Equñs de LXX. which bow they could do out • φησί τους Αποστόλους και τους of these copies which were in the διδασκάλους, τους κηρύξαντας το όνομα Christians_hands is scarce intelligible; Toũ Điơũ Toũ leoỡ, cai count=Prag, vị and yetit is not now to be found there. δυνάμει και τη πίστει κηρύξαι τοϊς προκε
* Clemens Alexandrinus first brings Kolpnuévous. Strom. I. ii. c. 9. which a strange place of Scripture to prove words are thus in the old Latin transChrist's preaching in hell, Strom. I. vi. lation of Hermes, l. ii. Sim. 9. Quon c. 6. Alb Tep Kúplos evnyyedioaro kai iam hi Apostoli et doctores qui præτούς έν άδου. Φησί γ' ούν ή γραφή, Λέγει ο dicaverunt nomen Filii. Dei, cum haçons rõ å troleiq, Eldos uèv aŭtoŨ oŮk et- bentes fidem ejus et potestatem dedojev, puvrijv dè avroŨ ikovoajer' which functi essent; prædicaverunt his qui he thus interprets: Oůx ò Tómog dínov ante obierunt.' And then Clemens φωνήν λαβών είπεν τα προειρημένα, supplies: that authority with a reason αλλ' οι έν άδου καταταγέντες και είς από- of his own, that as the apostles were delav avrovs EvdėðWCÓTES, kabámepēc to imitate. Christ while they lived, so τινος νεώς εις θάλασσαν εκόντες απορρί- they did also imitate him after death: : ψαντες αυτοί τοίνυν εισιν οι επακούσαν- Bχρήν γάρ, oίμαι, ώσπερ κανταύθα, τες της θείας δυνάμεως και φωνής" and ούτως δε κακείσε τους αρίστους των μα . tlien 8eerming to aim at the place of θητών μιμητές γενέσθαι του διδασκάλου. St. Peter, he passes to another proof, Stromat vii c. 6. And therefore which he had produced in his second they preached to the souls in hell as book : Aédeutai dè x¢v tõdevrépy Erpw- Ebrist did before them. This is the ματεί, τους Αποστόλους, ακολούθως το doctrine of Clemens Alexandrinus Κυρίω, και τους έν άδου ευαγγελισμένους" out of his Apocryphal Authorities.