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This is sufficient for the clearing the precise distance of Christ's resurrection from his crucifixion, expressed in the determinate number of three days: the next consideration is, what day of the week that third day was, on which Christ did actually rise, and what belongeth to that day in relation to his resurrection. Two characters there are which will evidently prove the particularity of this third day; the first is the description of that day in respect of which this is called the third, after the manner already delivered and confirmed; the second is the evangelist's expression of the time on which Christ rose.
The character of the day in which our Saviour died is undeniable, for it is often expressly called the preparation ;* as. hora sexta, et spiritum reddidit tora κτα τη μετ' αυτήν ημέρα λογίζονται καθ' nona. Sepultus est autem cum jam ήν ουδενί θέμις έστιν ενεργών έχειν την sero factam esset: sic sese habent χείρα, αλλά τιμώντες διαφερόντως αυτήν verba evangelii, quod intelligitur in άγουσιν απραξίαν. This παρασκευή of fine diei. Unde libet ergo incipias, the Hebrews was answerable to the etiamsi alia ratio reddi potest, quo- coena pura of the Gentiles, as the old modo non sit contra evangelium Jo- glossary,Cona pura, zpooáßßatov: and bannis, ut hora tertia ligno suspensus in Gloss. Latino-Arabico, Parasccue. intelligatur; totum diem primum non coena pura, id est, præparatio quæ fit comprehendis. Ergo a parte extrema pro sabbato.' From whence some of totus computabitur, sicut tertius a the fathers so interpret the eyes of parte prima. Nox enim usque ad the Jewish sabbaths, as Tertullian : diluculum, quo Domini resurrectio de- 'Dies observatis et menses et temclarata est, ad tertium diem pertinet.' pora et annos et sabbata, ut opinor, De Trinit. I. iv. c. 6. And after him et coenas puras et jejunia et dies Leo the Great: “Ne turbatos Disci- magnos.' Adv. Marcion. I. v. c. 4. pulorum animos longa moestitudo • Acceleratam vult intelligi sepultucruciaret, denunciatam tridui moram ram, ne advesperasceret; quando jam tam mira celeritate breviavit, ut dum propter parasceuen, quam coenam puad integrum secundum diem pars ram Judæi Latine usitatius apud nos primi novissima et pars tertii prima vocant, facere tale quid not licebat.' concurrit, et aliquantum temporis S. August. Tract. 120. in Ioan. §. 5. spatio decideret, et nibil dierum nu- And the ancient translators of the mero deperiret.' De Resur. Domini, Greek fathers did use the Latin coena Serm. 1. c. 2. vid. Isidor.. Pelus. I.i. pura for the Greek Tapaokevý. As Epist. 114.
the interpreter of St. Chrysostom, • Ilapaokevi), 'Parasceue interpre- Serm. in Natalem Ioan. Bapt. Qua tatur præparatio,' saith St. Augustin; enim die conceptus est Dominus, eade consen. Evang. I. iii. Ş. 50. and in dem die et passus est: eadem ipsa die the Greek language it signifieth gene- coena pura fuit, in qua et luna quarta rally any preparation wbat nature decima occurrit. So likewise the soever: but in this case it signifieth old interpreter of Irenæus: Pararather the time in which preparation sceue, quæ dicitur coena pura, id est, was made, as Luke xxiii. 54. Kai sexta feria, quam et Dominus ostenquépa ñv hapaokev” and that prepa- dit passus in ea. Iren. adv. Hares. ration among the Jews for the sab- l. v. c. 23. Mosen in sexta dic dixisbath, as St. Mark xv. 42. 'Etei hv se, quæ est coena pura.'l. i. c. 14. §. 6. παρασκευή, δ' έστι προσάββατον" and in As therefore the cena pura among the the dict of Augustus Cæsar: 'Ey- Gentiles was that time in whi they γύας τε μη ομολογείν εν σάββασιν ή prepared and sanctified themselves TÕ #pò raúrns tapaokevõ årò őpas év- for their sacred solemnities, so the várns. Joseph. Jud. Ant. I. xvi. c. 10. Jews did make use of that word to which is well expressed by Synesius, signify their sanctification, and of the ep. 4. “Ημέρα μεν ούν ήν, ήντινα άγου- Greek παρασκευή to testify the prepaσιν οι Ιουδαίοι παρασκευήν, την δε νύ- ration of all things used on their holy
we read, they therefore laid Jesus in the garden, “because of the Jews preparation-day, for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.” (John xix. 42.) And “the next day that followed the preparation, the chief priests and pharisees asked a guard. (Matt. xxvii. 62.) Now this day of preparation was the day immediately before the sabbath or some other great feast of the Jews called by them the eve of the sabbath or the feast; and therefore called the preparation, because on that day they did prepare whatsoever was necessary for the celebration of the following festival, according to that command in the case of manna, " It shall come to pass that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in, and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.” (Exod. xvi.5.) This preparation being used both before the sabbath and other festivals, at this time it had both relations: for, first, it was the preparation to a sabbath, as appeareth by those words of St. Mark, “Now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath ; (xv. 42.) and those of St. Luke, “That day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on.” (xxiii. 54.) Secondly, It was also the eve of a festival, even of the great day of the paschal solemnity, as appeareth by St. John, who saith, when Pilate sat down in the judgment-seat," it was the preparation of the Passover.” (xix. 14.) And that the great paschal festivity did then fall upon the sabbath, so that the same day was then the preparation or eve of both, appeareth yet farther by the same evangelist, saying, “The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath-day, for that sabbath was a high day;" (Ibid. 31.) that is, not only an ordinary or weekly sabbath, but also a great festival, even a paschal sabbath. Now being the sabbath of the Jews was constant and fixed to the seventh day of the week, it followeth that the preparation or eve thereof must necessarily be the sixth day of days, upon the eve thereof, or day be the second, anbn the third, asyan fore.
, , est; sed isto verbo Græco libentius the eve, Xhaw the sabbath. Thus ia utuntur Judæi in hujusmodi observa- Hebrew xniny, in Greek apationibus, etiam qui magis Latine quam keun, in Latin coena pura, were used Græce loquuntur,' saith St. Augustin, by the Jews for the same day, the Tract. 117. in Ioan. §. 2. So that the Friday or sixth of the week; but not same father testifieth that the Jews, for that alone, but for the eve of any speaking Latin in his time, did some great festival which answered to a times use parasceue, sometimes cæna sabbath; so that they had their pura, eve . , Otherwise in their own language they παρασκευή του σαββάτου, and παραcalled it it or niny; by whicb drev) tog Háožav And when a great generally they understood the sixth festival fell upon the sabbath, then as day of the week, the day before the sabe the festivities were both one day, so bath. For so they reckoned the days the eve to both was the same Friday. of the week in Bereshith Rabba, h And such was the day of preparation Xnwthe first of the week, 'n on which our Saviour was crucified.
the week; which, from the day and the infinite benefit accruing to us by the passion upon that day, we call Good Friday. And from that day being the sixth of one, the third must consequently be the eighth, or the first of the next week.*
The next character of this third day is the expression of the time of the resurrection in the evangelists. “ When the sabbath was past,” saith St. Mark, which was the day after the preparation on which he was buried, “ Very early in the morning the first day of the week.” (xvi. 1, 2.) “In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn towards the first day of the week,” saith St. Matthew. (xxviii. 1.) “ Upon the first day of the week early in the morning,” saith St. Luke. (xxiv. 1.) “The first day of the week early, when it was yet dark,” saith St. John. (xx. 1.) By all which indications it appeareth that the body of Christ being laid in the. sepulchre on the day of the preparation, which was the eve of the sabbath, and continuing there the whole sabbath following, which was the conclusion of that week, and farther resting there still and remaining dead the night which followed that sabbath, but belonged to the first day of the next week, about the end of that night early in the morning, was revived by the accession and union of his soul, and rose again out of the sepulchre.
Whereby it came to pass, that the obligation of the day, which was then the sabbath, died and was buried with him, but in a manner by a diurnal transmutation revived again at his resurrection. Well might that day, which carried with it a remembrance of that great deliverance from the Egyptian servitude, resign all the sanctity or solemnity due unto it, when that morning once appeared, upon which a far greater redemption was confirmed. One day of seven was set apart by God
* Opãre, tūs léyel, où rà vũv oá3- Cuin in septimo die Sabbati nomen βατα εμοί δεκτά, αλλά & πεποίηκα, έν sit et bservantia constituta; tamen ή καταπαύσας τα πάντα αρχήν ημέρας nos in octava die, que et ipsa prima ογδόης ποιήσω. ό έστιν άλλου κόσμου est, perfecti Sabbati festivitate Izetaáoxývo did kai äyouɛv rijv quépav trivmor.' S. Hilar. Com. in Psal. Prol. oyoónv eis supposúvny. šv ý kai • ’In- $. 12. 'Hæc octava sententia, quæ σούς ανέστη εκ νεκρών, και φανερωθείς ad caput redit perfectumque homiåvißn eis tovs. oúpavoirç. Barnabæ nem declarat, significatur fortasse et Epist. c. 15. 'H ušv oŭv tūV. TvEvpa- circumcisione octava die in veteri τικών ανάπαυσις εν κυριακη εν όγδοάδει Testamento, ct Domini resurrectione Ý KUPLAKI) óvopálerai. Theodorus, Epist. post Sabbatum, quod est utique oc1. Η δε εντολή της περιτομής κελεύουσα tavus idemque primus dies. S. Aucũ ởYêó nhuếpa Ex TaeToc Toptekuwfu Tà gust. de Sexm. Dom. in monte, S. 1. 5. γεννώμενα, τύπος ήν της αληθινής πε- 12. Και το έθος και το πρέπον ημάς ριτομής, ήν περιετμήθημεν από της πλά- απαιτεί πάσαν Κυριακήν τιμών και εν νης και πονηρίας, διά του από νεκρών ταύτη πανηγυρίζειν, επειδήπερ εν ταύτη αναστάντος εν μιά των σαββάτων ημέρα ο Κύριος ημών Ιησούς Χριστός την εκ Ιησού Χριστού του Κυριού ημών. Μία νεκρών ανάστασιν ημίν έπρυτάνευσε διό. γάρ των σαββάτων πρώτη μένουσα των και εν ταϊς ιεραϊς γραφείς και πρώτη πασών ημερών κατά τον αριθμόν πάλιν κέκληται, ως αρχή ζωής ημών υπάρχουτων πασών ημερών της κυκλοφορίας, όγ- σα, και ογδόη, άτε υπερβεβηκυία τον δόη καλείται, και πρώτη ούσα μένει. Jus- των Ιουδαίων σαββατισμόν. Τheophilhus tin. Mart. Dial. cum Tryphone, p. 260. Alexand. Edict.
transmitted to the Church of God, and so continued in all ages.
This day thus consecrated by the resurrection of Christ was left as the perpetual badge and cognizance of his Church. As God spake by Moses to the Israelites, “Verily my sabbath shall ye keep, for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations, that ye may know that I am the Lord that do sanctify you;" (Exod. xxxi. 13.) thereby leaving a mark of distinction upon the Jews, who were by this means known to worship that God whose name was Jehovah, who made the World, and delivered them from the hands of Pharaoh : so we must conceive that he hath given us. this day as a sign between him and us for ever, whereby we may be known to worship the same God Jehovah, who did not only create heaven and earth in the beginning, but also raised his eternal Son from the dead for our redemption. As therefore the Jews do still retain the celebration of the seventh day of the · week, because they will not believe any greater deliverance wrought than that of Egypt; as the Mahometans religiously observe the sixth day of the week in memory of Mahomet's flight from Mecca, whom they esteem a greater prophet than our Saviour; as these are known and distinguished in the world by these several celebrations of distinct days in the worficavit, coepit eadem prima esse quæ ut in eo a terrenis operibus vel mundi octava est, et octava quæ prima, illecebris abstinentes, tantum divinis babens ex numeri ordine prærogati- cultibus serviamus, dantes scilicet vam, et ex resurrectione Domini diei huic honorem et reverentiam sanctitatem. S. Ambros. Enar. in propter spem resurrectionis nostræ Psal. xlvii. §. 1. “ Dicat aliquis, Si quam habemus in illa. Nam sicut dies observari non licet, et menses et ipse Dominus Jesus Christus et Saltempora et annos, nos quoque simile vator resurrexit a mortuis, ita et nos crimen incurrimus, quartam Sabbati resurrecturos in novissimo die speobservantes, et parasceuen, et diem ramus. Auctor Serm. de Tempore, Dominicam.” S. Hier. in Epist. ad Serm. 251.' al. 280. §. 2. Sancti Gal. c. 4. ver. 10. And St. Augustin doctores Ecclesiæ decreverunt omin answer to that objection: Nam nem gloriam Judaici Sabbatismi in nos quoque et Dominicum diem et illam transferre; ut quod ipsi in figura, Pascha solenniter celebramus et quas- nos celebraremus in veritate.' Ibid. libet alias Christianas dierum festivi- ' Dominica nobis ideo venerabilis est tates.' cont. Adimant. c. 16. • Dies atque solennis, quia in ea Salvator Dominicus non Judæis sed Christi- velut sol oriens, discussis infernorum anis resurrectione Domini declaratus tenebris, luce resurrectionis emicuit, est, et ex illo habere cæpit festivi. ac propterea ipsa dies ab hominibus tatem suam. S. August. Epist. 119. sæculi Dies solis vocatur, quod ortus al. 35. §. 23. Hæc tamen septima eum sol justitiæ Christus illuminet.' erit Sabbatum nostrum, cujus finis Max. Taurin. 'de Pentecost. Hom. 3. non erit vespera, sed Dominicus dies. Περιέχει ούν ή μεν παρασκευή προς το velut octavus eternus, qui Clhristi, σάββατον την ταφήν, η Κυριακή την resurrectione sacratus est, æternam åváoTaoiv. Auctor Clem. Constitut. non solum spiritus, verum etiam cor- !. v. c. 13. "Ori où dei Xplotlavoùs poris, requiem præfigurans.' Idem, de 'Iovdatfelv kai év tự oaßßárw okolábav, Civit. Dei, 1. xxii. c. 30. 9. 5. Do- &Mlà špyálkodai aŭtous év tõ aúry minicum diem Apostoli et Apostolici ημέρα την δε Κυριακήν προτιμώντας, , viri ideo religiosa solennitate haben- είγε δύναιντο, σχολάζειν, ως Χριστιανοί dum sanxerunt, quia in eodem Re- ei dè kúpnIeiev 'Iovdaïorai, otwoav demptor noster a mortuis resurrexit. åváteua rapà Xplot(. Concil. Lao-. Quique ideo Dominicus appellatur, dic. Can. 29.
ship of God: so all which profess the Christian religion are known publicly to belong unto the Church of Christ by observing the first day of the week upon which Christ did rise from the dead, and by this mark of distinction are openly separated from all other professions.*
That Christ did thus rise from the dead, is a most necessary Article of the Christian faith, which all are obliged to believe and profess, to the meditation whereof the apostle hath given a particular injunction. “Remember that Jesus Christ of the seed of David was raised from the dead.” (2 Tim. ii. 8.) First, Because without it our faith is vain, and by virtue of it strong. By this we are assured that he which died was the Lord of life; and though he were “crucified through weakness, yet he liveth by the power of God.” (2 Cor. xiii. 4.) By this resurrection from the dead, he “ was declared to be the Son of God;” (Rom. i. 4.) and upon the morning of the third day did those words of the Father manifest a most important truth, “Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.” (Acts xiii. 33.) In his death he assured us of his humanity, by his resurrection he demonstrated his Divinity.
Secondly, By his resurrection we are assured of the justification of our persons; and “ if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead,” it will be "imputed to us for righteousness;" for he “was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.” (Rom. iv. 24. 22. 25.) By his death we know that he suffered for sin, by his resurrection we are assured, that the sins for which he suffered, were not his own. Had no man been a sinner, he had not died; had he been a sinner, he had not risen again : but dying for those sins which we committed, he rose from the dead to shew that he had made full satisfaction for them, that we believing in him might obtain remission of our sins, and justification of our persons. “ God, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh for sin, condemned sin in the flesh,” (Rom. viii. 3.) and raising up our surety from the prison of the grave, did actually absolve, and apparently acquit, him from the whole obligation to which he had bound himself, and
* Quid hac die felicius, in qua nis, dies Christianorum, dies nostra Dominus Judæis mortuus est, nobis est.' Explan. in Psal. 117. sub nomine resurrexit? in qua Synagogæ cultus Hieron. occubuit, et est ortus Ecclesiæ ; in + St. Chrysostom excellently upon qua nos homines fecit secum surgere that place: "Oρα πως την αιτίαν ειπών et vivere et sedere in caelestibus, et του θανάτου, την αυτήν και απόδειξιν impletum est illud quod ipse dixit in της αναστάσεως ποιείται. Διά τί γάρ Evangelio, Cum autem exaltatus fuero xotavpásn, pnoiv; où di oixeiav åpapa terra, omnia traham ad me. Ηaec τίαν και δήλον εκ της αναστάσεως ει est dies quam fecit Dominus, exsulte- ydo úv åpaprwlòs, Tõs åvéotni și dė mus et lætemur in ea. Omnes dies ανέστη, εύδηλον ότι αμαρτωλός ουκ ήν ει quidem fecit Dominus, sed ceteri dies δε αμαρτωλός ουκ ήν, πώς εσταυρώθη; possunt esse Judæorum, possunt esse di'ěrépous ei dè dé_ėrépous, távtWS Hæreticorum, possunt esse Gentili- åvéotn. Hom. 9. in Epist. ad Rom. um; dies Dominica, dies resurrectio