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are to receive. Looking back upon the actions we have done, it either approves or condemns them; and if it did no more, it would only prove that there is a judgment in this life, and every man his own judge. But being it doth not only allow and approve our good actions, but also doth create a complacency, apology, and confidence, in us; being it doth not only disprove and condemn our evil actions, but doth also constantly accuse us, and breed a fearful expectation and terror in us; and all this prescinding from all relation to any thing either to be enjoyed or suffered in this life: it followeth that this conscience is not so much a judge as a witness, bound over to give testimony for or against us, at some judge ment after this life to pass upon us. For all men are “a law unto themselves, and have the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or excusing one another, in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men.” (Rom. ii. 14-16.)
Again, if we consider the God who made us, and hath full dominion over us, whether we look upon him in himself, or in his Word, we cannot but expect a judgment from him. First, If we contemplate God in himself, we must acknowledge him to be the judge of all mankind; " so that a man shall say, Verily he is a God that judgeth in the earth.”(Psal. lviii. 11.) Now the same God who is our judge, is, by an attribute necessary and inseparable, just; and this justice is so essential to his Godhead, that we may as well deny bim to be a God, as to be just. It was a rational expostulation which Abraham made, “Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?”. (Gen. xviii. 25.) We may therefore infallibly conclude that God is a most just judge; and if he be so, we may as infallibly conclude, that after this life he will judge the world in righteousness. For as the affairs of this present world are ordered, though they lie under the disposition of Providence, they shew no sign of a universal justice. The wicked and disobedient persons are often so happy, as if they were rewarded for their impieties; the innocent and religious often so miserable, as if they were punished for their innocency. Nothing more certain, than that in this life rewards are not correspondent to the virtues, punishments not proportionable to the sins, of men. Which consideration will enforce one of these conclusions; either that there is no judge of the actions of mankind; or if there be a judge, he is not just, he renders no proportionate rewards or punishments; or lastly, if there be a judge, and that judge be just, then there is a judgment in another world, and the effects thereof concern another life. Being then we must acknowledge that there is a judge, which judgeth the earth; being we cannot deny but God is that judge, and all must confess that God is most just; being the rewards and punishments of this life are no way answerable
to so exact a justice as that which is divine must be: it followeth that there is a judgment yet to come, in which God will shew a perfect demonstration of his justice, and to which every man shall, in his own bosom, carry an undeniable witness of all his actions.
From hence the heathen, having always had a serious apprehension both of the power of the conscience of man, and of the exactness of the justice of God, have from thence concluded, that there is a judgment to come. Insomuch that when St. Paul “reasoned of righteousness and temperance and judgment to come, Felix trembled.” (Acts xxiv. 25.) The discourse of righteousness and temperance touched him, who was so highly and notoriously guilty of the breach of both; and a preconception which he had of judgment after death, now heightened by the apostle's particular description, created a horror in his soul and trembling in his limbs. The same apostle discoursing to the Athenians, the great lights of the Gentile world, and teaching them this Article of our CREED, that “God hath appointed a day, in which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man, whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he bath raised him from the dead; found some which mocked, when they heard of the resurrection of the dead;" (Acts xvii. 31.) but against the day of judgment none replied. That was a principle of their own, that was confessed by all who either believed themselves, or a God; a conscience, or a Deity.*
* This principle of a judgment to quod Deus dederit, omnium vox est. come, Justin Martyr propounds to the Judicem quoque contestatur illum, Gentiles, as generally acknowledged Deus videt, et Deo commendo, et by all their writers, and as the great Deus mihi reddet. O testimonium encouragement of his apology for the animæ naturaliter Christianæ ! Apol. Christian religion: 'Etei toivov vuiv o adv. Gentes, c. 17. Indeed the anπερί της αληθούς θεοσεβείας πρόκειται cient Gentiles have expressed the Χόγος, ής ουδεν, oίμαι, προτιμότερον τοϊς judgment to come very exactly: as ακινδύνως βιούν πρόωρημένους είναι νενό- Philemon cited by Justin Martyr de puotai, did tnv uéllovoav perd tijv te- Monarch. Dei, p. 106. λευτην τούδε του βίου έσεσθαι κρίσιν ήν "Έστιν Δίκης οφθαλμός, δς τα πάνθ' ορά. ου μόνον οι ημέτεροι κατά Θεόν κηρύττουσι Ει γάρ ο δίκαιος και ασεβής έξουσιν εν, πρόγονοι, προφήται τε και νομοθέται, "Αρπαζ απελθών, κλέπτ', αποστέρεί, αλλά και οι παρ' υμών νομισθέντες είναι κύκα. σοφοί, ου ποιηται μόνον, αλλά και φιλό- Μηδέν πλανηθής έστι καν άδου κρίσις, σοφοι οι την αληθή και θείαν επαγγελ- "Ηνπερ ποιήσει θεός ο πάντων δεσπότης, λόμενοι παρ' υμίν είδέναι γνώσιν. αd oύ τούνομα φοβερόν, ουδ' άν ονομάσαιμ' Græcos Cohort. p. 1. Tertullian shews εγώ. . the same not only from the writings And Plato especially bath delivered it but the constant conversation and according to their notion most partilanguage even of the Gentiles: “Anima, cularly, whose places to that purpose licet corporis carcere pressa, licet in- are faithfully collected by Eusebius stitutionibus pravis circumscripta, li- and Theodoret, and may be read in cet libidinibus et concupiscentiis evi- them; Eusebius de Præparat: Evang. gorata, licet falsis Diis exancillata, l. xi. c. 38. and l. xxii. c. 6. Theodor cum tamen resipiscit, ut ex crapula, ret Serm. 11. de. Fine et Judicio. ut ex somnio, utex aliqua valetudine, Where after the citation of several et sanitatem suam patitur, Deum places he concludes: Octwa åxpeßūs nominat, hoc solo quia proprie verus επίστευεν ο Πλάτων είναι τα εν όδον κρίhie unus Deus, bonus et magnus. Et rýpua, p. 649.
But yet, beside the consideration of the internal power of conscience in ourselves, beside the intuition of that essential attribute, the justice of God (which are sufficient arguments to move all men), we have yet a more near and enforcing persuasion, grounded upon the express determination of the will of God. For the determinate counsel of the Almighty actually to judge the world in righteousness, is clearly revealed in his word: “it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment.” (Heb. ix. 27.) There is a death appointed to follow this life, and a judgment to follow that death; the one as certain as the other. For in all ages God hath revealed his resolution to judge the world. : Upon the first remarkable action after the fall, there is a sufficient intimation given to angry Cain:“ If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted ? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door;” (Gen. iv. 7.) which by the most ancient interpretation signifieth a reservation of his sin unto the judgment of the world to come.* Before the flood, Enoch prophesied of a judgment to come, “saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousand of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds, which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches, which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.” (Jude ver.14,15.) His words might have an aim at the waters, which were to overflow the world; but the ultimate intention looked through that fire, which shall consume the world preserved from water.
The testimonies which follow in the Law and the Prophets, the predictions of Christ and the apostles, are so many and so known, that both the number and the plainness will excuse the prosecution. The throne hath been already seen, the Judge hath appeared sitting on it, the books have been already opened, the dead small and great have been seen standing before him: there is nothing more certain in the word of God, no doctrine more clear and fundamental, than that of “eternal judgment.” (Heb, vi. 2.) I shall therefore briefly conclude the first consideration from the internal testimony of the conscience of man, from the essential attribute the justice of God, from the clear and full revelation of the will and determination of God, that after death, with a reflection on this, and in relation to another life, there is a judgment to come, there shall some person come to judge.
5 , , S thou
, : 723 Jaun If thou makest thy works shall it not be remitted and forgiven good, shall not thy sin be forgiven thee? unto thee in the world to come? And if And if thou makest not thy works good thou makest not thy works good in this in this world, thy sin is kept unto the world, thy sin shall
be reserved unto the day of the great judgment. And the day of the great judgment. In the Jerusalemi Targum get more expresşly, same manner the Chaldec paraphrase
ישתר וישתבק לך לעלמא דאתי -So the Targum of Jonathan ren • ואין לאתיטיב עובדך בעלמא הדין הלא אם, תיטיב עובדד, ,ders it ifthow ליום דינא רבא חטאך נטיר: ישתבק לד חובך ואין לא תיטיב ,makest thy works good in this world עובדך בעלמא הרן ליום דינא רבא
.ליוס דינא חטאך נטיר ,of Onkelos הלא אין תיטיב עובדך בעלמא הדין
Our second consideration followeth (seeing we are so well assured that there shall be a judgment); who that person is which shall come to judge, who shall sit upon that throne, before whose tribunal we shall all appear, from whose mouth we may expect our sentence. Now the judiciary power is the power of God, and none hath any right to judge the subjects and servants of God, but that God whose servants they are. The Law by which we are to be judged was given by him; the actions which are to be discussed were due to him; the persons which are to be tried are subject to his dominion: God therefore is the judge of all.” (Heb. xii. 23.) He" shall bring every work into judgment with every secret thing, whether it be good or whether it be evil;" (Eccles. xii. 14.) and so the last day, that day of wrath, is the revelation of the righteous judgment of God.” (Rom. ii. 5.) Now if God, as God, be the judge of all, then whosoever is God is judge of all men;* and therefore being we have proved the Father and the Son, and shall hereafter also prove the Holy Ghost, to be God, it followeth that the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, shall judge the world; because the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in respect of the same Divinity, have the same autocratorical power, dominion, and authority.
But notwithstanding in that particular day of the general judgment to come, the execution of this judiciary power shall be particularly committed to the Son, and so the Father and the Holy Ghost shall actually judge the world no otherwise but by him. For “God hath appointed a day in the which he will judge the world in righteousness, by that man whom he hath ordained.” (Acts xvii. 31.) It is God that judgeth; it is Christ by whom he judgeth. “For the Father judgeth no man, but ħath committed all judgment to the Son." (John v. 22.) There is therefore an original, supreme, autocratorical, judiciary power: there is a judiciary power delegated, derived, given by commission. Christ as God hath the first together with the Father and the Holy Ghost: Christ as man hath the second from the Father expressly, from the Holy Ghost concomitantly. For “ the Father hath given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of man;” (John v. 27.) not simply because he is a man, therefore he shall be Judge (for then by the same reason every man should judge, and conse, quently none, because no man could be judged if every man should only judge), but because of the three persons which are God, he only is also the Son of man; and therefore for his
* Tápegte tomu v rũ kpiger TORE S pretation of those words of St. John, Ocòg • Távm w Tarng, quyralelopávov which we ordinarily read thus, v. Χριστού και συμπαρόντος Αγίου Πνεύ- 27. Και εξουσία, έδωκεν αυτώ και κρίσιν jaros. S. Cyril. Hier. Catech. 15.
ποιείν, ότι υιός ανθρώπου εστί. 28. Μη + This explication I thought ne- DavjáleTE TOŪTOBy which distinction, eessary to insert, because it seems to those words, because he is the Son of me the only way to end that contro- man, have reference to the precedent versy, which is raised upon the inter- sentence. Bat anciently they have
affinity with their nature, for his sense of their infirmities, for his appearance to their eyes, most fit to represent the greatest mildness and sweetness of equity, in the severity of that just and irrespective judgment.
Nor was this a reason only in respect of us who are to be judged, but in regard of him also who is to judge; for we must not look only upon his being the Son of man, but also upon wbat he did and suffered as the Son of man. He humbled himself so far as to take upon him our nature: in that nature so taken, he humbled himself to all the infirmities which that was capable of, to all the miseries which this life could bring, to all the pains and sorrows which the sins of all the world could cause: and therefore in regard of his humiliation did God exalt him, and part of the exaltation due unto him was this power of judging. “The Father” therefore, who is only God, and never took upon him either the nature of men or angels, "judgeth no man (and the same reason reacheth also to the Holy Ghost); but hath committed all judgment to the Son;" and the reason why he hath committed it to him, is, o because he is,” not only “the Son of God," and so truly God; but also “the Son of man,” and so truly man; “because he is that Son of man," who suffered so much for the sons of men. (John v. 22. 25. 27.)
From whence at last it clearly appeareth, not only that it is
been otherwise, distinguished: Και τίζων τον Κύριον, ούτως ανεγίνωσκε έδωκεν αυτώ και κρίσιν, ποιείν. "Οτι τούτο το χωρίον. Και εξουσίαν έδωκεν υιός ανθρώπου εστί, μή θαυμάζετε τούτο. αυτό και κρίσιν ποιείν, ότι υιός ανθρώπου So the old Syriac translation, ver. 27. εστί: ενταύθα δε στίζων, απ' άλλης NOT EN 12v NOT TourNand αρχής ανεγίνωσκε τούτο το, Μή θαυμάthen ver. 28. WW287.907 77 77 LETE TOūTO. 'Avóntov dè teleiws fori
το ούτως αναγινώσκειν, την γάρ κρίσιν ΝΤΩΣ ΩΣΤΑΣ Ν5 And St. Chry- τω Υιώ ο Πατήρ έδωκεν, ουχ ότι υιός sostom is so earnest for this reading, ανθρώπου εστίν, αλλ' ότι θεός. ad loc. that he chargeth the former distinc- But although this division of the tion apon Paulus Samosatenus, as in- words be both by St. Chrysostom and vented by him in favour of his heresy, Theophylact charged upon Paulus that Christ was nothing else but Samosatenus the heretic, yet we find purely man: "Oti viòs åvēpórov łoti, no other distinction in the ancient μή θαυμάζετε τούτο. Παύλος μέν ο Σα- copies; nor did the ancient Latin μοσατεύς ουκ ούτω φησίν, αλλά πώς; fathers any otherwise read it than εξουσίαν έδωκεν αυτώ κρίσιν ποιείν ότι Paulus did. We must then acknowυιός ανθρώπου εστίν· αλλ' ουδεμίαν άκο- ledge no other coherence than the dovoiav ēXEL TOÛTO leyóuevov. (so he ar- ordinary, that God gave his Son power gues against that reading) où yap did to judge, because he was the Son of τούτο έλαβε κρίσιν, ότι άνθρωπός έστιν man. Nor need we, to avoid the ar(trei ri érólve závrag å upúrovç elvai gument of St. Chrysostom, change κριτάς;) αλλ' επειδάν της άρρήτου ουσίας the ότι into καθότι, the quia into quαεκείνης εστίν υιός, διά τούτο και κριτής tenus ; for it is not rendered as the totivi Ośrws oův åvayvworlov, "Ori absolute reason in itself, but in relaυιός ανθρώπου εστί, μη θαυμάζετε τούτο. tion unto God, or the persons of the Hóm. 39. ad loc. Euthymius followeth Trinity: the Father shall not judge, the distinction of St. Chrysostom, nor the Holy Ghost, because those and Theophylact makes the same ar- two persons are only God; but all gament: Xρή δε γινώσκειν ότι Παύλος judgment is committed to God the ο Σαμοσατεύς ψιλόν άνθρωπον δογμα- Son, because he is the Son of man. :