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by the dead the unjust: so that Christ shall judge the quick, that is, the just, by a sentence of absolution, and the dead, that is, the unjust, by a sentence of condemnation. But though the dead be sometimes taken for sinners, and the living for the righteous, though it be true that Christ shall judge them both; yet it is not probable that in this particular they should be taken in a figurative or metaphorical sense, because there is no adjunct giving any such intimation, and because the literal sense affordeth a fair explication : farther yet, because the Scripture, in the same particular, naming the quick and the dead sufficiently teacheth us, that it is to be understood of a corporeal death,“ Whether we live or die, (saith the apostle), we are the Lord's: for to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.” (Rom. xiv. 9.)
Thirdly, Therefore by the dead are understood all those who ever died before the time of Christ's coming to judgment, * and by the quick such as sball be then alive; so that the quick and the dead, literally taken, are considered in relation to the time of Christ's coming; at which time there shall be Dévras rois à paprňuaot, kai to dobèy fuerint, mortuos qui præcesserint. avroīs rálavrov os ¿v rápu rõ łautāv Potest et sic intelligi, vivos, justos; karaxwoavras øqbvuią, kai đuúvaodai mortuos, injustos : utrosque enim juaŭrous. Epist. 222. 1. i.
dicat, saa cuique retribuens. Justis * This is the third exposition of Isi- dicturus in judicio, Venite Benedicti, dorus Pelusiota: Ei dè kai aMws, oőrWS, &c. Sinistris quid? Ite in ignem, &c. κρίναι τους τότε ζώντας καταλειφθέν- Sic judicabuntur a Christo vivi et ‘ras, kai tous non apò aŭrūv kerolundév- 'mortui.' Arictor 1. 1. de Symb. ad tas. Epist. 222. 1. i. Others of the Catechum. §. 11. `Duobus modis hæc fathers give the second and third ex- sententia accipitur. Vivi et mortai plication, leaving it indifferent, and in anima, item vivi et mortni in preferring neither; as St. Chrysostom: corpore. Secundum priorem, judi"Hroi duaptwlovs déyet kaì oucaious, cabit vivos in anima, credentes; et Hroi kai rous åreAlóvras vai tous vũv mortuos in anima, fidem nullam halõvrac, őri ToMoi Karadepohoovrai Lõv- bentes : secundum posteriorem, judiTES. Com. in 2 Tim. iv, 1. • Duobus cabit vivos in carne, quos præsentes autem modis accipi potest, quod vivos invenerit ejus adventus; judicabit et et niortuos judicabit; sive ut vivos mortuos in carne, quos resuscitaturus intelligamus, quos hic nondum mor- est Deus excelsus. Auctor 1. iv. de tuos, sed adhuc in ista carne inven- Symb. Catechum. §. 8. But although turus est ejus adventus; mortuos these two expositions were thus iuautem, qui de corpore, priusquam differently propounded, yet the forveniat, exierunt vel exituri sunt: siye mer ought by no means so to be revivos justos, mortuos autem injustos, ceived as any way to evacuate or quoniam justi quoque judicabuntur.' prejadice the latter. .Quod autem S. August. in Enchirid. c. 54. Cre- dicimus in Symbolo, in adventu Dodimus etiam inde venturum conveni- mini vivos ac mortuos judicandos, non entissimo tempore, et judicaturum solum jastos et peccatores significari, vivos et mortuos, sive istis nomini. sicut Diodorus putat; sed et vivos bus justi et peccatores significentur; eos, qui in carne inveniendi sunt cresive quos tunc ante mortem in dimus, qui adhuc morituri creduntur; terris inventurus est appellati sunt vel immutandi sunt, ut alii volunt, vivi, mortui vero qui in ejus adventu ut suscitati continuo vel reformati, resurrecturi sunt.' Idem, de Fide et eum ante mortuis judicentar. GenSymb, c. 8. Inde venturus judicare nadius de Dogmat. Eccl. c. 8. vivos et mortuos. Vivos qui saper
a generation living upon the face of the earth, and before which time all the generations passed since the creation of the World shall be numbered among the dead. And this undoubtedly is the proper and literal sense of the Article,* That Christ shall come to judge, not only those which shall be alive upon the earth at his appearing, but also all such as have lived and died before. None shall be then judged while they are dead; whosoever stand before the judgmentseat, shall appear alive; but those which never died, shall be judged as they were alive; those that were dead before, that they may be judged, shall rise to life. He shall judge therefore the quick, that is, those which shall be then alive when he cometh;t and he shall judge the dead, that is, those which at the same time shall be raised from the dead.
The only doubt remaining in this interpretation is, Whether, those that shall be found alive when our Saviour cometh, shall still so continue till they come to judgment; or upon his first appearance they shall die, and after death revive, and so together with all those which rise out of their graves, appear before the judgment-seat. The consideration of our mortality, and the cause thereof, (that “it is appointed unto all men once to die, in that death hath passed upon all,” Heb. ix. 27. Rom. y. 12.) might persuade us that the last generation of mankind should taste of death, as well as all the rest that went before it; and therefore it hath been thought, especially of late, that those whom Christ at his coming finds aliye, shall immediately die; and after a sudden and universal expiration, shall be restored to life again, and joined with the rest whom the graves shall render, that all may be
partakers of the resurrection.
But the apostle's description of the last day mentioneth no such kind of death, yea rather excludeth it, “ For we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall not
* This is the clear interpretation of μέλλουσι, πώς πληρωθήσεται το, κρίνειν Theodoret, without the least mention νεκρούς και ζώντας τον Κύριον και πως δε of any other : Νεκρών και ζώντων κρι- νεκροί κριθήναι δυνήσονται, ών τα μεν την τόν Κύριον κέκληκεν, επειδάν και σώματα εν μνήμασιν έρριπται, αι δε ψυτους νεκρούς ανίστησι, και εις το κριτήριον και των σωμάτων κεχωρισμέναι εισίν, άγει, και τους κατά τον της συντελείας Resp. Ου πάντες, φησί, κοιμηθησόμεθα καιρόν ευρισκομένους ενδύων την αφθαρ- κρινεί ούν ζώντας μέν, τους τότε ζώντας, σίαν, απαιτεί τας ευθύνας. Πάντες γαρ, νεκρούς δε, τους ανισταμένους εκ των νεproiv, où counOncóuega, trávrés dè ål kpôv. Quæst. et Resp. ad Orthod. q. daynoóueda. Com. in 2 Tim. iv. 1. 'Vi. 109. vi agnoscuntur, qui in corpore erunt I. Omnium enim hominum erit in adventu Domini; mortui, qui ex resurrectio. Si omnium erit, ergo hac luce migraverunt. Auctor Excp. omnes moriuntur, ut mors ab Adam Symb. sub nomine S. Chrys.
ducta omnibus filiis ejus dominetur, + This is cleared by the author of et maneat illud. privilegium in Dothe Questions and Answers under the mino, Non dabis sanctum tuum viname of Justin Martyr: Ei rò rñs dere corruptionem. Hanc rationem αναστάσεως δώρον πάσι τοις θανούσιν ο maxima Patrum turba tradente susBeog didóval ütéo Xero, TÁVTEC ÉK Tūv cepimus.' Gennad. de Eccl. Dogmat. τάφων αναστάντες τα κριτή παρίστασθαι C. 7.
prevent them which are asleep. For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and the trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise first; then we which are alive and remain, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so shall we be ever with the Lord.” (1 Thess. iv. 15–17.) In which words, they which "remain unto the coming of the Lord,” are not said to die or to rise from the dead, but are distinguished from those “which are asleep" and." rise first;” yea, being alive, are caught up together with them,* having not tasted death.
The same is farther confirmed by the apostle, saying, “Behold, I shew you a mystery; we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed.” (1 Cor. xv. 51.) Which, being added to the former, putteth this doctrine out of question : for the living which remain at the coming of Christ, are opposed to them which are asleep, and the opposition consists in this, that they "shallnot sleep;" which sleep is not opposed to a long death, but to death itself, as it followeth, “the dead shall be raised incorruptible," and we (which shall not sleep) “ shall be changed;" so that their mutation shall be unto them as a resurrection.t And the collation of these two Scriptures
* This is the observation of Epi- calcata ; unde ait Apostolus, Omnes phanius, who from these words proves quidem non dormiemus, omnes autem as much; for having repeated the immutabimur.' Theod. Heracleotes text, he thus infers : 'ATO Tūv ovve- Com. ad loc. apud S. Hieron. ep. 152. Levyjévwv éxáorns déžeus totiv ideiv rà al. 9. • A pollinarius, licet aliis verbis, Émixelpa.” Alaipwv yap ó öylos 'Ató- cadem quæ Theodorus asseruit; στολος των δύο τρόπων το είδος, εις μίαν quosdam non esse morituros, sed de ελπίδα συνήγαγεν, από του, “Ημείς άρπα- praesenti vita rapiendos in futuram, γησόμεθα εν νεφέλαις εις συνάντησιν at mutatis glorifcatisque corporibus autoớ• va deity övtWS TOŪTO Tò owua, sint cum Christo.' S. Hieron, ib. "O και ουκ έτερον παρά τούτο, ο γάρ άρπα- δε λέγει, τούτό εστιν ου πάντες μεν απογεις ούπω τέθνηκε. Heres. Ixiv. φ. 70. θανούμεθα, πάντες δε αλλαγησόμεθα, και
† Nam et in hoc ingemiscimus, our) árovokovTES: Ivntoi ydp xgdomicilium nostrum, quod de caelo est, κείνοι. Μή τοίνυν, επειδάν αποθνήσκεις, superindui desiderantes, siquidem in- dià roĪTo deloys, pnoiv, ús our évaduti non nudi inveniamur: id est, ornoóuevos. Eloi yáp TIVES OF τούτο ante voluimus superinduere virtutem διαφεύξονται, και όμως ούκ αρκεί τούτο coelestem aeternitatis, quam carne αυτοίς εις την ανάστασιν εκείνην, αλλά exuamur. Ηujus enim gratiae privi- δεί και εκείνα τα σώματα τα μη αποlegium illos manet, qui ab adventu θνήσκοντα αλλαγήναι, και εις άφθαρσίαν Domini deprehendentur in carne, et petaneoEiv. S. Chrysost. Hom. 42. ad propter duritias: temporum : Anti- loc. So St. Jerome speaking of that christi merebuntur, compendio mortis place, 1 Thess. iv. Hoc ex ipsius per demutationem expunctæ, con- loci' continentia sciri potest, quod
cum resurgentibus, sicut Sancti, qui in adventa Salvatoris T'hessalonicensibus scribit.' Tertull. fuerint deprehensi . in corpore, in de Resur. Carn. c. 41. Sancti, qui iisdem corporibus occurrant ei, ila die consummaticnis atque judicii in tamen, ut inglorium et corruptivum et corporibus reperiendi sunt, cum aliis mortale gloria et incorruptione et sanctis qui ex mortuis resurrecturi immortalitate mutetur: ut, qualia cor. sunt, rapientur in nubibus obviam pora mortuorum surrectura sunt, in Christo in aere, et non gustabunt talem substantiam etiam vivorum. mortem, cruntque semper cum Do. corpora transformentur.'. S. Hieron. mino, gravissima mortis necessitate ep. 149. al. 6. ad Marcell. And Si.
maketh up this conclusion so manifestly, that I conceive no man had ever doubted or questioned the truth of it, had they not first differed in the reading of the text.* Augustin, in relation to the same de resurrectione corporum ad Corinplace : 'Revera, quantum ad verba thios loqueretur, Omnes resurgemus beati Apostoli pertinet, videtur asse- vel sicut alii codices habent, Omnes rere quosdam in fine sæculi, adveni- dormiemus.' Idem, de Civit. Dei, l. xx. ente Domino, cum futura est resur- c. 20. Two readings thereof were rectio mortuorum, non esse morituros, anciently in the Latin, two in the sed vivos repertos, in illam immortali- Greek; one of the Greek in the Latin, tatem, quæ Sanctis etiam cæteris and no more. First then that readdatur, repente mutandos, et simul ing, Omnes quidem resurgemus, &c. cum illis rapiendos, sicut dicit, in which is at this day in the Vulgar pubibus. Nec aliquid aliud mihi Latin, was by the testimony of St. visum est, quoties de his verbis volui Jerome and St. Augustin the ordinary cogitare.' Ad tertiam Quæst. Dulcitii, reading in their times, and is also §. 2. These and others of the ancients used by Tertullian: 'Horum demuhave clearly delivered this truth, so tationem ad Corinthios dedit dicens, that Gennadius, notwithstanding his Omnes quidem resurgemus, non autem maxima Patrum turba for the con- omnes demutabimur. De Resur. Carn. trary, did well confess : Verum quia c. 42. And although St. Jerome tessunt et alii æque catholici et eruditi tifieth that it was not to be found in viri, qui credunt, anima in corpore the Greek copies, yet to the same manente, inimulandos ad incorrupti- purpose it is amongst the Variæ Leonem et immortalitatem eos qui in ctiones March. Veles. Ilávtes åvaßiadventu Domini Givi inveniendi sunt; σομεν, αλλά ού πάντες απαλλαγησόet hoc eis reputari pro resurrectione uega. And in Codice Claromontano, ex mortuis, quod mortalitatem præ- the Greek is erased in this place, but sentis vitæ immutatione deponant, the Latin left is, Omnes quidem renon morte. Quolibet quis acquiescat surgemus. As for the second reading, modo, non est hæreticus, nisi ex con- Omnes dormiemus, &c. this was antentione hæreticus fiat.' De Eccl. ciently in the Latin copies, according Dogm. c. 7.
to St. Augustin; and also in the There have been observed three Greek, according to St. Jerome. several readings of that place, I Cor. Didymus did so read it, and conxv. 51. one of the Latin, two of the tended for that reading : ‘Scio quod Greek. • Illud autem breviter in in nonnullis codicibus scriptum sit, fine commoneo; hoc, quod in Latinis Non quidem omnes dormiemus, omnes codicibus legitur, Omnes quidem re- autem immutabimur. Sed considesurgemus, non omnes autem immuta- randum est, an ei quod præmissum bimur, in Græcis voluminibus non est, omnes immutabimur, possit conhaberi, sed vel, Omnes dormiemus, non venire quod sequitur, Mortui surgent autem omnes immutabimur; vel, Non incorrupti, et nos immutabimur. Și omnes dormiemus, omnes autem immu- enim omnes immutabuntur, et hoc tabimur.' S. Hieron. ep. 152. al. 9. commune cum cæteris est, superfluBut there was not one of these three um fuit dicere, et nos immutabimur. only in the Latin copies, that is the Quamobrem ita legendum est, Omnes first; but one which was in the Greek, quidem dormiemus, non autem omnes was also in the Latin, that is the immutabimur.'. Apud S. Hieron. ep. second. For both these St. Augustin 152. al. 9. Indeed Acacius bishop of takes notice of: Nam et illud quod Cæsarea doth not only acknowledge in plerisque codicibus legitur, Omnes this reading, but saith it was in most resurgemus, unde fieri poterit, nisi copies :
• Dicamus primum de eo, omnes moriamur? Resurrectio quippe, quod magis in plurimis codicibus innisi mors præcesserit, nulla est. Et venitur, Ecce mysterium dico vobis quod nonnulli codices habent, Omnes Omnes quidem dormiemus, non omnes dormiemus, multo facilius et apertius autem immutabimur.' Ibid. The Alexid cogit intelligi.' Ad tertiam Quæst. andrian Ms. may confirm this lection, Dulcit. §. 3. Sed aliud rursus oc- which reads it thus: ni návres pèY currit, quod idem dicit Apostolus, cum oů korun Ingójega, ou právtec dè alla
Wherefore being the place to the Thessalonians sufficiently proves it of itself, being that to the Corinthians, as we read it, invincibly confirmeth the same truth, I conclude that the living, when Christ shall come, are properly distinguished from all those which die before his coming; because death itself bath passed upon the one, and only a change different from death shall pass upon the other; and so conceive that Christ is called the Lord and Judge of the quick and the dead, in reference at least to this expression of the CREED. For although it be true of the living of any age to say that Christ is Lord and Judge of them and of the dead, yet in the next age they are not the living, but the dead, which Christ sball come to judge, and consequently no one generation, but the last, can be the quick which he shall judge. As therefore to the interpretation of this Article, I take that distinction to be necessary,* that in the end of the world all the generations y noóueda, for the first où is not written bimur; utrumque enim in Græcis in the line, but above it. And the codicibus invenitur. S. Hieron. Ep. Ethiopic version to the same purpose, 152. al. 9.) and of those two but one Omnes nos moriemur, sed non omnes is now to be found, and the Greek nos immutabimur. The third reading, fathers successively have acknowNon omnes dormiemus, &c. though it ledged no other, being that which is were not anciently in the Latin, yet left agrees with the most ancient it was frequently found in the Greek translations, we have no reason to copies. Acacius testifieth thus much: doubt or question it, “Transcamus ad secundam lectionem,
* This, was well observed by St. quæ ita fertur in plerisque codicibus, Augustin: “Si autem in his verbis Non quidem omnes dormiemus, omnes Apostoli nullus alius sensus poterit autem immutabimur.' Apud Hier: reperiri, et hoc eum intelligi voluisse ibid. It was so anciently read in the clarum erit, quod videntur ipsa verba time of Origen, as appeareth by the clamare; id est, quod futuri sint in Fragment taken by St. Jerome out of fine seculi, et secundo adventu Dobis 'EENyntikà upon the First Epistle mini, qui non exspolientur corpore, to the Thessalonians (which he men- sed superinduantur immortalitate, ut tioneth himself in his second book absorbeatur mortale a vita: buic senagainst Celsus), and by his words in tentiæ. proculdubio conveniet quod the fifth against Celsus: Oox ümolaßwy, in Regula Fidei confitemur, venturum perá tuvos atopias detéxoai napà Tự Dominum, judicaturum vivos et mor'A TOOTÓNY roở ’Inooõ Tò, oŮ TÁVTES tuos ; ut non hic intelligamus, vivos kolunSnoopeda, trávtes dè. állaynoó- justos, mortuos autem injustos, quamueba. §. 17. The same is acknow- yis judicandi sint et justi et injusti; ledged by Theodorus Heracleotes, sed vivos quos nondum exiisse, morApollinarius, Didymus, (vid. Hieron. tuos autem quos jam exiisse de corep. 152. al. 9.] St. Chrysostom, Theo- poribus adventus ejus inveniet.' Ad doret, Theophylact, and Ecumenius. tertiam Quæst. Dulcitii. §. 4. And ad loc. The same is confirmed by Origen long before did make the the ancient Syriac translation, 15 same exposition of these words,
na yo. 53 7273 13 as also that he might bu Lord both of the by the Arabic. Being then of the dead and living,” Rom. xiv. I. "Opa three readings, but two were-anciently γαρ εν τούτοις, ότι απέθανεν Ιησούς, found in the Greek copies, (“Quaeritis ένα νεκρών κυριεύση, και ανέστη, ίνα μη quo sensu dictum sit, et quo modo in μόνον νεκρών αλλά και ζώντων κυριεύση. prima ad Corinthios Epistola Pauli sit Και οίδέ γε ο Απόστολος νεκρούς μεν legendum, Omnes quidem dormiemus, úv kupcevel ò Xploròs, rojs oŰTW KATELπου αutem omnes immutabimur; an λεγμένους εν τη προς Κορινθίους προjuxta quaedam exemplaria, Non om- τέρα (σαλπίσει γάρ, και οι νεκροί εγερθήres dormiemus, omnes autem immuta- covrai äpbaproi) Gâvrag oè aurous, kai