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dead shall be revived, and the present generation living so continued, and Christ shall gather them all to his tribunalseat, and so shall truly come to judge both the quick and the dead.
To believe a universal judgment to come is necessary; first, To prevent the dangerous doubts arising against the roling of the world by the providence of God; that old rock of offence, upon which so many souls have suffered shipwreck. That which made the prophet David confess, his “ feet were almost gone, his steps bad well nigh slipped,” (Psal. Ixxiii. 2.) had hurried multitudes of men to eternal perdition. The conspicuous prosperity of the wicked, and apparent miseries of the righteous; the frequent persecution of virtue, and eminent rewards of vice; the sweet and quiet departures often attending upon the most dissolute, and horrid tortures putting a period to the most religious lives, have raised a strong temptation of doubt and mistrust, whether there be a God that judgeth the earth. Nor is there any thing in this life considered alone, which can give the least rational satisfaction in this temptation. Except there be a life to come after such a death as we daily see, except in that life there be rewards and punishments otherwise dispensed than here they are, how can we ground any acknowledgment of an overruling justice! That therefore we may be assured that God who sitteth in heaven ruleth over all the earth, that a divine and most holy providence disposeth and dispenseth all things here below; it is absolutely necessary to believe and profess, that a just and exact retribution is deferred, that a due and proportionable dispensation of rewards and punishments is reserved to another world ; and consequently that there is a universal judgment to come.
Secondly, It is necessary to believe a judgment to come, thereby effectually to provoke ourselves to the breaking off our sins by repentance, to the regulating our future actions by the word of God, and to the keeping a conscience void of offence towards God and towards man. Such is the sweetness of our sins, such the connaturalness of our corruptions, so great our confidence of impunity here, that except we looked for an account hereafter, it were unreasonable to ex
τους αλλαγησομένους, ετέρους όντας των και επί των σωμάτων παραληπτέον εγερθησομένων νεκρών. "Έχει δε και περί ζώντων μεν των ψυχών, καθό, αθάνατοι, τούτων ή λέξις ούτως, Και ημείς άλλα- νεκρών δε των σωμάτων. Phot, in Biynoóueda, lñs cipnuévn tö, ol verpol blioth. Cod. ccxxxiv. ad fin. And łyepOńoovrai mpôtov. 'Allà vai £v TỎ Ruffinus, Quid autem dicitur judiπρος θεσσαλονικείς προτέρα εν ετέραις care witos et mortuos, nisi quod ahi Mážegi, toy avtnv diapopày maplords, vivi, alii mortui, ad jadicium veniant? pyoiv, aMovs pièv sivai tous Koluwé- sed animæ simul judicabuntur et eor, vous, axlous de tous Sūvras, Néywv,&c. pora, in quibus vivos apimas, corpora 1. ii. contra Celsum, §. 65. Which mortuos nominavit.' Expose in Symb. exposition is far more proper than $. 32. that of Methodius: 'ET Tūv poxwv
pect that any man should forsake his delights, repounce his complacences, and by a severe repentance create a bitterness to his own soul. But being once persuaded of a judgment, and withal possessed with a sense of our sins, who will not tremble with Felix ? who will not • flee from the wrath to come?” What must the hardness be of that impenitent heart, which “ treasureth up unto itself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God ?” (Rom. ii. 5.) We are naturally inclined to follow the bent of our own wills, and the inclinations of our own hearts : all external rules and prescriptions are burdensome to us; and did we not look to give an account, we had no reason to satisfy any other desires than our own: especially the dictates of the Word of God are so pressing and exact, that were there nothing but a commanding power, there could be no expectation of obedience. It is necessary then that we should believe that an account must be given of all our actions; and not only so, but that this account will be exacted according to the role of God's revealed will, that“ God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to the gospel.” (Rom. ii. 16.) There is in every man not only a power to reflect, but a necessary reflection upon his actions; not only a voluntary remembrance, but also an irresistible judgment of his own conversation. Now if there were no other judge beside our own souls, we should be regardless of our own sentence, and wholly unconcerned in our own condemnations. But if we were persuaded that these reflections of conscience, are to be so many witnesses before the tribunal of Heaven, and that we are to carry in our own hearts a testimony either to absolve or condemn us, we must infallibly watch over that unquiet inmate, and endeavour above all things for a good conscience. For“ seeing that all things shall be dissolved, what manner of persons ought we to be in all holy conversation and godliness, looking for and hastening unto the coming of the day of God.” (2 Pet. iii. 11.) Reason itself will tell us thus much ; but if that do not, or if we will not hearken to our own voice; “the grace of God that bringeth salvation teacheth us, that, denying ungodliness and worldly lasts, we should live soberly, righteously, and' godly, in this present world, looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.” (Tit. ii. 11–13.)
Thirdly, It is necessary to profess faith in Christ as Judge of the quick and the dead, for the strengthening our hope, for the augmenting our comfort, for the establishing our assurance of eternal life. If we look upon the judgment to come, only as revealing our secrets, as discerning our actions, as sentencing our persons according to our works done in the flesh, there is not one of us can expect life from that tribunal, or happiness at the last day. We must confess that
we have all sinned, and that there is not any sin which we have committed, but deserves the sentence of death; we must acknowledge that the best of our actions bear no proportion to eternity, and can challenge no degree of that weight of glory; and therefore in a judgment, as such, there can be nothing but a fearful expectation of eternal misery, and an absolute despair of everlasting happiness. It is necessary therefore that we should believe, that Christ shall sit upon the throne, that our Redeemer shall be our Judge, that we shall receive our sentence not according to the rigour of the Law, but the mildness and mercies of the Gospel; and then we may look upon not only the precepts but also the promises of God; whatsoever sentence in the sacred Scripture speaketh any thing of hope, whatsoever text administereth any comfort, whatsoever argument drawn from thence can breed in us any assurance, we may confidently make use of them all in reference to the judgment to come: because by that Gospel which contains them
all, we shall be judged. If we consider whose Gospel it is, and who shall judge us by it, “we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones;" (Eph. v. 30.) "for which cause he is not ashamed to call us brethren.” (Heb. ii. 11.) As one of our brethren, he hath redeemed us, (Lev. xxv. 48.) he hath laid down his life as a ransom for us. He is our High-priest who made an atonement for our sins, “a merciful and faithful High-priest, in all things being made like unto his brethren.” (Heb. ii. 17.) He which is Judge, is also our Advocate; and who shall condemn us, if he shall pass the sentence upon us, who maketh intercession for us? Well therefore may have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him" (Eph. iii. 12.) unto the throne of that Judge, who is our Redeemer, who is our High-priest, who is our Advocate, who will not by his word at the last day condemn us, because he hath already in the same word absolved us, saying, “Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, bath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation, but is passed from death unto life.” (John v. 24.)
Having thus explained the nature of the judgment to come, and the necessity of believing the same, we have given suffi. cient light to every Christian to understand what he ought to intend, and what it is he professeth, when he saith, I believe in him who shall come to judge the quick and the dead. For thereby he is conceived to declare thus much: I am fully persuaded of this, as of an infallible and necessary truth, that the eternal Son of God, in that human nature, in which he died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, shall certainly come from the same heaven into which he ascended, and at his coming sball gather together all those which shall be then alive, and all which ever lived and shall be before
that day dead: when causing them all to stand before his judgment-seat, he shall judge them all according to their works done in the flesh; and passing the sentence of condemnation upon all the reprobates, shall deliver them to be tormented with the devil and his angels; and pronouncing the sentence of absolution upon all the elect, shall translate them into his glorious kingdom, of which there shall be no end. And thus I believe in Jesus Christ, WHO SHALL JUDGE. THE QUICK AND THE DEAD.
I believe in the Holy Ghost. In this Article we repeat again the first word of the CRBED, I believe; whereas a conjunction might have been sufficient, but that so many particulars concerning the Son have intervened. For as we are baptized in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; so do we make confession of our faith, saying, I believe in the Father, the Son,* and the Holy Ghost, and the ancients, whose Creed was something shorter, made no repetition of the act of faith, but only an addition of the object, And in the Holy Ghost.† And as we repeat this act of faith in this Article, so some did also in the second, I believe in Jesus Christ. Wherefore being this
“Sed enim ordo rationis et fidei Irenæus before Tertullian hath it exauctoritas, digestis vocibus et literis pressly in his Confession, 1. i. c. 10. Domini, admonet nos post hæc credere and calls it the faith. in Patrem et etiam in Spiritum Sanctum, olim Ec- Filium, et Spiritum Sanctum ;' and clesiæ repromissum, sed statutis tem- also declares, that the Church received porum opportunitatibus redditum.' that faith, and preserved it through Novatian. de Trin, e. 29. Schlictin- the whole world. gius the Socinian, in his Preface to the t So the ancient Greek MS, kai eis Polonian Confession of Faith, endea- aveõua äylov; and Marcellus, kai eis voureth to persuade is, that this Ar- rò äylov TvEūpa ; as also Arius and ticle of the Holy Ghost is not so an Euzoius, and the Council of Nice. cient as the rest; which being diame. Socrat. I. i. c, 8. Thus also the Latins: trically opposite to that original of the Post hoc ponitur in ordine fidei, Et Creed, which I have delivered, the in Spiritum Sanctum.'_Ruffinus in baptismal words, Father, Son, and Symb. §. 34. Maximus Taurin. et AuHoly Ghost, it will be necessary to ctor lib. de Symb. ad Catechum. The examine bis reason, which is drawu MS. in the Oxford Library, Et in Spionly from the authority of Tertullian; ritum Sanctum. Olbers, instead of who in his book De Veland. Virg. the conjunction, made use of credo, c. 1. reciting the rule of faith, makes by way of repetition, as we do : Creno mention of the Holy Ghost: and do in Spiritum Sanctum."Chrysologus, De Præscr. Hæret. propouvds this Fusebius Gallican., Auctor Serm. ad Article no otherwise: ? Quam ut cre- Catechun, I. iv. $. 9. Etherius Uxam., damus Christum in coelos · receptum the Greek and Latin MS. in Bene't Col. sedere ad dextram Patris, misisse vi- lege Library: and Credo in Sancto eariam vim Spiritus Sancti.' c. 13. Spirito. Venantius Fortunatus. But this
objection made for the novelty I As the ancient Saxon Creed set of this Article is easily answered : for forth by Freheras,
word, I believe, is taken here only by way of resumption or repetition, and consequently must be of the same sense or importance, of which it was in the beginning of the Creed, it may well receive the same explication here which it received there; to that therefore the reader is referred.
For although the ancient fathers did frequently make use of this language to prove the Divinity of the Spirit,* and did thence argue that he is really and truly God, because we believe in the Holy Ghost ; yet being that language is not ex. pressly read in the Scriptures in relation to the Spirit, as it is in reference to the Son; being to believe in the Holy Ghost, is only the expression of the Church contained in the Creed; being in the same Creed many of the ancients, without any reprehension, have used the same phrase in the following Articles expressly, and where the preposition is not expressed, it may very well he thought it was understood: therefore I think fit to acquiesce in my former exposition, and lay no great force on the preposition.
It will therefore be sufficient for the explication of this Article, if we can declare what is the full and proper object of our faith contained in it, what we are obliged to believe concerning the Holy Ghost. And as to this we shall discharge our undertaking, and satisfy whatsoever is required in this Exposition, if we can set forth these two particulars, the nature and the office of that blessed Spirit. For the name of Ghost or Gast in the ancient Saxon language signifieth a spirit, and in that appellation of the Spirit of God, his nature principally is expressed. The addition of holiness, though it denote the intrinsical sanctity essentially belonging to that Spirit, yet notwithstanding it containeth also a derivative no
• Gregory Nazianzen, disputing for play ouoovocórnta, els plaridela, plavcè the divinity of the Holy Ghost, θεότητα, μίαν ουσίαν, μίαν δοξολογίαν, proveth that he is no creature thius: μίαν κυριότητα, από του πιστεύομεν και πι'Αλλ' ει μεν κτίσμα, πώς εις αυτό πι- στεύομεν και πιστεύομεν. Heres. Ixxiv. OTEVOLEV ; 1 év aúrý Telecoúpe=a; où yap $.14. Agnoscamus verbi ipsius privileTavrov łoti ALOTEÚELV Eis Ti, kai Trepi av- gium. Credere illi quilibet potest homi. TOW FLOTEVELV' TÒ Mèv yáp łoti Jeórntos, num; credere vero in illum, soli debere TÒ DÈ Tavtòg a páypatos. Orat. xxxvii. te Majestati noveris. Sed et hoc ipsum p. 596. Epiphanius seems to speak aliud est Deum credere, aliud est crethus much, shewing, that though the dere in Deum. Esse Deum et diafathers of the Nicene Council had de- bolus credere dicitur, secundum Apotermined nothing particularly of the stolum ; nam et dæmones 'credunt et Holy Ghost, yet they sufficiently shew contremiscunt. In Deum vero crethat he is God, by those words: kai dere, hoc est fideliter eum quærere, et είς πνεύμα άγιον. Ευθύς γάρ η έκθεσις totain eum dilectione transire. Credo ομολογεί και ουκ αρνείται: Πιστεύομεν ergo in illum, hoc est dicere, Consteor yàp eis éva Osòv larépa mavrokpáropa. illum, colo illum, adoro illum, totum Το δε πιστεύομεν ούχ απλώς είρηται, αλλ' me in jus ejus ac dominium trudo, al-. η πίστις εις τον Θεόν. Και είς ένα Κύριον que transfundo. In professionis hu'Ιησούν Χριστόν, ουχ απλώς είρηται, άλλ' jus reverentia universa divino ποτηini εις θεόν η πίστις. Και, είς τo"Αγιον Πνεύ- debita' continentur obsequia.’ Ραua, ovx åplūs ciontai, áll'eis piav do&o- schasius in Præfat. Operis de Spi. λογίαν, και εις μίαν ένωσιν θεότητος, και νitu S.