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truth, that he might guide them into all truth,” “teaching them all things, and bringing all things to their remembrance, whatsoever Christ had said unto them."(John xvi. 13.xiv. 26.) By this means it came to pass that “all Scripture was given by inspiration of God,” (2 Tim. iii. 16.) that is, by the motion and operation of the Spirit of God; and so whatsoever is necessary for us to know and believe, was delivered by revelation. Again, the same Spirit which revealeth the object of faith generally to the upiversal Church of God,avhich object is propounded externally by the Church to every particular believer, doth also illuminate the understanding of such as believe, that they may receive the truth: for faith is the gift of God, not only in the object, but also in the act; Christ is not only given unto us, in whom we believe, but it is also “given us in the behalf of Christ to believe in him;" (Phil. i. 29.) and this gift is a gift of the Holy Ghost, working within us an assent unto that which by the word is propounded to us : by this “the Lord opened the heart of Lydia, that she attended unto the things which were spoken of Paul;" (Acts xvi. 14.) by this the word preached profiteth, being “mixed with faith in them that hear it.” (Heb. iv. 2.) Thus " by grace we are saved through faith, and that not of ourselves, it is the gift of God.” (Eph. ii. 8.) As the increase and perfection, so the original, or initiation of faith is from the Spirit of God,* not only by an external proposal in the word, but by an internal illumination in the soul; by which we are inclined to the obedience of faith, in assenting to those truths, which unto a natural and carnal man are foolishness. And thus we affirm not only the revelation of the will of God, but also the illumination of the soul of man, to be part of the office of the Spirit of God, against the old and new Pelagians.t
* This is the ancient determination man to believe the Gospel without any of the second Arausican Council : internal operation of the grace of God; • Si quis sicut augmentum, ita etiam and St. Augustin was once of that initium fidei, ipsumque credulitatis opinion: “ Neque enim fidem putaaffectum, quo in eum credimus, qui bam,' says he, ' Dei gratia præveniri, justificat impium, et ad regeneratio- ut per illam nobis daretur quod ponem baptismatis pervenimus, non per sceremus utiliter, nisi quia credere non gratiæ donum, id est, per inspiratio- possemus, si non præcederet præconem Spiritus S. corrigentis voluntatem nium veritatis. Ut autem prædicato nostram ab infidelitate ad fidem, ab nobis Evangelio consentiremus noimpietate ad pietatem, et naturaliter strum esse proprium, et nobis ex pobis nobis inesse dicit, Apostolicis dogma- esse arbitrabar. Quem meum errotibus adversarius approbatur, beato rem nonnulla opuscula mea satis indiPaulo dicente, Confidimus, quia qui cantante Episcopatum meum scripta.' cæpit in vobis bonum opus, perficiet us- De Prædest. Sanct. I. i. c. 3. But que in diem Domini nostri Jesu Chri- whatsoever he had so written before sti; etillud, Vobis datum est pro Christo, he was made a bishop, he recalled and non solum ut in eum credatis, sed etiam reversed in his Retractation, I. i. c. 23. ut pro illo patiamini. Et, Gratia salvi and disputed earnestly against it as a facti estis per fidem, non ex vobis, Dei part of the Pelagian heresy. This, as enim donum est.' Can. 5. Concil. Araus. the rest of Pelagianism, is renewed by and Gennad. Eccl. Dogm. c. 42. the Socinians, who in the Racovian
† It was the known opinion of the Catechism deliver it in this manner: Pelagians, That it is in the power of Nonno ad credendum Evangelio
The second part of the office of the Holy Ghost is the sanctifi*cation of man, in the regeneration and renovation of him. For
our natural corruption consisting in an aversation of our wills, and a depravation of our affections, an inclination of them to the will of God is wrought within us by the Spirit of God. For "according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.” (Tit. iii. 5.) So that “except a man be born again of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.” (John iii. 5.) We are all at first defiled by the corruption of our nature, and the pollution of our sins, “but we are washed, but we are sanctified, but we are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.” (1 Cor. vi. 11.). The second part then of the office of the Holy Ghost is the renewing of man in all the parts and faculties of his soul.
The third part of this office is to lead, direct, and govern us in our actions and conversations, that we may actually do and perform those things which are acceptable and well-pleasing in the sight of God. "If we live in the Spirit,” quickened by his renovation, we must “also walk in the Spirit,” (Gal. v. 25.) following his direction, led by his manuduction. And if we “ walk in the Spirit, we shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh; (Gal. v. 16.) for we are not only directed but animated and acted in those operations by the Spirit of God, “who giveth both to will and to do; and as many as are thus led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.” (Rom. viii. 14.) Moreover that this direction may prove more effectual, we are also guided in our prayers, and acted in our devotions by the same Spirit, according to the promise, “I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and supplication.” (Zech. xii. 10.) Whereas then 's this is the confidence that we have in him, that if we ask any thing according to his will, he heareth us;"(1 John v.14.) and whereas “ we know not what we should pray for as we ought, the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered, and he that searcheth the hearts, knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh_intercession for the saints according to the will of God.” (Rom. viii. 26, 27.), From which intercession especially I conceive he hath the name of the Paraclete given him by Christ, who said, “ I will pray unto the Father, and he shall give you another Paraclete.” (John xiv. 16.) For" if any man sin, we have a Faraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous,” (1 John ii. 1.) saith St. John; "who also maketh intercession for us," (Rom. viii. 34.) saith St. Paul: and we have another Paraclete, saith our Saviour; which also “maketh intercession for us,” saith St. Paul. A Paraclete then, in the notion of the Scriptures, is an intercessor.* Spiritus Sancti interiore dono opus ferri donum, nisi credenti Evangclio.' est? Nullo modo: neque enim in : * lapácantos is five times used in Scripturis legimus cuiquam id con- the Scriptures, and that by St. John
Fourthly, The office of the same Spirit is to join us unto Christ, and make us members of that one body of which our alone : four times in his Gospel, attri- understand so much : for in the anbuted to the Holy Ghost, once in his cient Christian Latin, Advocare signiFirst Epistle, spoken of Christ(xiv.16. fieth to comfort, and Advocatio, conso26. xv. 26. xvi. 7.1 Ep. ii, 1.] When it lation; as being the bare interpretarelates to the Holy Ghost, we translate tion of παρακαλείν and παράκλησις. Ας it always Comforter ; when to Christ, Tertullian translates tapacaleoai Tevwe render it Advocate: of which di- Boûvras, Isa. Ixi. 2.- Advocare languenversity there can be no reason, because tes.' Adv. Marc. I. iv. c. 14. So when Christ, who is a Paraclete, said, that we read : 'Væ vobis divitibus, quia he would send another Paraclete; and habetis consolationem vestram:' Tertherefore the notion must be the same tullian reads it: Væ vobis divitibus, in both: "Alov napákantov dúoet ůpiv, quoniam recepistis advocationem veTouréotiv, ä/dov'ús tué. S. Chrysost. ad stram.' Adv. Marc. I. iv. c. 15. And Ioan. xiv. 16. If therefore in the lan- speaking in his own language: 'Beati
, guage of St. John mapáxintos be a inquit, flentes atque lugentes. Quis comforter, then Christ is a comforter ; talia sine patientia tolerat? Itaque taif napárantos be an advocate, the Holy lihuset advocatio et risus promittitur.' Ghost is the advocate. The Vulgar de Patient. c. 11. And as St. Hilary Latin keeps the Greek word in the read it, so did St. Augustin expound Gospels Paracletus, but in the Epistle it: 'Consolabántur Spiritu S., qui renders it Advocatus. The Syriac keep- maxime propterea Paracletus nomieth the original altogether xo'p3, natur, id est, Consolator.” De Serm. as being of ordinary use in the writers Dom. in Monte, 1. i. c. 2. "Com Chriof that and the Chaldec language; and stus promiserit suis missurum se Paratherefore was not well translated Pa, cletum, id est, Consolatorem vel Adracletus in the Gospels, and Advocatus vocatum.' Contra Faust. 1. xiii. c. 17. in the Epistle, by Tremellius. That 'Consolator ergo ille, vel Advocatus, the Latins did use generally the word utrumque enim interpretatur quod est Paracletus for the Holy Ghost, as it Græce Paracletus.' Expos. in Ioan. is now in the Vulgar Latin, appeareth Tract. 94. §. 2. And as they read of by the description of the heresy of expound it, so did the Arabic transMontanus, which Tertullian calls : lator render it by two several words,
novam prophetiam de Paracleto in- one in the Gospel, another in the undantem.' De Resur. Carn. c. 63. Epistle, both signifyiug Consolator. and : spiritalem rationem, Paracleto Now what they meant by Advocatus auctore. cont. Marc. I. i. c. 29. And is evident, that is, one which should yet the most ancient Latin translators plead the cause of Christians against rendered it Advocatus even in the Gos- their adyersaries which accused and pels, in reference to the Spirit; as we persecuted them ; that as there is an read it in Tertullian : ‘Bene quod et accuser which is a spirit, even Satan; Dominus usys hoc verbo in persona so there should be an advocate to Paracleti, non divisionem significavit, plead against that accuser, even the sed dispositionem, Rogabo enim, in- Holy Spirit. Necessarius nobis est quit, Patrem, et alium advocatum mit- ros Dei, ut non comburamur, neque tet vobis Spiritum veritatis.' Adv. Prax. infructuosi efficiamur; et ubi accusaC, 9. So Novatian: 'Ego rogabo Pa- torem babemus, illic habemus et Patrem, et alium Advocatum dabit vobis. racletam.' Iren. I. iii. o. 10. 'Hic ipse Necnon etiam subdidit illud quoque, (Spiritus) et in Prophetis populum acAdvocatus autem Spiritus S. quem mis- cusavit, et in Apostolis ad vocationem surus est Pater, ille vos docebit.' De' gentibus præstitit. Nam illi ut accuTrin. Có 28. Cum venerit Advocatus sarentur merebantur, quia contemille, quem ego mittam.' Apud S.Hilar. pserant tegem, et qui ex Gentibus cre: de Trin. 1. viii. §. 19. Notwithstand- dunt ut patrocinio Spiritus adjuventur ing Consolator also is of good antiquity: merentur, quia ad Evangelicam peras we read in the same St. Hilary: venire gestiunt legem.' Novat. de Trin. “Sumus nunc quidem consolati, quia c. 29. And again : Quoniam DomiDominus ait, Mittet vobis Pater et nus in coelum esset abiturus, Paraalium Consolatorem.' Enar. in Psal. cletum discipulis necessario dabat, CXXV. §. 7. And it is possible that ne illos quodammodo pupillos, quod some which used Advocatus, might minime decebat, relinquere, et sine
Saviour is the Head. “For by one Spirit we are all baptized into one body. And as the body is one and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body, so also is Christ.” (1 Cor. xii. 18. 12.)* “Hereby we know that God abideth in us, by the Spirit which he hath given us.” (1 Jobn iii. 24.) As we become spiritual men by the Spirit which is in us, as that union with the body and the head is a spiritualconjunction, so it proceedeth from the Spirit; and“ he that is joined unto the Lord is one Spirit.”(1 Cor.vi.17.)
Fifthly, It is the office of the Holy Ghost to assure us of the adoption of sons, to create in us a sense of the paternal love of God towards os, to give us an earnest of our everlasting inheritance. “The love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.” (Rom. v.5.) “ For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.” (Rom. viii. 14.) And “because we are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, Advocato et quodam Tutore desere- kAytol were to intercede. The action ret.' Ibid. In this 'sense it was, that of these Advocati was called mapáwhen Vettius pleaded for the Gallicap kanous, and by the ancient grammamartyrs before their persecutors: ήξίου rians παράκλησις is interpreted δέησις; ακουσθήναι απολογούμενος υπέρ των as Ηarpocration: Τίθεται μέντοι σπααδελφών endeavouring to clear them, νίως και αντί της δεήσεως: Λυκούργος, έν he was called the Παράκλητος οf the των περί Ιερείας, προειπών, Ει μεν υπέρ. Christians: ανελήφθη και αυτός εις τον ιδίου τινός ήν ο αγών, έδεόμην αν υμών κλήρον των μαρτύρων, παράκλητος Χρι- μετ' ευνοίας ακούσαί μου μετ' ολίγον στιανών χρηματίσας. Acta Mart. Gal. φησί, Νυνί δε αυτούς υμάς οίμαι τούτο, apud Euseb. Hist. 1. v. c. 1. In the novos kai xwpis napaklýoews tñs same notion did the ancient Rabbins ệuñs. And that the action of the nause the same word retained in their parantol was dénous, entreaty, and pelanguage, 25772, as appeareth by tition, appears by those words of Dethat in the Pirke, Avoth, c. 4. Jy mosthenes: Ai de tüy napaklýtwv ToúΠΝ των5p) 5 Πρ ΠΠΝ TOYO, των δεήσεις και σπουδαι των ιδίων πλε75 TIP' nnx Tray 1) ovečiūv čveka łyivovro. Orat. nepi ha: TN Trup He which keepeth one pare: S: 1. Of these napáxinroe is commandment, gaineth one advocate, Æschines to be understood: Thy.min. and he which tramsgresseth one, getteth παρασκευήν οράτε, και την παράταξιν, one accuser. As therefore hisap is. Őon yeyevntai, kai tàç kar á yopdv deňκατήγορος, 60 05P is συνήγορος, or σεις, αις κέχρηνται τινες. Οrat. κατά patronus qui causam ei agit. And so Kryo. §. 1. Thus I conceive the noAdvocatus is ordinarily understood for. tion of mapáxintos, common to the Son him which pleadeth and maintaineth and to the Holy Gbost, to consist espe.. the cause of any one. But I conceive cially in the office of intercession, there were other Advocati, and espe- which by St. Paul is attributed to cially napáxinto among the Greeks, both, and is thus expressed of the who did not plead or maintain the Spirit by Novatianus: Qui interpel-, eause, but did only assist with their lat divinas -aures pro nobis gemitibus presence, entreating and interceding ineloquacibus, advocationis implens by way of petition to the judges, such officia et defensionis exhibens muas were the friends of the rens, called nera. De Trin. c. 29. by him to his assistance, and interced Dominus pollicitus est mittere se ing for him; in both which respects Paracletum qui nos aptaret Deo. Sicthey were called mapártyrol. As we ut enim de tritico massa una fieri non read in. Isæus 1.7. Kww.kAnp. p. 36, potest sine humore, neque unus panis; 1. ed. Steph. tous pílovgʻrtapakalégav. ita nec nos multi unum fieri in Christo, τες, και ρήτορας παρασκευασάμενοι: the Jesu poteramus sine aqua que de øýropes were to plead, the piło napá. coelo est.' Iren..). iii. c. 19.
crying, Abba, Father.” (Gal. iv. 6.) “For we have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but we have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. The Spirit itself bearing witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God.”. (Rom. viii. 15, 16.) As therefore we are born again by the Spirit, and receive from him our regeneration, so we are also assured by the same Spirit of our adoption; and, because being sons we are also "heirs, heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ,” (Rom. viii. 17.) by the same Spirit we have the pledge, or rather the earnest of our inheritance. For "he which stablisheth us in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God, who hath also sealed us, and bath given the earnest of his Spirit in our hearts;” (2 Cor. i. 21, 22.) so that we are “sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession.” (Eph. i. 13, 14.) The Spirit of God as given unto us in this life, though it have not the proper nature of a pledge; as in the gifts received here being no way equivalent to the promised reward, nor given in the stead of any thing already due; yet is to be looked upon as an earnest,* being part of that reward which is promised, and, upon the condition of performance of the covenant which God hath made with us, certainly to be received.
The word åppaßwv, which the gotiis arrhæ quantitas, contractus ilapostle only useth in this particular, lius pro quo intercesserit quædam is of a Hebrew extraction; nagy portio est; pignoris vero ratio, meritum from a word of promise and en- rei pro qua poni videtur excedit.' gagement in commerce, bargains, and Paschas. Diac. 1. i. de Sp. S. c. 11. agreements; and being but in one Pignus Latinus interpres pro arrhaparticular affair used in the Old Tes- bone posuit. Non idipsum autem artament is taken for a pledge, Gen. rhabo quod pignus sonat. Arrhabo xxxviii. 17, 18. 20. and translated' enim futuræ emptioni quasi quoddam áopaßwy by the LXX. as well as testimonium et obligamentuin datur. Xiwo by the Chaldee; yet the Pignus vero, hoc est, évéxvpov, pro Greek word, otherwise, consonantly mutua pecunia opponitur, ut cum illa enough to the origination, signifieth reddita fuerit, reddenti debitum pirather an earnest than a pledge, as the gnus a creditore reddatur.'S. Hier.ad Greeks and Latins generally agree, Ephes. i. 14. There is such another Hesych. 'Appaßwv, mpóoopa. Etym. observation in A. Gellius, upon these ’Appaßwv, o tai rais úvaīs napà Tūv' words of Q. Claudius: Cum tantus ώνουμένων διδομένη προκαταβολή υπέρ arrhabo penes Samnites Populi Roảopaleias. Which words are also ex-, mani esset: Arrhabonem dixit sextant in Snidas, but corruptly. To this centos obsides, et id maluit quam pipurpose is cited that of Menander:
gnus dicere, quoniam vis hujas voca
-Μικρού buli in ea sententia gravior acriorque Mèv åppaßūv' cibús ji' ÉTELOE cara-' est.' Noct. Att. l. xvii. c. 2. The βαλείν. .
sense and use of this word are evident So Aristotle speaking of T es: su- in Plautus: πορήσαντα χρημάτων ολίγων αρραβώνας
* Eas quanti destinat? diadoīvai tūv kalovpywv. Polit. I. 1. Tr. Talentis magnis totidem quot ego c. 11. So the Latins. • Arrhabo sic
et tu sumus. dicta, ut reliquum reddatur. Hoc Sed arrbaboni has dedit quadraginta verbum a Græco ápaßúv. Reliqnum minas.' cx eo quod debitum reliquit.' Varro
Mostell. a. jij, sc. i. 113. de L. L. I. iv. p. 41. 'In térrenis ne. The sum was 1201. of which he gave