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of two distinct parts, the latter is wholly added, and the former partly augmented; the most ancient professing no more than to believe the holy Church:*and the Greeks having added, but sometimes this Article was re- sins and resurrection toeternal life, are served to the end of the CREED. As to be obtained in and by the Church : first appeareth in that remarkable as the Creed in the first homily under place of St. Cyprian : Quod si ali- the name of St.Chrysostom: Credo in quis illud opponit, ut dicat eandem Spiritum S. Iste Spiritus perducit ad Novatianum legem tenere quam ca- sanctam ecclesiam; ipsa est quæ ditholica ecclesia teneat, eodem sym- mittit peccata, promittit carnis resurbolo quo et nos baptizare, eundem rectionem, promittit vitam æternam.' nosse Deum Patrem, eundem Filium Tertullian: 'Quæ est mater poCbristum, eundem Spiritum S., ac stra, in quam repromisimus sanctam propter hoc usurpare eum potestatem ecclesiam. Adv. Marcion. I. v. c. 4. baptizandi posse, quod videatur in So Ruftinus: sanctam ecclesiam. §. 35. interrogatione baptismi a nobis non For catholicam is added by Pamelius. discrepare; sciat quisquis et hoc op- So St. Jerome: * Præterea cum soponendum putat, primum non esse lenne sit in lavacro post Trinitatis upam nobis et schismaticis symboli confessionem interrogare, Credis sanlegem, neque eandem interrogatio- ctam ecclesium? Credis remissionem nem. Nam cum dicunt, Credis re- peccatorum? Quam ecclesiam credimissionem peccatorum, et vitam æter- disse cum dices? Arianorum? sed nam per sanctam ecclesiam? mentiun- non habent: nostram ? sed extra banc -tur in interrogatione, cum non habent baptizatus non potuit eam credere ecclesiam. Tunc deinde voce sua quam nescivit.' cont. Lucif. col. 297. ípsi confitentur remissionem peccato- And St. Augustin: 'Credimus et sanrum non dari, nisi per sanctam eccle- ctam ecclesiam,' with this declaration, siam. Ep. ad Magn. 1. i. ep. 6. §. 6. 'utique catholicam.' De Fid. et Symb. al. ep. 76. Thus Arius and Euzoius, c. 10. So Maximus Taurin., Chrysoin the words hereafter cited, place logus, and Venantius Fortunatus. The the Church in the conclusion of their author of the first book De Symb. ad creed. And the author of the second Catech. - Sequitur post Sanctæ Trinibook de Symb. ad Catech. placeth the tatis commendationem, sanctam eccleremission of sins after the Holy Ghost: siam.' The author of theother three who • Noli injuriam facere ei qui te fecit, placeth this Article last of all: 'sanut consequaris ab illo, quod in isto cta ecclesia, in qua omnis hujus sacrasancto symbolo sequitur, Remissionem menti terminatur auctoritas :' 1. j. omnium peccatorum:' §. 21. and after and iv. expressly per sanctam ecclehe bath 'spoken of the resurrection siam, as the words of the Creed, with and life everlasting, proceedeth thus the explication beforementioned. As to speak of the Church : Sancta ec- also the interrogation of the Novatians clesia, in qua omnis sacramenti termi- ending with per sanctam ecclesiam, natur auctoritas,' &c. &. 24. And the cited before out of St. Cyprian. So author of the third : Ideo sacramenti likewise of those two homilies on the hujus conclusio, per ecclesiam termi- Creed, which are falsely attributed to natur, quia ipsa est mater fæcunda. St. Chrysostom, the first bath sanctam §. 13. And the author of the fourth: ecclesiam after the belief in the Holy Per sanctam ecclesiam. Propterea hu- Ghost; the second concludeth the jus conclusio sacramenti per sanctam Creed with per sanctam ecclesiam. ecclesiam terminatur, quoniam si quis ' In carnis resurrectionem fides, in absque ea inventus fuerit, alienus erit vita æterna spes, in sancta ecclesia caa numero filiorum; nec babebit Deum ritas.' Thus the ancient Saxon Creed Patrem qui ecclesiam noluerit habere set forth by Freherus, “ Tha halgan matrem. §. 13. Thus therefore they gelaðinge,' i.e. the holy Church; the disposed the last part of the CREED: Greek Creed in Saxon letters in Sir •Credo in Spiritum Sanctum, peccato- Robert Cotton's library, and the old rum remissionem, carnis resurrectio- Latio Creed in the Oxford library. nem, et vitam æternam per sanctam ec- • Deus qui in coelis babitat, et condiclesiam.'And the design of this transpo- dit ex nihilo ea quæ sunt, et maltisition, was to signify, that remission of plicavit propter sanctam ecclesiam
by way of explication or determination, the word catholick, it was at last received into the Latin Creed.
To begin then with the first part of the Article, I shall endeavour so to expound it, as to shew what is the meaning of the Church, which Christ hath propounded to us; how that Church is holy, as the apostle hath assured us; how that holy Church is catholick, as the fathers have taught us. For when I say, I believe in the holy catholick Church, I mean that there is a Church which is boly,* and which is catholick; and I understand that Church alone, which is both catholick and holy: and being this holiness and catholicism are but affections of this Church which I believe, I must first declare what is the nature and notion of the Church; how I am assured of the existence of that Church; and then how it is the subject of these two affections, suam, irascitur tibi. Herm. 1. i. Vi diotum est in Deo Patre credi adjecta sione 1. Virtute sua potenti con- præpositione, ita et in Christo Filio didit sanctam ecclesiam suam. Ibid. ejus, ita et in Spiritu S. memoratur. * Rogabam Dominum, ut revelationes Sed ut manifestius fiat quod dicimus, ejus, quas mihi ostendit per sanctam ex consequentibus approbabitur. Seecclesiam suam, confirmaret.' Idem, quitur namque post bunc sermonem, Vis. 4. But though it were not in the sanctam ecclesiam, remissionem peccaRoman or Occidental Creeds, yet it torum, hujus carnis resurrectionem. was anciently in the Oriental, parti- Non dixit, in sanctam ecclesiam, nec cularly in that of Jerusalem, and that in remissionem peccatorum, nec in of Alexandria. In the Creed at Je- carnis resurrectionem; si enim addisusalem it was certainly very ancient; disset in præpositionem, una eademfor it is expounded by St. Cyril, arch- que vis fuisset cum superioribus. Ne bishop of that place: sic piav åyiav autem (f. Nunc autem) in illis quikafolucru łki noiav. Catech. xviii. dem vocabulis, ubi de divinitate fides And in the Alexandrian it was as an- ordinatur, in Deo Patre dicitur, et cient; for Alexander, archbishop of Jesu Christo Filio ejus, et in Spiritu that place, inserts it in his confession, S.; in cæteris vero, ubi non de diviniin his Epistle ad Alexandrum: píav tate, sed de creaturis ac mysteriis serκαι μόνην καθολικήν την αποστολικήν mo est, in prepositio non additur, ut łka noiav. Theodoret. Hist. l. i. c. 3. dicatur in sanctam ecclesiam, sed And Arius and Euzoius, in their con- sanctam ecclesiam credendam esse; fession of faith given in to Constan- non ut in Deum, sed ut ecclesiam tine, thus concludes: Kai sic kalols- Deo congregatam; et remissionem κην εκκλησίας του Θεού, την από περά- peccatorum credendam esse, non in TWY XWg reparwy. Socrat. Hist. Eccl. remissionem peccatorum; et resur1. i. c. 26. The same is also expressed rectionem carnis, non in resurrectioin both the Creeds, the lesser and the nem carnis. Hac itaque præpositiogreater, delivered by Epiphanius in nis syllaba creator a creaturis secerniAncorato, §. 120. 121.; the words are tur, et divina separantur ab humanis.' repeated in the next observation. Ruff. in Symb. $. 34, 35. Though I
• “Credo sanctam Ecclesiam,' I say this expression be thus pressed, believe there is a holy Church ; or, yet we are sure that the fathers did • Credo in sanctam Ecclesiam,' is the use sis and in for the rest of the same: nor does the particle in added Creed as well as for the Father, or subtracted make any difference. Son, and Holy Ghost. We have alFor although some of the Latin and ready produced the authorities of Greek fathers press the force of that St. Cyril, Arius, and Euzoius, p. 41. preposition, as is before observed, and that of Epiphanius in Ancorato. though Ruffinus urge it far in this Thus also the Latins, as St. Cyprian: particular: •Ut autem una eademque 'In æternam poenam sero credent, in Trinitate divinitas doceatur, sicut qui in vitam æternam credere polae
For the understanding of the true notion of the Church, first we must observe, that the nominal definition or derivation of the word is not sufficient to describe the nature of it. If we look upon the old English word now in use, Church or Kirk,* it is derived from the Greek, and first signified, the house of the Lord, that is, of Christ, and from thence was taken to signify the people of God, meeting in the house of God. The Greek word used by the apostles to express the Church, signifieth a calling forth,+ if we look upon the origination; a congregation of men, or a company assembled, if we consider the use of it. But neither of these doth fully express the nature of the Church, what it is in itself, and as it is propounded to our belief. runt.' Ad Demetriarium, §. 21. So In- word; from trkaleiv tkalnoia, from terpres Irenæi: 'Quotquot autem ti- thence érka notálelv, and because the ment Deum, et credunt in adventum preposition bad no signification in the Filii ejus,'etc. So Chrysologus: 'In use of that word, from thence itekk\nsanctam ecclesiam. Quia ecclesia in ocáselv, to convocate, or call together. Christo, et in ecclesia Christus est; But yet érelnoia is not the same with qui ergo ecclesiam fatetur, in ecclesi- ékkinois, not the evocation or the action am se confessus est credidisse. Serm. of calling, but the 'Antoi, or the com62. And in the ancient edition of St. pany called, and that (according to the Jerome, in the place before-cited, it use) gathered together; from whence was read : “ Credis in sanctam eccle- ékk noiáselv is to gather together, or to siam :' contr. Lucif. col. 297. and the be gathered. Hence St. Cyril : 'Exword in was left out by Victorius. κλησία δε καλείται φερωνύμως, διά το
* Κύριος, the Lord, and that pro- πάντας εκκαλείσθαι και ομού συνάγειν. perly Christ; from whence Kuparòs, Catech. xviii. §. 11. So Ammonius : belonging to the Lord Christ; οίκος Εκκλησίαν έλεγον οι Αθηναίοι την σύνΚυριακός, from thence Kyriac, Kyrk, οδον των κατά την πόλιν. 8. voc. TO and Church.
this purpose do the LXX. use tkxo+ The word used by the apostle is orálelv actively, to convocate or call εκκλησία, from εκκαλεϊν ευocare. From together an assembly; as εκκλησιάζειν εκκέκλησαι έκκλησις, from έκκλησις εκκλη- λαόν, and εκκλησιάζειν συναγωγήν, and σία, of the same notation with the He- εκκλησιάζεσθαι passively; as έξεκκλησιάbrew xip: Ecclesia quippe ex vo- oon tãoa ovvaywyo), Jos. xviii. 1. catione appellata est.' S. August. Exp. which the Attic writers would have ad Rom. §. 2. And though they or- expressed by tradyoiase, as : Aristodinarily take it primarily to signify phanes, Vesp. 31. convocatio, as St. Augustin: ‘Inter "Edoše uoi tepi apūrov Útvov ¿v TŰ congregationem, unde synagoga, et Πνυκί convocationem, unde ecclesia nomen 'Exclmoiáselv apóßara ovykaðnueva. habet, distat aliquid:' Enar. in Psal. Where, though the scholiast. bath ren81. §. 1. yet the origination speaks dered ékkinoiátelv, eis érkinoiav ovváonly of evocation without any intima- yelv, whereby the lexicographers have tion of congregation or meeting toge- been deceived; yet the word is even ther, as there is in ouykantos. From there taken as a neuter, in the passive whence arose that definition of Me- sense, as generally the Attics use it. thodius : "Oti tkal noiav napà tò ŠKKE- Howsoever, from the notation of the κληκέναι τας ηδονάς λέγεσθαι φησιν' word we cannot conclude that it sigPhotius Biblioth. Cod. ccxxxv. col. nifies a number of men called toge937. Whereas ékkaleiv is po more ther into one assembly out of the mass here than kaleiv, žralnois no more or generality of mankind: first, bethan κλήσεις, as κλητεύειν and έκκλη- cause the preposition εκ bath no such TEVELV with the Attics were the same: furce in the use of the word; secondly, from whence it came to pass, that the because the collection or coming tosame proposition batli boen twico gether is not specified in the originaadded in the composition of the same tion;
Our second observation is, That the Church hath been taken for the whole complex of men and angels worshipping the same God; and again, the angels being not considered, it hath been taken as comprehending all the sons of men believing in God ever since the foundation of the World.* But being Christ took not upon him the nature of angels, and consequently did not properly purchase them with his blood, or call them by his word; being they are not in the Scriptures mentioned as parts or members of the Church, nor can be imagined to be built upon the prophets or apostles; being we are at this time to speak of the proper notion of the Church ; therefore I shall not look upon it as comprehending any more than the sons of men. Again, being though Christ was the Lamb slain before the foundation of the World, and whosoever from the beginning pleased God were saved by his blood: yet because there was a vast difference between the several dispensations of the Law and Gospel; because our Saviour spake expressly of building himself a Church, when the Jewish synagogue was about to fail; because catholicism, which is here attributed unto the Church, must be understood in opposition to the legal singularity of the Jewish nation; because the ancient fathers were generally wont to distinguish between the Synagogue and the Church;t therefore I think it necessary to restrain this notion to Christianity.
Thirdly, Therefore I observe that the only way to attain unto the knowledge of the true notion of the Church, is to search into the New Testament, and from the places there which mention it, to .conclude what is the nature of it. To which purpose it will be necessary to take notice, that our Saviour first speaking of it, mentions it as that which then was not, but afterwards was to be ;I as when he spake unto the great apostle, “Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church;” (Matt. xvi. 18.) but when he ascended into heaven, and the Holy Ghost came down, when Peter had con
" Translatus in Paradisum, jam ! Quid? Judaicus populus circa betunc de mundo in ecclesiam.'Tertull. neficia divina perfidus et. ingratus, l. ii. adv. Marcion. c. 4.
nonne quod a Deo primum recessit, + Thus St. Ignatius speaking of impatientiæ crimen fuit? Impatientia Christ: Αυτός ών θύρα του Πατρός, δι' e etiam in ecclesia hæreticos facit.' S. its cioépxovtal.'Aßpadu, kaì 'Ioadk, kai Cyprian. de Bono Patient. §. 11. Ιακώβ, και οι Προφήται, και οι Απόστο- Quis non agnoscat Christum relidot, vai új ékkinoia. Ep. ad Philad. §. 9. quisse matrem Synagogam JudæWhere y tend noia is plainly taken för orum, Veteri Testamento carnaliter the multitude of Christians, who were adhærentem, et adhæşisse uxori sųæ, converted to the faith by the apostles, sanctæ ecclesiæ?' S. August. contra and those who 'were afterwards joined Faust. l. xii. c. 8. : : Mater Sponsi to them in the profession of the same Domini nostri Jesu Christi Synagoga faith. “Sacrificia in populo, sacrificia est; proinde nurus ejus ecclesia. et in ecclesia.' Iren, adv. Hæres. I.iv. Idem, Enarr, in Psal. 41. §. 12. c. 34. : • Disseminaverunt serimonem In quem ingruerunt--in ecclede Christo Patriarchæ et: Prophetæ ; siam ? quam nondum Apostoli strudemessa est autem ecclesia, boc est, xerant.' Tertull: de Bapt. c. 11, fructum percepit.' Id. I, iv. c. 25. .
verted" three thousand souls,” (Acts ii. 41.) which were added to the hundred and twenty" disciples,(Acts i. 15.) then was there a Church (and that built upon Peter,* according to our Saviour's promise); for after that we read, “the Lord added to the Church daily such as should be saved.” (Acts ü. 47.) A Church then our Saviour promised should be built, and by a promise made before his death: after his ascension, and upon the preaching of St. Peter, we find a Church built or constituted, and that of a nature capable of daily increase. We cannot then take a better occasion to search into the true notion of the Church of Christ, than by looking into the origination and increase thereof; without which it is impossible to have a right conception of it.fi
Now what we are infallibly assured of the first actual existence of a Church of Christ, is only this: there were twelve apostles with the disciples before the descent of the Holy Ghost, and the “ number of the names together were a hundred and twenty." (Acts i. 15.) When the Holy Ghost came after a powerful and miraculous manner upon the blessed apostles, and St. Peter preached unto the Jews, that they should “repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; they that gladly received his word were baptized, and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.” (Acts ii. 38. 41.) These being thus added to the rest," continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers;" (Ibid. 42.) and all these persons so continuing are called the Church. What this Church was is easily deter, mined, for it was a certain number of men, of which some were apostles, some the former disciples, others were persons which repented, and believed, and were baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, and continued hearing the word preached, receiving the sacraments administered, joining in the public prayers presented unto God. This was then the Church,
* Qualis es evertens atque com- which he then performed, when he mutans manifestam Domini inten- preached the Gospel by which the tionem personaliter hoc Petro con- Church was first gathered. ferentem. Super te, inquit, ædificabo + Tertullian, mentioning the Acts ecclesiam meam, et dabo tibi claves, non of the Apostles, addeth these words: ecclesiæ. Sic enim et exitus docet: Quam Scripturam qui nonrecipiunt, in ipso ecclesia exstructa est, id est; nec Spiritus Sancti esse possunt, qui per ipsum, ipse clavem imbuit; vides necdum Spiritum possiut agnoscere quam ; Viri Israelitæ, auribus man- discentibus missum: sed nec eccledate quæ dico : Jesum Nazarenum, siam defendere, qui quando et quibus virum a Deo vobis destinatum, et re- incunabulis institutum est hoc corpus, liqua.' Tertull: de Pudicitia, c. 21. probare non habent! De Præscr. So St. Basil: Eüğüs yàpo éxc tñs purns Hæret. c. 22. ταύτης νοούμεν Πέτρον-τον διά της και 1 Cum remisissent summi Sacerπίστεως υπεροχήν εφ' εαυτόν την οικοδο- dotes Petrum et Ioannem, et reversi prv rñs ranoias detauevov. : Adv. essent ad reliquos co-apostolos et Eunom. I. ii. §. 4. St. Peter took discipulos Domini, id est, in eccle upon himself the building of the siam.' Iren. adv. Hæres. I. ii. c. 12. Church, that is, to build the Church,