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revealed the determination of his will to raise the dead, and that he hath not only delivered that intention in his Word, but hathalso several ways confirmed the same.
Many of the places produced out of the Old Testament to this
purpose will scarce amount to a revelation of this truth. The Jews insist upon such weak inferences out of the Law, as shew that the resurrection was not clearly delivered by Moses;* and in the Book of Job, where it is most evidently expressed, they acknowledge it not, because they will not understand the true notion of a Redeemer properly belonging to Christ. The words of Job are very express, “I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth, and though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God.” (Job xix. 25, 26.) Against the evidence of this truth there are two interpretations : one very new of some late opinionists, who understand this of a sudden restitution to his former temporal condition; the other more ancient of the Jews, who make him speak of the happiness
of another life, without any reference to a resurrection. But that Job spake not concerning any sudden restitution, or any alteration of his temporal condition, is apparent out of the remarkable preface ushering in this expression,“O that my words were now written ! O that they were printed in a book! That they were graven with an iron pen and lead, in the rock for ever!” (Ibid. 23, 24.) He desires that his words may continue as his expectation, that they may remain in the rock, together with his hope so long as the rock shall endure, even to the day of his resurrection. The same appeareth from the objection of his friends, who urged against him that he was a sinner, and concluded from thence that he should never rise again; for his sins he pleaded a Redeemer, and for his resurrection he sheweth expectation and assurance through the same Redeemer.t. It is farther
• They produce several places out shalt return unto this dust, that is, of Moses, which when the resurrection thou shalt live again as now thou is believed, may in some kind serve to doest. So from those words, Exod. illustrate it, but can in no degree bo xv. i. Tuongvan 18 they conclude thought to reveal so great a mystery. the resprrection upon this ground, u As because in the formation of man yaxbx 8X3 X5 it is not said, he Moses useth the word 7879 with two gang, but he shall sing, viz., after the jods, and in the formation of boasts resurrection in the life to come. With pyn with but one ; therefore the these and the like arguments did the beasts are made but once, but man Rabbins satisfy themselves; which twice; once in his generation, and was the reason that they gave so small again in his resurrection. They satisfaction to the Sadducees, while strangely appreheud a promise of the they omitted that pregnant place in resurrection, even in the malediction, Job. “Dust thou art, and unto dust thou + This place is urged. by St. Cleshall retyrn;"
. 19. #37 mens Romanus, the immediate suc3wn xx 2) it is not thou shalt çessor of the apostles, in his epistle to go to the dust, but thou shalt return. the Coriothians, where instead of As if he had said, thou art now dust these words of the LXX, ávaorñoai while thou livest, and after death thou το δέρμα μου το αναντλούν ταύτα, he
confirmed by the expressions themselves, which are no way
If these and other places of the Old Testament shew that God had then revealed his will to raise the dead, we are sure those of the New fully declare the same. Christ who called himself “the resurrection and the life,” (John xi. 25.) refuted the Sadducees, and confirmed the doctrine of the Pharisees as to that opinion. He produced a place out of the Law of Moses, and made it an argument to prove as much, “As reads, Kai ávaothoeus riiv oápra pov riarum reconditi, ad insperatam victoTaúrnu tiiv ávavt. hoaoav taūta návra. riam de terræ pulvere resurrexerunt, f. 26.
et de humo elevaverunt caput, custo
des legis resurgentes vitam æternam, +
et prævaricatores in opprobrium se 1
piternum:' ad loc. where it is to be The Jews collect from hence the observed, that he gives a probable resurrection, as Rabina in Sanhedrin, gloss of the former part of the verse, and in the Midrash Tillim. Psal. xciii. but none at all of the latter, because
• ואני ידעתי
+ גאלי : אחרון
-it is no way consistent with his expo אר"רחמון ושני עפר הם המתים .3
sition of the former : for they which שנ' ורבים מישני אדמת עפר יקיצו
:707 Rabbi Rachmon said, that the did rise from the burden of the pres-
touching the resurrection of the dead, bave ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead but of the living.” (Matt. xxii. 31, 32.) With the force of which argument the multitude was astonished, and the Sadducees silenced. For under the name of God was understood a great benefactor, a God of promise, and to be their God, was to bless them and to reward them; as in them to be his servants and his people, was to believe in him, and to obey him. Now Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had not received the promise which they expected, and therefore God after their death desiring still to be called their God, he thereby acknowledgeth that he had a blessing and a reward for them still, and consequently that he will raise them to another life, in which they may receive it. So that the argument of our Saviour is the same which the Jews have drawn from another piace of Moses, “I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name Jehovah was I not known unto them. Nevertheless I have established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage wherein they were strangers.” (Exod. vi. 3, 4.)* It is not said, to give their sons, but to give them the land of Canaan ; and therefore, because while they lived here, they enjoyed it not, they must live again, that they may receive the promise.
And as our blessed Saviour did refute the Sadducees out of the Law of Moses, so did St. Paul join himself unto the Pharisees in this particular, for being called before the council, and “perceiving that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees," one denying, the other asserting the resurrection," he cried unto the council, Men and brethren, I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee, of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question;" (Acts xxiii. 6.) and answering before Felix, that they had “ found no evil-doing in him, while he stood before the council” he mentioned this particularly, “except it be for this one voice, that I cried standing among them, touching the resurrection of the dead I am called in question by you this day.” (Acts xxiv. 20, 21.)
It is evident therefore that the resurrection of the dead was revealed under the Law, that the Pharisees who sat in Moses's chair did collect it thence, and believe it before our Saviour came into the world ; that the Sadducees who denied it erred, “not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God;" (Matt. xxii. 29.) that our blessed Saviour clearly delivered the same
• Exod. vi. 4. 7NI NDOD ning And therefore the Jews hold the re:, )
, resur- ? rection of the deud appeareth out of Moses Maim. Expl. o: 10. Tract. Santhe law. R. Simai, in Perek. Helek. hedrin.
לתת לכם לא נאמר • surrection for one of the foundations אלא להם מכאן לתחית המתים ותחיית המתים ,lt is not said to give you , of the law of Moses מן התורה: קאעדה מן קיאעד שריעה משא -but to give them
truth, proved it out of the Law of Moses, refuted the Sadducees, confirmed the Pharisees, taught it the apostles, who followed him, confirming it to the Jews, preaching it to the Gentiles. Thus the will of God concerning the raising of the dead was made known unto the sons of men, and because God can do whatsoever he will, and will certainly effect whatsoever he hath foretold, therefore we are assured of a resurrection by virtue of a clear revelation.
Beside, God hath not only foretold, or barely promised, but hath also given such testimonies as are most proper to confirm our faith in this particular prediction and promise. For God heard the voice of Elijah for the dead child of the widow of Sarepta, “and the soul of the child came into him again, and he revived.” (1 Kings xvii. 22.) Him did Elisha succeed, not only in the same spirit, but also in the like power, for he raised the child of the Shunammite from death:(2 Kings iv.) nor did that power die together with him; for when they were burying a dead man," they cast the man into the sepulchre of Elisha, and when the man was let down and touched the bones of Elisha, he revived and stood up on his feet.” (2 Kings xiii. 21.) These three examples were so many confirmations, under the Law, of a resurrection to life after death; and we have three to equal them under the Gospel. the daughter of Jairus, was dead, Christ “said unto her, Talitha cumi, Damsel arise, and her spirit came again, and straightway the damsel arose." (Mark v. 41, 42. Luke viji. 55.) When he came “nigh to the gate of the city called Nain, there was a dead man carried out, and he came nigh and touched the bier, and said, Young man, I say unto thee, arise; and he that was dead sat up and began to speak.” (Luke vii. 12. 14, 15.) Thus Christ raised the dead in the chamber and in the street, from the bed and from the bier, and not content with these smaller demonstrations, proceedcth also to the grave. When Lazarus had been “ dead four days,” and so buried that his sister said of him, “by this time he stinketh ;" Jesus “ cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth, and he that was dead came forth.” (John xi. 39. 43, 44.) These three evangelical resuscitations are so many preambulary proofs of the last and general resurrection, but the three former and these also come far short of the resurrection of him who raised these.
Christ did of himself actually rise, others who had slept in their greges did come from thence, and thus he gave an actual testimony of the resurrection. For “ if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead (saith St. Paul to the Corinthians), how say some among you that there is no resurrection from the dead?” (1 Cor. xv. 12.) If it be most infallibly certain that one man did rise from the dead, as we have before proved that Christ did, then it must be as certainly false to assert that there is no resurrection. And therefore when the Gentiles did
themselves confess that some particular persons did return to life after death,* they could not rationally deny the resurrection wholly. Now the resurrection of Christ doth not only prove by way of example, as the rest who rose, but hath a force in it to command belief of a future general resurrection, For God hath “appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained, whereof he hath given an assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead.” (Acts xvii. 31.) All men then are assured that they shall rise, because “Christ is risen.” And “since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.” (1 Cor. xv. 20-22.)
This consequence of a future resurrection of the dead from that of Christ already past, either hath a general or particular consideration. In a general reference it concerneth all; in a more peculiar way it belongeth to the elect alone. First, It belongeth generally unto all men in respect of that dominion of which Christ at his resurrection did obtain the full possession and execution. For to this end Christ both died and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.” (Rom. xiv. 9.) Now as “God is not the God of the dead, but of the living;" (Matt. xxii. 32.) so Christ is not the Lord of the dead, as dead, but as by his power he can revive them and rule them, when and in what they live. By virtue of this dominion entered upon at his resurrection“ he must reign till he hath putall his enemies under his feet, and the last enemy that shall be destroyed is death," (1 Cor. xv. 25, 26.) and there is no destruction of death but by a general resurrection. By virtue of this did he declare himself after this manner to St. John, “I am he that liveth and was dead, and behold I am alive for evermore, Amen, and have the keys of hell and of death.” (Rev. i. 18.) Thus we are assured of a general resurrection, in that Christ is risen to become the Lord of the dead, and to destroy death.
Secondly, Christ rising from the dead assureth us of a general resurrection in respect of the judgment which is - to follow. For as “it is appointed for all men once to die, so after death cometh judgment,” (Heb. ix. 27.) and as Christ was raised that he might be Judge, so shall the dead be raised
* There were not only certain per» λογον έρώ, άλλ' άλκιμου μέν ανδρος, sons under the Law and among the 'Ηρός του 'Αρμενίου, το γένος Παμφύλου Jews, who were raised to life; but 65 TOTE tv todéu TelevThoas, ávalpetliere were also histories amongst θέντων δεκαταίων των νεκρών, ήδη διεthe Gentiles of several who rose to φθαρμένων, υγιής μεν ανηρέθη, κομισθείς life after death. We mentioned be- δε οίκαδε, μέλλων θάπτεσθαι, δωδεκαταίος fore, one out of Plutarch, p. 428. ÉTU TÕ Tupã celuevoç åveßiw. Plat. de who rose the third day, and Plato Rep. l. x. p. 322. ed. Bip. Vide Plin. mentioneth another who revived the Nat. Hist. 1. vii. cap. 52. De his qui twelfth day after death: 'AM' où elati revizerunt. μέντοι σοι, ήν δ' εγώ, 'Αλκίνου γε από