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that they may be judged. As therefore God gave "an assurance unto all men,” that he would judge the world“ by that man, in that he raised him from the dead;" so by the same act did he also give an assurance of the resurrection of the world to judgment.
Now as the general resurrection is evidenced by the rising of Christ, so in a more special and peculiar manner the resurrection of the chosen Saints and servants of God is demonstrated thereby. For he is risen not only as their Lord and Judge, but as their Head, to which they are united as members of his body (for “he is the head of the body, the Church, who is the beginning of the first-born from the dead," Col. i. 18.); as the First-fruits, by which all the lump is sanctified and accepted, for“now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept.” (1 Cor. xv. 20.) The Saints of God are endued with the Spirit of Christ, and thereby their bodies become the temples of the Holy Ghost; now as the promise of the Spirit was upon the resurrection of Christ, so the gist and possession of the Spirit is an assurance of the resurrection of a Christian. For" if the Spirit of him that raised
Jesus from the dead dwell in us, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken our mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in us.” (Rom. viji. 11.)
Thus God hath determined, and revealed that determination to raise the dead, and confirmed that revelation by the actual raising of several persons as examples, and of Christ as the highest assurance which could be given unto man, that the doctrine of the resurrection might be established beyond all possibility of contradiction. Wherefore I conclude that the resurrection of the body is, in itself considered, possible, upon general considerations highly probable, upon Christian principles infallibly certain.
But as it is necessary to a resurrection that the flesh should rise, neither will the life of the soul alone continuing amount to the reviviscence of the whole man, so it is also necessary that the same flesh should be raised again; for if either the same body should be joined to another soul, or the same soul united to another body, it would not be the resurrection of the same man. Now the soul is so eminent a part of man, and by our Saviour's testimony not subject to mortality, that it never entered into the thoughts of any man to conceive that men should rise again with other souls. If the spirits of men departed live, as certainly they do, and when the resurrection should be performed, the bodies should be informed with other souls ; neither they who lived before then should revive, and those who live after the resurrection should have never been before. Wherefore being at the latter day we expect not a new creation but a restitution, not a propagation, but a renovation, not a production of new souls, but a reunion of such as before were separated, there
immortalitatem. . Quid istud induere incorruptionemetimmortalitatem, illud
is no question but the same souls should live the second life which have lived the first. Nor is this only true of our souls, but must be also made good of our bodies, those houses of clay, those habitations of flesh: as our bodies while we live are really distinguished from all other creatures, as the body of every particular man is different from the bodies of all other men, as no other substance whatsoever is vitally united to the soul of that man whose body it is while he liveth; so no substance of any other creature, no body of any other man, shall be vitally reunited unto the soul at the resurrection.
That the same body, not any other, shall be raised to life, which died; that the same flesh which was separated from the soul at the day of death, shall be united to the soul at the last day; that the same tabernacle which was dissolved shall be reared up again; that the same temple wbich was destroyed shall be rebuilt, is most apparent out of the same word, most evident upon the same grounds upon which we believe there shall be any resurrection. “Though after my skin worms destroy my body (saith Job, xix. 26.) yet in my flesh (in flesh, shewing the reality, in my flesh, shewing the propriety and identity) shall I see God, whom I shall see for my self, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another," or a stranger, eye.* “ He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken our mortal bodies;” (Rom. viii. 11.) after the resurrection our glorified bodies shall become spiritual and incorruptible, but in the resurrection of our mortal bodies, those bodies, by reason of whose mortality we died, shall be revived. “For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.” (1 Cor. xv. 53.)+ But this
Quid bac prophetia manife- cum dicit, istud corruptivum et istud stius? Nullus tam aperte post Chri- mortale, cutem ipsam tenens dicit. : stum, quam iste ante Christum de re- Certe istud nisi de subjecto, nisi de surrectione loquitur.'S. Hier. ep. 61. comparenti pronunciasse non potuit: al. 38. col. 324.
demonstrationis corporalis est ver† "Iva pi) árovoag tis, őrl gåpš kai bum.' Tertull. de Resur. carn. c. 51. alua Baoileiav OsoŨ oủ kingovouhoel, “Sed et apostolus cum dicit, Oportet νομίση τα σώματα μη ανίστασθαι, επή- enim corruptibile hoc induere incorruyayev, ori dei tò peapròv toĪTO Évdúoa- ptionem, et mortale hoc induere immorσθαι άφθαρσίαν, και το θνητόν τούτο ενδύ- talitatem, numquid non corpus suum σασθαι αθανασίαν φθαρτον δε το σώμα, quodammodo contingentis et digito και θνητόν το σώμα ώστε το μεν σώμα palpantis est vox?. Hoc ergo quod uévelo aŭrò váp łoti TÒ Évờvóuevov v dè nunc corruptibile corpus est, resurreθνητότης και η φθορά αφανίζεται, αθα- ctionis gratia incorruptibileest, et nunc. vacias kaì ápoapoias ériovons avta. quod mortale est, immortalitatis vir- . S. Chrysost. ad loc. Hom. 42. 'Opãs tutibus induetur.' Ruff. in Symb..ş. Triv åxpißelav, Tò Ovntòv roĪTo ēdette 43. 'Quod dicitapostolus, corruptibile δεικτικώς, ίνα μή άλλης νομίσης σαρκός hoc et mortale; hoc ipsum corpus, id. åváoraçıy. Theodoret. ad loc. 'Opor- est, carnem, quæ tunc videbatur, osa 1 tet enim corruptivum istud induere in- , tendit. Quod autem copulat, induere
, et mortale
mortale, nisi indumentum, id est, vestimentum, caro? quid corruptivum, nisi sanguis? non dicit corpus abolere quod ornat in Ac ne putes aliquid aliud sentire apo- gloria ; sed quod ante inglorium fuit, stolum providentem tibi, et, ut de efficere gloriosum.' S. Hier. Epist. carne dictum intelligas, laborantem ; 61. al. 38. ad Pammach. col. 323.
corruptible and this mortal is the same body which dieth, because mortal; and is corrupted, because corruptible ; the soul then, at the resurrection of that man which is made immortal, must put on that body which putteth on incorruption and immortality.
The identity of the body raised from death is so necessary, that the very name of the resurrection doth include or suppose it; so that when I say there shall be a resurrection of the dead, I must intend thus much, that the bodies of men which live and are dead shall revive and rise again. For at the death of man nothing falleth but his body,* “ the spirit goeth upward,” (Eccles. iii. 21.) and no other body falleth but his own; and therefore the body, and no other but that body, must rise again, to make a resurrection. If we look upon it under the notion of reviviscency, which is more ordinary in the Hebrew language,+ it proves as much; for nothing properly dieth but the body: the soul cannot be killed; and nothing can revive but that which dieth. Or to speak more punctually, the man falleth not in respect of his
Περί δε σαρκός αναστάσεως, πώς caro ergo nostra in veritate resurgit, ουχί σαρκός έσται ανάστασις, ώ εθελόσοφε sicut in veritate cadit.' Gennad. de Ιέρακας Αύτη γαρ η ονομασία της φρά- Eccl. Dogm. c. 6. Πώς γαρ αναστήσεως δείκνυσι την δύναμιν. 'Ανάστασις σεται η μή πεπτωκυία ψυχή; ανάστασις δε γαρ ου καλείται του μη πεπτωκότος: πώς αυτής κληθήσεται, της μη πεσούσης ποίον δε έστι το πεσόν; ποίον το ταφέν; ψυχής και πάν γαρ το πίπτον αναστάσεως πoίoν τo λυθεν, αλλ' ή το σώμα; και δείται, πίπτει δε ουχ η ψυχή αλλά σώμα ουχ η ψυχή ψυχή τοίνυν ού πίπτει, όθεν και δικαίως πτώμα αυτό η συνήθεια ούτε θάπτεται. . S. Epiphan. Hær. ciwɛ kaleiv. S. Epiphan. Hær. xli. Ixvii. $. 6. • Nam et ipsum quod §. 5. 'Aváoraow dè owpátwv neppé. mortuorum resurrectio dicitur, exigit νομεν τούτο γάρ και η προσηγορία δηλοί, defendi proprietates vocabulorum. ανάστασις γάρ ή άνωθεν στάσις το σώμα Mortuorum itaque vocabulo non est, δε εστι το φθειρόμενον και διαλυόμενον nisi quod amisit animam, de cujus fa- τούτου τοίνυν η άνωθεν σύστασις είκότως cultate vivebat. Corpus est quod καλείται ανάστασις της γαρ δή αθανάamittit animam, et amittendo ft mor- του ψυχής ουκ ανάστασις, αλλ' επάνοδος tuum; ita mortui vocabulum corpori yiyveral zepòs to owjia: Theodoret. competit. Porro, si resurrectio mortui Hær. Fab. I. v. c. 19. Vide Iren. I. v. est, mortuum autem non aliud est c. 7. quam corpus, corporis erit resurrectio.
+ The Rabbins use sometimes Sic et resurrectionis vocabulum non apn which is properly resurrealiam rem vindicat quam quæ cecidit. clio, åváoTaois, according to that of Surgere enim potest dici et quod our Saviour, Talitha cumi ; but more omnino non cecidit, quod semper re- often they make use of 7700, which tro jacuit. Resurgere autem non est is reviviscentia, åvaßiwois. And nisi ejus quod cecidit. Iterum enim though they make a distinction somesurgendo quia cecidit resurgere dici- times between them, attributing the tur. Re enim syllaba iterationi sem- first to the wicked, the second to the per adbibetar.' Tertull. adv. Marc. just; yet it must not be so understood I. v. . 9. Sed et ipsum resurrecti- as if there could be a reviviscency onis vocabulum significat non aliud without a resurrection, a Tn withruere, aliud resuscitari, et quod adji- out a yoip, but that there is to the citur mortuorum carnem propriam wicked a pn, which cannot so demonstrat; quod enim in homine properly be called Tin, because moritur, hoc et vivificatur.' S. Hier. they rise not to the happiness of eterep. 61. al. 38. ad Pammach. col. 327. nal life. • Si id resurgere dicitur quod cadit,
spirit, but of his flesh, and therefore he cannot be said to rise again but in respect of his flesh which fell: man dieth not in reference to his soul, which is immortal, but his body; and therefore he cannot be said to revive, but in reference to his body before deprived of life: and because no other flesh fell at his death, no other body died but his own; therefore he cannot rise again but in his own flesh, he cannot revive again but in his own body.
Again, The description of the place from whence the resurrection shall begin, is a sufficient assurance that the same bodies which were dead shall revive and rise again. They which "sleep in the dust of the earth,” (Dan. xii. 2.) they which “are in the graves,” (John v. 28.) shall hear the voice and rise : “the sea shall give up the dead which are in it, and death and the grave deliver up the dead which are in them.”* (Rev. xx. 13.) But if the same bodies did not rise, they which are in the dust should not revive: if God should give us any other bodies than our own, neither the sea por the grave should give up their dead. That shall rise again which the grave gives up; the grave hath nothing else to give up but that body which was laid into it; therefore the same body which was buried, at the last day shall be revived.
The immediate consequent of the resurrection proveth the identity of the dying and rising body, “We must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.” (2 Cor. v. 10.) That which shall be then received is either a reward or punishment, a reward for the good, a punishment for the evil, done in the body: that which shall receive the reward, and be liable to the punishment, is not only the soul but the body; it stands not therefore with the nature of a just retribution, † that he
• This argument is so cogent, that graves of ignorance or impiety, or to the Socinians are forced to deny that rise by the preaching of the Gospel Christ spake of the resurrection, af- to newness of life, because they are firming ihat the graves of ignorance expressly said to come forth unto the and impiety are only there intended, resurrection of damnation. and rising is nothing else but coming tQuam absurdum, quam vero et to the knowledge of Christ by the iniquum; utrumque autem quam Deo preaching of the Gospel. Whereas indignum, aliam substantiam operari, Christ expressly speaks of bringing aliam mercede dispungi: ut hæc quimen to judgment, John v. 27. and dem caro per martyria lanietur, alia divides those wbich are to come out vero coronetur: item e contrario hæc of their graves into two ranks, neither quidem caro in spurcitiis volutetur, of which can so be understood. The alia vero damnetur. Nonne præstat first are those which have done good, omnem semel fidem a spe resurrectibefore they come out of the graves; onis abducere, quam de gravitate atthese therefore could not be the graves que justitia Dei ludere? Marcionem of ignorance and impiety, from which pro Valentino resuscitari? Tertult. no good can come. The second are de Resur. Carnis, c. 56. And speaks such who have done evil, and so remain ing to the soul of mán: "Affirmamus as evil-doers, and therefore cannot te manere post vitae dispunctionem, be said to have come forth out of the et exspectare diem judicii, proque
which sinned in one body should be punished in another, he which pleased God in his own flesh should see God with other eyes. As for the wicked, God shall“ destroy both their soul and body in hell;" (Matt. x. 28.) but they which “glorify God in their body and their spirit, which are God's,” (1 Cor. vi. 20.) shall be glorified by God in their body and their spirit; for they are both “bought with the same price,” (Ibid.) even the blood of Christ. The bodies of the Saints “ members of Christ,” (1 Cor. vi. 15.) and no members of his shall remain in death: they are the “ temples of the Holy Ghost,”. (Ibid. 19.) and therefore if they be destroyed, they shall be raised again, For “ if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in us," as he doth, and by so dwelling maketh our bodies temples, "he which raised up Christ from the dead, shall also quicken our mortal bodies, by his Spirit that dwelleth in us.” (Rom. viii. 11.)
Furthermore, The identity of the dying and rising body will appear by those bodies which shall never rise, because they shall never die. This may be considered not only in the translations of Enoch and Elias,* but also in those whom Christ shall find alive at his coming, whom he shall not kill but change; “ the dead in Christ shall rise first, then they which are alive, and remain, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so shall ever be with the Lord.” (1 Thess. iv. 16, 17.) If those which are alive shall be caught up as they are alive with the same bodies, only changed into glorified and spiritual bodies, that is, with the same bodies spiritualized and glorified; certainly those which are dead shall rise out of their graves to life in the same bodies in which they lived, that they may both appear alike before the Judge of the quick and the dead. Otherwise the Saints which shall be with God and with the Lamb for evermore would be chequered with a strange disparity, one part of them appearing and continuing with the same bodies in which they lived, another part with others.
Lastly, Those examples which God hath been pleased to give us to confirm our faith in the resurrection, do at the same time persuade us that the same body which died shall rise again. For whether we look upon the three examples of the Old Testament, or those of the New,t they all rose in the same body before it was dissolved: if we look upon those which rose upon our Saviour's death, it is written that “the meritis aut cruciatui destinari aut re- passionem.' Id. de Testim. Anima, frigerio, utroque sempiterno. Quibus c. 4. sustinendis necessario tibi substan Enoch translatus est in carne, tiam pristinam ejusdemque hominis Elias carnens raptus est in coelum; materiam et memoriam reversuram, necdum mortui et paradisi jam coloni, quod et nibil mali ac boni sentire habent quoque membra quibus rapti possis sine carnis passionalis facul- sunt atque translati.' S. Hier. Epist. tate, et nulla ratio sit judicii sine ip- 61. al. 38. ad Pammach. col. 324. siys exhibitione, qui moruit judicii + Iren. adv. Hares. I. v. c. 13.