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graves were opened, and many bodies of Saints which slept arose, and came out of their graves,” (Matt. xxvii. 52, 53.) certainly the same bodies which were laid in. If then they were to us examples of the resurrection to come,* as certainly they were, then must they resemble in their substance after they lived again the substance in which all the rest shall rise. And being Christ himself did raise his own body, according to his prediction, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up,” (John ii. 19.) and declared it to be his own body, saying, "Behold my hands and my feet that it is I myself,” (Luke xxiv. 39.) being “he shall change our vile bodies that they may be fashioned like unto bis glorious body;" (Phil. iii. 21.)+ it followeth that we shall rise in the same bodies as our Saviour did, that every particular person at the resurrection may speak the words which Christ then spake, “ Behold it is I myself.” (Luke xxiv. 39.)
We can therefore no otherwise expound this Article, teaching the resurrection of the body, than by asserting that the bodies which have lived and died shall live again after death, and that the same flesh which is corrupted shall be restored ; whatsoever alteration shall be made, I shall not be of their nature, but of their condition; not of their substance, but of their qualities. Which explication is most agreeable to the language of the Scriptures, to the principles of religion, to the constant profession of the Church, against the Origenists of old, and the Socinians of late.
• • Post dicta Domini, facta etiam + Exspectamus in hujus morte et ejus quid sapere credamus, de capu- sanguine emundatos remissionem peclis, de sepulcris, mortuos resuscitan- catorum consecuturos: resuscitandos tis? coi rei istud? Si ad simplicem nos ab eo in his corporibus, et in ea'ostentationem potestatis, aut ad præ- dem carne qua nunc sumus, sicut et sentem gratiam redanimationis, non ipse in eadem, qua natus et passus et adeo magnum illi denuo morituros mortuus est, resurrexit.' So we read suscitare. Enimvero, si ad fidem po- in the Creed which by some is attritius sequestrandam futuræ resurrecti- buted to Athanasius, by others to onis, ergo et illa corporalis præscribi- Gregory Nazianzen: 'Si ad exemtur, de documenti sui forma.' Tertull. plum Christi resurgamus qui resurde Resur. Carn. c. 38. “Atego Deum rexit in carne, jam non ad exemplum malo decipere non posse, de fallacia Christi resurgemus, si non in carne et solummodo infirmum; ne aliter do- ipsi resurgemus.' cumenta præmisisse, quam rem dispo 1. Hæc est vera resurrectionis consuisse videatur: imu, ne si exemplum fessio, quæ sic gloriam carni tribuit, resurrectionis sine carne non valuit ut non auferat veritatem.' S. Hieron, inducere, multo magis plenitudinem ep. 61. al. 38. ad Pammach. col. 323. exempli in eadem substantia exhi- •Cum ergo ita evidens, et (ut ita dibere non possit. Nullum vero exem- cam) palpabile, et manu attrectandum plum majus est eo, cujus exemplum nobis Christus dederit suæ resurrectiest. Majus est autem, si animæ cum onis exemplum; ita aliquis insanit, ut corpore resuscitabuntur in documen- aliter se resurrecturum putet, quam tum sine corpore resurgendi ; ut tota resurrexit ille qui primus resurrectihominis salus dimidiæ patrocinaretur: onis aditum patefecit? Ruff. Invect. quando exemplorum conditio istud in S. Hieron. 1. i. col. 354. Nostri potius expeteret, quod minus babere- autem illud quoque recogitent, cortur ; animæ dico solius resurrectio- pora eadem recepturas in resurrenem, velut gustum carnis etiam re- ctione avimas, in quibus decesserunt.' surrecturæ suo in temporc. Ibid. Tertull. de Anima, c. 66.
Having hitherto proved the certainty of this Article, That there shall be a resurrection, and declared the verity and propriety of it, that it shall be a resurrection of the same body which was dead; we may now proceed farther to inquire into the latitude of the same, to whom the resurrection doth belong. And here we find a greater difference between the revelation of this truth under the Law and under the Gospel ; Christ proved out of the Law that there should be a resurrection, but by such an argument as reacheth no farther than unto the people of God, because it is grounded upon those words, "I am the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob." (Matt. xxii. 32.) Job speaketh most expressly of the resurrection, but mentioneth no other than his Redeemer and himself. The place of Daniel, which was always accounted the most evident and uncontradicted testimony, though it deliver two different sorts of persons rising, yet it seems to be with some limitation, “ Many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake.” (xii. 2.) From whence the Jews most generally have believed that some men should live again, and some should not; because it is written, many shall awake, but it is not written, all shall awake. Nay, some of them have gone so far by way of restriction, that they have maintained a resurrection of the just alone, according to that ancient saying accepted amongst them, that the ‘sending of the rain is of the just and the unjust, but the resurrection of the dead is of the just alone.'* Against which two restrictions, by the light delivered in the Gospel, we shall deliver the latitude of this Article in these two propositions, First, The resurrection of the dead belongeth not to the just alone, but to the unjust also. Secondly, The resurrection of the dead belongeth not only to some of the just, but to all the just; not to some of the unjust only, but to all the unjust, even unto all the dead.
For the first, It is most evident not only out of the New, but also out of the Old Testament: the words of Daniel prove it sufficiently; for of those“ many which shall awake, some shall rise to everlasting life, and some to shạme and everlasting contempt.” But it is most certain that the just shall never rise to “ shame and everlasting contempt;" therefore it is most evident that some shall awake and rise beside the just, The Jews themselves did understand and believe thus much, as appeareth by St. Paul's apology to Felix: “ But this I confess unto thee, that I have hope towards God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead both of the just and unjust.” (Acts xxiv. 15.) The just shall rise to receive their reward, the unjust to receive their punishment; the first unto a resurrection called, in reference unto them, “ the resurrection of life;" the second unto a resurrection named, in relation
• This is recorded in the Bereshit Tract. Sanhed. Rabba. Vide Maimonidis Expl.c. 10.
upto them, the “resurrection of damnation.” (John v. 29.)* For as there is a resurrection of the just, so there must also be a resurrection of the unjust: that as Christ said unto the charitable person, « Thou shalt be blessed, for thou shalt be: recompensed at the resurrection of the just;" (Luke xiv. 14.) so it may be said to the wicked and uncharitable, Thou shalt be accursed, for thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the unjust. For there shall be a resurrection that there may be a judgment, and at the judgment there shall appear sheep on the right hand of the Son of man, and goats on the left: therefore they both shall rise; those, that they may receive that blessing, “Come ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world;" (Matt. xxv. 34.) these, that they may receive that sentence,“ Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.” (Ibid. 41.) At that resurrection then, which we believe, there shall rise both just and unjust.
Secondly, As no kind of men, so no person, shall be excluded: whosoever dieth is numbered with the just or unjust. Adam the first of men shall rise, and all which come from him. 6. For as in Adam all died, so in Christ shall all be made alive." (1 Cor. xv. 22.) Christ is the Lord of the dead, and so hath a right by that dominion to raise them all to life: it is called the resurrection of the dead indefinitely, and comprehendeth them universally. “By man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead,” (Ibid. 21.) and so the resurrection adequately answereth unto death. Christ shall destroy death, but if any one should be left still dead, death were not destroyed. The words of our Saviour are express and full, “ The hour is coming, in the which all that are in their graves shall hear bis voice, and shall come forth, they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation." (John v. 28, 29.) In the description of the judgment which followeth upon the resurrection, “when the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of his glory, before him shall be gathered all nations.” (Matt. xxv. 32.) “We shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ,” (Rom. xiv. 10.) and if so, the dead must all arise, for they are all fallen. “We must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad;" (2 Cor. v. 10.) and before we all appear, the dead must rise that they may appear. This is the latitude of the resurrection; the resurrection of the dead is the resurrection of all the dead, or of all mankind.t
* 'Ανάστασις ζωής and “Ανάστασις + Irenæus in his Rule of Faith: κρίσεως. The first is called ανάστασις Επί το ανακεφαλαιώσασθαι τα πάντα, δικαίων, and therefore the second may και αναστήσαι πάσαν σάρκα πάσης άνas well be called ανάστασις αδίκων. . Opwtórntog. Adv. Hæres. t. i. c. 10.
Now this resurrection, as an object of our faith, is yet to come; and we are obliged to believe the futurition of it. There were heretics in the apostles' days who acknowledged a resurrection, but yet destroyed this Article, by denying the relation of it to the time, as “Hymeneus and Philetus, who erred concerning the truth, saying, that the resurrection is past already, and so overthrow the faith of some.” (2 Tim. ii. 17, 18.)* To believe it already past, is to deny it; because it cannot be believed past, but by such an interpretation as must destroy it. As they which interpret this resurrection of the likeness of Christ's resurrection; that as he died and rose again, so we should die unto sin and live again unto righteousness, attributing all to the renovation of the mind, must deny the resurrection of the body.
Now, as we know the doctrine of the resurrection was first delivered to be believed as to come; so we are assured that it is not yet come since the doctrine of it was first delivered, and is to be believed as to come to the end of the world ; because, as “ Martha called it,” it is the “s "resurrection at the last day.” (John xi. 24.) Job who knew that his Redeemer lived, did not expect that he should stand upon the earth till “ the latter day;" Christ hath no otherwise declared “his Father's will," than that “of all which he hath given him, he should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day.” (John vi. 39.) The corn is sown and laid in the ground, and “the harvest is the end of the world.” (Matt. xiii. 39.) We must not expect to rise from the dead tilì “ the last trump.” (1 Cor. xv. 52.) “ The Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trump of God,” (1 Thess. iv. 16.) before “ all that are in the graves shall bear his voice.” (John v. 28.) God shall “judge the world,” (Acts xvii. 31.) and therefore
§. I. And Theophilus calls it: Tùy ka- Thus Tertullian relates of some hereBolucriv åváotaolv årávrwv åv@púrwv. tics in bis time, who made the resorAd Autol. 1. 1. p. 78.
rection wholly allegorical, and yet ** Nonnulli enim attendentes verba pretended to believe a resurrection in quæ assidue dicit apostolus, Quia et ihe flesh, but understood it in this life mortui sumus cum Christo, et resurre- at the baptismal renovation, and so ximus cum eo ; nec intelligentes quate- past when they professed to believe: nus dicantur, arbitrati sunt jam factam . Exinde ergo, resurrectionem fide esse resurrectionem, nec ullam ulte- consequutos cum Domino esse, cum rius in fine temporum esse sperandam. eum in baptismate induerint. Hoc Ex quibus est, inquit, Hymenæus et denique ingenio etiam in colloquiis Philetus, qui circa veritatem aberrave- sæpe nostros decipere consueverunt; runt, dicentes resurrectionem jam fa- quasi et ipsi resurrectionem carnis ad. ctam esse. Idem apostolus eos arguens mittant. Væ, inquiunt, qui non in hac detestatur, qui tamen dicit nos resur- carne resurrexerit; ne statim illos perrexisse cum Christo. S. August. cutiant, si resurrectionem statim abEpist. 119. al. 55. ad Januarium, §. 4. nuerint. Tacite autem secundum conThis was the heresy of the Seleuciani scientiam suam hoc sentiunt, Væ, or Hermiani, as the same St. Augus- qui non, dum in carne est, cognotin testifies: Resurrectionem non verit arcana hæretica ; hoc enim est putant futuram, sed quotidie fieri apud illos resurrectio.' Tertull. de in generatione filiorum. Hæres. 59. Resurrect. Carnis, c. 19.
shall raise the world; but he will not raise them to that judgment till the end of the world.
Thus having demonstrated that the will of God hath been revealed that there should be a resurrection; that the resurrection which was revealed is the resurrection of the body ; that the bodies which are to be raised are the same which are already dead or shall hereafter die; that this resurrection is not past, but that we which live shall hereafter attain unto it: I conceive I have declared all that is necessary by way of explication and confirmation of the truth of this Article.
The value of this truth, the necessity of this doctrine, will appear; first, in the illustration of the glory of God, by the most lively demonstration of his wisdom, power, justice, and mercy. God first created all things for himself, and the resurrection is as it were a new creation. The wisdom and power of God are manifested in this acknowledgment, inasmuch as without infinite knowledge he could not have an exact and distinct comprehension of all the particles and individual dusts of all the bodies of all men; and without an infinite power he could not conjoin, cement, conglutinate, and incorporate them again into the same flesh. The mercy and justice of God are declared by the same profession; the mercy, in promising life after that death which we had so justly deserved ; the justice, in performing that promise unto all true believers, and in punishing the disobedient with everlasting flames. “When ye see this (saith the prophet), your hearts shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like an herb; and the hand of the Lord shall be known towards his servants, and his indignation towards his enemies.” (Isa. Ixvi. 14.)
Secondly, It is necessary to profess the belief of the resurrection of the body, that we may thereby acknowledge the great and powerful work of our redemption, confessing that death could not be conquered but by death, and that we could never have obtained another life, had not the Saviour of the world “ abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel.” (2 Tim. i. 10.) If Christ were not the life, the dead could never live;
if he were not the resurrection, they could never rise. Were
Were it not for him that “ liveth, and was dead, and is alive for evermore," had not he “ the keys of hell and of death,” (Rev. i. 18.) we could never break through the bars of death, or pass the gates of hell. But he hath undertaken to vanquish our enemies, and our “ last enemy to be destroyed is death :" (1 Cor. xv. 26.) that the prophecy (Hos. xiii. 14.) may be fulfiìled, “Death is swallowed up in victory," and we may cry out with the apostle, “ Thanks be to God, who giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ." (1 Cor. xv. 54. 57.)
Thirdly, The belief of this Article is necessary to strengthen us against the fear of our own death, and immoderate sorrow