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But more, when envy breeds unkind division ;
1. Henry VI. Act 4 Scene 1.
No, on my life.
Why, good fellow,
'll back to the court,
Cymbeline Act 3 Scene 4. I think the words „nobile“ and „simples are contrasted in these passages, signifying, respectively, persons of high and low degree. Helena may use the word simple in this sense, and she plays upon it: and the reader will perceive that Bertram speaks of her slightingly as „a poor physicians daughter.“
2. Henry VI. Act 4 Scene 4. In an ancient statute the word „simple“ signifies, as I think it does in these passages,
one under the degree of a gentleman.
Item ordine est en cest parlement qe queconqe persone qe troeve faucon terselet lanere ou laneret austore ou autre faucon
soit perdu de lour seignur qe maintenant il lapporte au viscount du countee et qe le visconte face proclamation en toutes les bones villes du countee qil ad un tiel faucon en garde. Et si le seignur qi le perdi ou aucun des soen8 viegne pur lui chalanger et proeve resonablement qe' ce est a son seignur paie pur ses constages et eit le faucon. Et si nully viegne deins les quatre mois pur lui chalenger quadonqes le visconte eit le faucon fesant gree a cellui qi le prist sil soit simples homme et sil soit gentils homme destat davoir faucoun que le visconte rebaille al lui le dit faucoun parant de lui resonables constages pur le temps qil lavoit en garde. Et si null eit pris tiel faucoun et le concele du seignur a qui il estoit ou a ses fauconers ou qi qe lemporte du seignur et de ce soit atteint eit la prison de deux anns et rend au seignur le pris du faucoun issint concele ou emporte sil eit de quoi et si noun eit plus longe demoeure en prison (34. Edward III. cap. XXII).
And in this statute, - which is recited in the preamble of the 37. Edward III. cap. XIX, „simple men“ and „gentlemen“ are distinguished from each other. In these passages, the word simple, is represented in
, Schlegel and Tieck's translation, by „einfältig“ in Winter's Tale, Act 4 Scene 3; by „schlicht" in As You Like It, Act 3 Scene 3; by „schlechts in The Merchant of Venice, Act 2 Scene 2; by ,,thöricht" in 3. Henry VI., Act 3 Scene 1; by „einfach“ in All 's Well, Act 2 Scene 3; by ,,schlicht“ in 1. Henry VI., Act 4 Scene 1; by „albern“ in Cymbeline, Act 3 Scene 4; and by „arm“ in 2. Henry VI., Act 4 Scene 4.
Who was last with them?
Antony and Cleopatra Act 5 Scene 2.
I long to hear him call the drunkard, husband ;
Induc. Taming of the Shrew 1. In Antony and Cleopatra by „schlicht“ and in the Taming of the Shrew by „albern“; and although the word „simple" in these two passages is connected with the words „peasant“ and „countryman“, which are both descriptive of persons under the degree of „gentleman“, it is perhaps doubtful in which sense it is here used. If those who were under the degree of gentleman“ in Shakspeare's time, are to be considered „, foolish“ because they were not well educated or well informed, the word simple would, in these passages, be applicable in both senses, and it would therefore become doubtful in which sense it should be received. Sometimes Shakspeare may have intended that the word should be received in both senses.
Autoly cu s.
Winter's Tale Act 4 Scene 3. In this passage however the word simple is evidently used by Autolycus to signify those who were under the degree of gentleman, and it is represented in the translation by „simpel,“
Wie glücklich wir, die nicht so simpel sind.“ There may be other passages, in which the word simple signifies one who is under the degree of a gentleman, but I cannot, at present quote any more.
The XIX. cap. of the 37. Edward III., after reciting this statute, concludes with these words,
Et nient countresteant ceste ordenance les meffesours nount pas dote de trespasser en celle partie par quoi est ordeine et par estatut establi en ce present parlement qe si nul emble faucon et lemporte nient fesant lordinance dessus dite soit fait de lui come de la roun qi emble chival ou autre chose.
Caius. O diable, diable! vat is in my closet? Villainy! larron! (Pulling Simple out). Rugby, my rapier.
Merry Wives Act 1 Scene 4. The word aroun" in Coke's translation of this statute is represented by the word „thief:“ in which sense „larron“ is evidently used by Caius, because Mistress Quickly assures him that the young man is honest.
Caius. Vat shall de honest man do in my closet? dere is no honest man dat shall come in my closet.
Merry Wives Act 1 Scene 4. Coke in his exposition of this statute says, „The sheriff must make proclamation in all the good towns of the County, that he hath such a faulcon in keeping. If none come to challenge the faulcon within four months, if the finder be under the degree of a gentleman (which here is called un simple home) the sheriff shall have the faulcon, paying reasonable costs, etc. If the owner within four months, then he shall have the faulcon, paying reasonable costs etc. The word challenge is used in this statute, and by Coke in his exposition of it, in
sense different from its ordinary acceptation, signifying „to claim as due“, „to demand as a right“; and in this sense it is sometimes used by Shakspeare:
Troilus and Cressida Act 5 Scene 2.
3. Henry VI. Act 4 Scene 6.
1. Henry V. Act 5 Scene 4.
King Edward. (Aside). Her looks do argue her replete with modesty ; Her words do shew her wit incomparable; All her perfections challenge sovereignty:] One way or other, she is for a king;
Henry VI. Act 3 Scene 2. ·
She is young, wise, fair ;
All 's Well Act 2 Scene 3.
Act 1 Scene 1.
I pr’ythee, good lago,